1 Ixtlilxochitl, Hist. Chich., Ms., cap

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tory parallel to it, but what occurs in the adventures of the other discoverers and conquerors
of the New World. Cortés was employed in this dreadful service above two years; and, though
it was not distinguished by any splendid event, he exhibited, during the course of it, greater
personal courage, more fortitude of mind, more perseverance and patience, than in any other
period or scene in his life." (Hist. of America, Note 96.) The historian's remarks are just; as
the passages, which I have borrowed from the extraordinary record of the Conqueror, may
7 "Y esto yo to oí dezir á los del Real Consejo de Indias, estando presente el señor Obispo Fray
Bartolomé de las Casas, que se descuidó mucho Cortés en ello, y se to tuviéron á floxedad."
Bernal Diaz, Hist. de la Conquista, cap. 190.

Subsequent Career of Cortés - 877

8 Memorial de Luis Cardenas, MS.-Carta de Diego de Ocaña, MS.-Herrera, Hist. Gen.,
dec. 3, lib. 8, cap. 14, 15.
9 Carta del Emperador, MS., Toledo, Nov. 4, 1525.

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10 Bernal Diaz, Hist. de la Conquista, cap. 192.-Carta de Cortés al Emp., MS., México, Set. 11,
11 Bernal Diaz, Hist. de la Conquista, cap. 194.-Carta de Cortés al Emp., MS., Set. 11,
1526.i, Hist. General, dec. 4, lib. 2, cap. 1; and lib. 3, cap. 8.

13 "Todas estas entradas están ahora para partir casi á una, plega á Dios de los guiar como él se

sirva, que yo aunque V M. mas me mande desfavorecer no tengo de dejar de servir, que no es
posible, que por tiempo V M. no conosca mis servicios, y ya que esto no sea, yo me satisfago
con hazer lo que debo, y con saber que á todo el mundo tengo satisfecho, y les son notorios
mis servicios y ealdad, con que los hago, y no quiero otro mayorasgo sino este." Carta Quinta,
14 Bernal Diaz, Hist. de la Conquista, cap. 194.-Carta de Ocaña, MS., Agosto 31, 1526.

Subsequent Career of - Cortés - 881

15 The Pope, who was of the joyous Medici family, Clement VII., and the cardinals, were greatly
delighted with the feats of the Indian jugglers, according to Diaz; and his Holiness, who, it
may be added, received at the same time from Cortés a substantial donative of gold and jew­
els, publicly testified, by prayers and solemn processions, his great sense of the services ren­
dered to Christianity by the Conquerors of Mexico, and generously requited them by bulls,
granting plenary absolution from their sins. Hist. de la Conquista, cap. 195.
16 "Y en fin venia como gran Señor." Hist. Gen., dec. 4, lib. 3, cap. 3.

17 Herrera, Hist. Gen., dec. 4, lib. 4, cap. 1.-Cavo, Los Tres Siglos de M6x., tom. 1. p. 78.

18 Pizarro y Orellana, Varones Ilustres, p. 121.

19 See the conclusion of Rogers' Voyage of Columbus.

20 Bernal Diaz says, that Sandoval was twenty-two years old, when he first came to New Spain
in 1519.-Hist. de la Conquista, cap. 205.
882 - History of the Conquest of Mexico

Subsequent Career of Cortés - 883

21 ibid., cap. 195.

22 "Vino de las Indias despues de la conquista de México, con tanto acompañamiento y mages­

tad, que mas parecía de Príncipe, ó señor poderosíssimo, que de Capitan y vasallo de algun
Rey ó Emperador." Lanuza, Historias Ecclesiásticas y Seculares de Aragon (Zaragoza, 1622,)
lib. 3, cap. 14.
Subsequent Career of Cortés - 885
23 Gomara, Crónica, cap. 183.-Herrera, Hist. Gen., dec. 4, lib. 4, cap. 1.-Bernal Diaz, Hist. de
1,1 Conquista, cap. 195.
24 Título de Marques, MS., Barcelona, 6 deJulio, 1529.

25 Humboldt, Essai Politique, tom. 11. p. 30, note.

According to Lanuza, he was offered by the emperor the Order of St. Jago. but declined
it, because no encomienda was attached to it. (Hist. de Aragon, tom. 1. lib. 3, cap. 14) But Caro
de Torres, in his History of the Military Orders of Castile, enumerates Cortés among the
members of the Compostellan fraternity. Hist. de las Ord. Militares, (Madrid, 1629,) fol. 103,
et seq.
26 Merced de Tierras Immediatas á México, MS., Barcelona, 23 deJulio, 1529.-Merced de los
Vasallos, MS., Barcelona, 6 deJulio, 1529.

27 É nos habemos recibido y tenemos de vos por bien servido en ello, y acatando los grandes

provechos que de vuestros servicios han redundado, ansí para el servicio de Nuestro Señor y
aumento de su santa fe católica, y en las dichas tierras que estaban sin conocimiento ni fe se
han plantado, como el acrecentamiento que dello ha redundado á nuestra corona real destos
reynos, y los trabajos que en ello habeis pasado, y la fidelidad y obediencia con que siempre
nos habeis servido como bueno é fiel servidor y vasallo nuestro, de que somos ciertos y con­
fiados." Merced de los Vasallos, MS.
Subsequent Career of Cortés - 887

28 "The benignant reception which I experienced, on my return, from your Majesty," says

Cortés, "your kind expressions and generous treatment, make me not only forget all my toils
and sufferings, but even cause me regret that I have not been called to endure more in your
service." (Carta de Cortés al Lic. Nuñez, MS., 1535.) This memorial, addressed to his agent
in Castile, was designed for the emperor.
29 Titulo de Capitan General de la Nueva España y Costa del Sur, MS., Barcelona, 6 deJulio,
30 Asiento y Capitulacion que hizo con el Emperador Don H. Cortés, MS., Madrid, 27 de Oct.,
31 "Que, segun se dezia, excedia en las haz^fias á Alexandro Magno, y en las riquezas á Crasso."
(Lanuza, Hist. de Aragon, lib. 3, cap. 14.) The rents of the marquess of the Valley, according
to L. Marineo Siculo, who lived at the court at this time, were about 60,000 ducats a year.
Cosas Memorables de Espafia, (Alcalá de Henares, 1539,) fol. 24.
32 Doha Juana was of the house of Arellano, and of the royal lineage of Navarre. Her father was
not a very wealthy noble. L. Marineo Siculo, Cosas Mem., fol. 24, 25.
33 One of these precious stones was as valuable as Shylock's turquoise. Some Genoese mer­
chants in Seville offered Cortés, according to Gomara, 40,000 ducats for it. The same author
gives a more particular account of the jewels, which may interest some readers. It shows the
ingenuity of the artist, who, without steel, could so nicely cut so hard a material. One emer­
ald was in the form of a rose; the second in that of a horn; a third, like a fish, with eyes of gold;
the fourth was like a little bell, with a fine pearl for the tongue, and on the rim was this in­
scription, in Spanish, Blessed is he who created thee. The fifth, which was the most valuable, was
a small cup with a foot of gold, and with four little chains, of the same metal, attached to a
large pearl as a button. The edge of the cup was of gold, on which was engraven this Latin
sentence, Inter natos multerum non surrexit major Gomara, Cr6nica, cap. 184.

Subsequent Career of Cortés - 889



1 Carta de Cortés al Emperador, MS., Tezcuco, 10 de Oct., 1530.

Subsequent Career of Cortés - 891

2 Dofia Catalina's death happened so opportunely for the rising fortunes of Cortés, that this
charge of murder by her husband has found more credit with the vulgar than the other ac­
cusations brought against him. Cortés, from whatever reason, perhaps from the conviction
that the charge was too monstrous to obtain credit, never condescended to vindicate his in­
nocence. But, in addition to the arguments mentioned in the text for discrediting the accu­
sation generally, we should consider, that this particular charge attracted so little attention in
Castile, where he had abundance of enemies, that he found no difficulty, on his return there,
seven years afterwards, in forming an alliance with one of the noblest houses in the kingdom;
that no writer of that day, (except Bernal Diaz, who treats it as a base calumny,) not even Las
Casas, the stern accuser of the Conquerors, intimates a suspicion of his guilt; and that, lastly,
no allusion whatever is made to it in the suit, instituted, some years after her death, by the
relatives of Dofia Catalina, for the recovery of property from Cortés, pretended to have been
derived through her marriage with him,-a suit conducted with acrimony, and protracted for
several years. I have not seen the documents connected with this suit, which are still pre­
served in the archives of the house of Cortés, but the fact has been communicated to me by
a distinguished Mexican, who has carefully examined them, and I cannot but regard it as of
itself conclusive, that the family, at least, of Dofia Catalina, did not attach credit to the accu­

Yet so much credit has been given to this in Mexico, where the memory of the old

Spaniards is not held in especial favor, at the present day, that it has formed the subject of an
elaborate discussion in the public periodicals of that city.
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