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By robust, we mean that the product or process performs consistently on target and is relatively insensitive to factors that are difficult to control.



3 stages in a product’s (or process’s)

  • 3 stages in a product’s (or process’s)

  • development:

    • System design: uses scientific and
    • engineering principles to determine
    • the basic configuration.
    • Parameter design: specific values for the system parameters are determined.
    • Tolerance design: determine the best tolerances for the parameters.


Recommends: statistical experimental

  • Recommends: statistical experimental

  • design methods have to be used for

  • quality improvement, particularly

  • during parameter and tolerance

  • design phases.

  • Key component: reduce the variability around the target (nominal) value.



A control chart is a presentation of data in which the control values are plotted against time.

  • A control chart is a presentation of data in which the control values are plotted against time.

  • Control charts have a central line, upper and lower warning limits, and upper and lower action limits.

  • Immediate visualisation of problems.





One point plots outside the Action Limits.















Introduction to Standardization

  • Introduction to Standardization

  • Evolution of Quality Management System (ISO 9000)

  • Quality Management System - Requirements (ISO 9001:2008)

  • Implementing a QMS



“ Degree to which the customer’s requirements have been fulfilled ”

  • “ Degree to which the customer’s requirements have been fulfilled ”

  • Performance < 1 - Dissatisfaction

  • Satisfaction = = 1 - Satisfaction

  • Expectation > 1 - Delight



The process of developing and agreeing upon Standards.

  • The process of developing and agreeing upon Standards.



Fitness for purpose

  • Fitness for purpose

  • Interchangeability

  • Variety reduction

  • Compatibility

  • Guarding against factors that affect the health and safety of consumers

  • Environmental protection

  • Better utilization of resources

  • Better communication and understanding

  • Better communication and understanding

  • Removal of trade barriers



Standards are documented agreements containing technical specifications or precise criteria to be used consistently as a guideline of characteristics, to ensure that materials, products, processes and services are fit for their intended purpose.

  • Standards are documented agreements containing technical specifications or precise criteria to be used consistently as a guideline of characteristics, to ensure that materials, products, processes and services are fit for their intended purpose.



Vocabulary standards:

  • Vocabulary standards:

  • Glossaries, signs and symbols; A few examples are Paper Vocabulary, List of Equivalent Terms Used in the Plastic Industry, Vocabulary for the Refractory Industry and Vocabulary of Information Processing.

  • Measurement standards:

  • Material measure or physical property that defines or reproduces the unit of measurement of a base or derived quantity. Such as units of measures; The seven basic units of the SI system e.g. meter, Kg, Ampere etc.

  • Product standards:

  • Cover specifications for dimensions, performance, health, safety, environmental protection and documentation; Standards for inspection, test methods and analysis.

  • Management Standards:

  • Standards that focus on organization, such as for logistics, maintenance, inventory management, quality management, project management and production management such as ISO 9000, ISO 14000, ISO 17025, SA 8000, HACCP etc.



A standard generally has three attributes:

  • A standard generally has three attributes:

  • Level: such as at the company, national or international level.



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