A novel Method For On Road Emission Factor Measurements Using a Plume Capture Trailer

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\Supplement:

Remote Measurement of Diesel Locomotive Emission Factors and Particle Size Distributions



G.R. JOHNSON1, E.R. JAYARATNE1, J LAU2, V. THOMAS3, A.M. JUWONO1,5, B KITCHEN4, L. MORAWSKA11

1International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, QLD 4001, Australia

2The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

3INSA de Lyon, Génie Energie et Environnement, Domaine Scientifique de la Doua, 69621 Villeurbanne, France

4Port of Brisbane Corporation, Locked Bag 1818, Brisbane, QLD 4178, Australia

5Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia

Diesel fuel in Australia is required to comply with the Australian Government regulations summarised in Table S1 (Orbital-Australia, 2010) which specifies the requirements concerning diesel fuel permitted for land based use in Australia during the period of measurement.

Table S1: Content data of Australian National Standard of diesel fuel

Parameter









Australian National Standard

Date of effect

Sulfur

500 ppm (max)

31 Dec 2002

50 ppm (max)

1 Jan 2006

10ppm (max)

1 Jan 2009

Cetane Index






46 (min) index

1 Jan 2002

Density

820 (min) to 860 (max) kg/m3

1 Jan 2002

820 (min) to 850 (max) kg/m3

1 Jan 2006

Distillation T95

370°C (max)

1 Jan 2002



360°C (max)

1 Jan 2006

PAHs

11 mass % (max)

1 Jan 2006

Ash

100 ppm (max)

1 Jan 2002

Viscosity

2.0 to 4.5 cSt @ 40°C

1 Jan 2002

Carbon Residue

(10% distillation residue)



0.2 mass % (max)

16 Oct 2002

Water and sediment

0.05 vol % (max)

16 Oct 2002

Conductivity @ ambient temp

50 pS/m (Min) @ambient temp (all diesel held by a terminal or refinery for sale or distribution)

16 Oct 2002

Lubricity

0.460 mm (max) (all diesel containing less than 500ppm sulfur)

16 Oct 2002

The effect of the increased residence time due to the sample averaging reservoir on the measured NOx concentration, was tested by comparing the response of the NOx analyser to a range of NO challenge concentrations both upstream and downstream of the averaging reservoir while using the same total gas flow rate (0.057 L.s-1) through the reservoir as in the rail side measurements. The comparison showed that for concentrations in the range 0-0.4 ppm, there was no measurable decrease in concentration due to the passage of the sample through the 5.2 L, 1000 mm long cylindrical copper reservoir.



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