= ergonomics



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tarix07.04.2018
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= ergonomics

  • = ergonomics

  • WWII based – military significance…

  • … a necessary part of medical device design…



Application of the scientific knowledge of human capabilities and limitations to the design of systems and equipment to produce products with the most efficient, safe, effective, and reliable operation

  • Application of the scientific knowledge of human capabilities and limitations to the design of systems and equipment to produce products with the most efficient, safe, effective, and reliable operation



Interface points

  • Interface points

  • Environment

  • Skill level of user

  • Interaction between:

    • Human element
    • Hardware element
    • Software element


Memory

  • Memory

    • Long term
    • Short term
  • Thinking and reasoning

  • Visual perception

  • Dialogue construction

  • Individual skill level

  • Individual sophistication





Using 5% female to 95% male reach data, design an anesthesia machine layout….

  • Using 5% female to 95% male reach data, design an anesthesia machine layout….

  • What constraints does this put on the design?

  • What % overall of the population would be served?





Analytic process that focuses on device objectives

  • Analytic process that focuses on device objectives

  • Design and development process that converts results of analyses into detailed equipment features

  • Test and evaluation process which verifies that development process satisfies constraints



Planning

  • Planning

  • Analysis

  • Conduct user studies

    • Observations
    • Interviews
    • Focus groups
    • Task analysis
    • Benchmark usability tests
    • User profile
    • Setup advisory panel


Should reflect system and personnel safety factors

  • Should reflect system and personnel safety factors

  • Failures

    • Fail safe
    • Failure indications
  • Standards- ANSI, AAMI, ISO



Written to meet needs of various target populations

  • Written to meet needs of various target populations

  • Study capability and information needs of documentation users

    • Mental abilities
    • Physical abilities
    • Previous experience
    • Understanding of general operation
    • Special needs of environment


Science of measuring human body and its parts and functional capacities

  • Science of measuring human body and its parts and functional capacities

  • Range of values: 5th percentile female to 95th percentile male

  • Functional dimensions

  • Psychological elements

  • Workstation design considerations





Labels should be clear and direct

  • Labels should be clear and direct

  • Controls, displays, and other equipment that must be located should be clearly marked

  • Receptacles and connectors should be marked with intended function or connection

  • Hazard warnings should be prominent





Every user input should consistently produce some perceptible response from the computer

  • Every user input should consistently produce some perceptible response from the computer

  • Log-on should be automatically completed before any operation

  • Allow for orderly shutdown in case of failure



Consistent data entry transactions

  • Consistent data entry transactions

  • Minimize user input actions

  • Feedback to user about acceptance or rejection of an entry

  • Ability to change entry after it has been added



Present status, information, confirmation, and verification throughout the interaction

  • Present status, information, confirmation, and verification throughout the interaction

  • Standby should be accompanied by ‘WAIT’ message

  • Feedback should be self-explanatory



Commands, error messages, system capabilities, and procedures should be explained with prompts or help instructions

  • Commands, error messages, system capabilities, and procedures should be explained with prompts or help instructions

  • Missing data/aborting changes should be prompted

  • Factual and informative dialogue

  • Displayed in standardized area



Currently defined default values should be provides and automatically displayed

  • Currently defined default values should be provides and automatically displayed

  • User should be prompted for acceptance of defaults

  • Users should be able to set their own default



T = a + b log2 (D/W + 1)

  • T = a + b log2 (D/W + 1)

  • where

  • T = the average time taken to complete the movement

  • A = the start/stop time of the device

  • B = the inherent speed of the device

  • D = the distance from the starting point to the center of the target

  • W = the width of the target measured along the axis of motion.



Bigger buttons are better

  • Bigger buttons are better

  • Edges/corners are easiest

  • Pop-up menus are easier than pull-down

  • Pies are better than boxes







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