About their problems. They try to find answers for their problems together. For example



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SINGLE FATHERS' CLUB
Self-help groups, i.e. groups of people with common problems, are very popular in many countries. These people have meetings and talk about their problems. They try to find answers for their problems together. For example, there are hundreds of groups of men and women who want to lose weight or give up drinking, who are single mothers or unmarried mothers. Now groups for single fathers are also starting to appear. This is the story of a group for single fathers.

It started when a radio announcer, John McCarthy, was reading an announcement for a single mothers' group. After he read the announcement, he said, “I’m a single father. I've got two sons. My wife died two years ago. I look after my children on my own and I have a lot of problems. I’m sure there are a lot of other men who have lost their wives. So we need a group, too”. Two single fathers, Henry Mason and Paul Singer, heard his message on the radio and called him and they decided to meet. These three men started the first single fathers' group in the US on May 5th, 1988. After 6 months, there were 30 fathers in the group called "Single Fathers' Club". There are doctors, students, mechanics, a bus-driver, a television producer, a few businessmen and several men who are unemployed. They meet every Tuesday night.

They talk about problems, such as how to look after a child with a temperature, where to find milk at 6 a.m., how to help children who don't sleep well at night, or what foods are best for their children. The fathers feel these meetings help them. They say the difficult part for men is just learning to talk to other men about anything really personal.

57

PLANE CRASH IN PERU


On Christmas Eve, 1971 Juliana Koepke a seventeen-year-old German girl, and her mother left Lima by plane. They were gonig to Pucallpa, another town in Peru. They wanted to spend Christmas with Juliana's father, who was the manager of a bank in Pucalipa. Forty-five minutes later there was a terrible storm and the plane hit a mountain and crashed. Juliana fell 3,000 metres, strapped in her seat. She did not die when the seat hit the ground, but she was unconscious all night.

The next morning Juliana looked for pieces of the plane, and called for her mother. Nobody answered and she only found a small plastic bag of sweets.

Juliana's left arm was broken, one knee was badly hurt and she had deep cuts on her legs and arms. She had no shoes and she was wearing only a dress, which was badly torn. But she decided to try to get out of the jungle. She knew that she would die if she stayed there. She started to walk. She did not have anything to eat for two days, so she felt very weak. She heard helicopters, but could not see them above the trees, and of course they could not see her.

After four days she came to a river. She walked and swam down the river for another five days. At last she came to a small village house. Nobody was there, but that afternoon, two farmers arrived. They took her to a doctor in the next village.

Juliana learned afterwards that there were three other people who were not killed in the accident. But she was the only one who got out of the jungle. It took her ten days.

58

INVERNESS



Inverness is a small town situated in beautiful countryside in the north-east of Scotland. It is an important centre for visits to many pans of the Highlands, which is the famous mountainous area in Scotland. Inverness is a small town but it has got an excellent transport system. There are trains to all the main cities of Scotland (Inverness - Aberdeen 1.5 hours, Inverness -Dundee 3 hours, Inverness - Glasgow~ 4 hours, Inverness - Edinburgh 4.5 hours). Dalcross Airport (about 8 miles east of the town) offers flights to many parts of the country. The buses leaving from Faraline Park serve the town and the surrounding area. Many of the big banks have branches in Inverness so changing money is not a problem for tourists. As well as these essential services, the town has cultural and entertainment facilities. There are theatres and cinemas, and some hotels organise Highland entertainment during the summer months.

Inverness is an old town, but there are not many buildings left from the old times. However, there are still some buildings in the town which are very old, such as the houses on Douglas Row. And Church Street has some interesting old churches.

Inverness is situated at the northern end of the Caledonian Canal. The canal was opened in 1822. Sailing boats used the canal to travel between the Irish sea and the North Sea. The canal provided a safe and fast journey for them. When steamships became popular instead of sailing boats, people stopped using the canal for transport because these steamships were too large and could not travel down the canal. Nowadays, there are sightseeing trips for tourists down the canal.

There are many good eating places in Inverness. There are plenty of restaurants and hotels which offer meals to non-residents. They have delicious local dishes at cheap prices; try some ‘haggis’ and a glass of malt whisky before you leave. There are also all kinds of sea food.



Places or Interest

Inverness Castle (1834) - It is now a court house.

Museum and Art Gallery - You can see the collection about the history of the Highlands in the Museum. In the Art Gallery artists exhibit their paintings, sculptures and photographs, which change frequently.

Abertaff House (1592) - The Highland Association uses this building now. This association tries to help people to learn Gaelic, the language which about 80,000 Scottish people speak. They are also interested in the country's national clothes, food and musical instruments.

St Andrew's Cathedral (1869) - It is richly decorated with fine windows and pillars.


Exhibit : sergilemek.

59 LACROSSE


Lacrosse is a popular sport in Canada. It is one of the oldest organized sports in America. The Indians in northern New York State and southern Ontario, Canada, invented it. They used it to train for ware They invented this game before Columbus arrived in the New World.

People play lacrosse outdoors. The lacrosse field is seventy meters long. At each end of the field there is a goal. The goal is a net. There are ten players on each team. Each player has a stick called a “crosse". The players hit a ball that is 21 centimetres around and weighs 140 grams1 They try to hit the ball into the net as many times as possible. Lacrosse is a very fast game because the players can catch and pass the ball at a high speed with their sticks.

At one time lacrosse was the national summer sport in Canada It is also popular in Britain and Australia.
60 THE BARASANA
Between Colombia and Brazil there is an area called The Vaupes Region'. About 15.000 people live in this area. They are the Amazonian Indians. These Amazonian Indians live in small groups. These groups have got different names like: Tukano, Desana, Cubeo and Barasana.

The Barasana have a very different life-style. They do not live in villages. Many families live together in one house. It's a very big house and they share everything in this house. These houses are very far away from each other. A person has to walk for one hour to get from one house to another. There are gardens for special plants behind the houses. The Barasana pick bananas from the banana trees and use the leaves of these trees to serve food.

The Barasana men and the Barasana women do different things. The women spend most of their time doing housework. They look after children, work in the gardens and prepare the food. The men go fishing and hunt animals for their meat.

The Barasana are marvellous language-learners. This is because a Barasana man has to marry a woman from a different house. The people in different houses speak different languages, so they must learn the other language to understand each other. The wife has to learn her husband's language and the husband has to learn his wife's language.

The children first learn their father1s language and use it every day, but they also understand their mother's language. The children do not go to school. They play with other children, watch their parents and in this way they learn about life. Young girls have to help their mothers, but the boys don't. They usually swim in the rivers, go fishing and practise hunting animals.

Marvellous: müthiş,nefis

61 THE MOTOR CAR INDUSTRY


At the end of the 19th century motor cars were made in Great Britain, France, Germany and the United States. They were not popular for many years because they were too expensive. They were very expensive because they were made in small workshops and not in factories. Mechanics had to make many small parts with the help of only a few machines.

At the beginning of the 20th century - in 1909 - the American engineer Henry Ford found a way to make cheaper cars very fast. He opened a factory. In his factory there were machines making the pans of the cars. This factory made one kind of motor car only - the famous Ford "Model T".

62 THE OSTRICH


The ostrich is the largest bird in the world. Africa and Arabia are the home of the ostrich, but we can see one in almost every zoo around the world. It has got wings but they are very small, so it cannot fly. Some male ostriches can be 2,5 m in height and weigh from 90 to 135 kg. An ostrich has a small, flat head and a very long neck. Its legs are strong and thick. It is an excellent runner. It can run very fast - about 40 miles an hour. It is faster than a horse, but it is not the fastest animal. There are faster animals than the ostrich - for example, the antelope. The food of the ostrich is plants and some insects. Ostriches leave their eggs into holes in the sand. Sometimes there are 20 eggs in one hole. They are white and the largest eggs in the world. The female ostrich looks after the eggs in the daytime and the male ostrich at night.

Sand : kum
63 RUDYARD KIPLING
The story-writer Rudyard Kipling was the son of an Englishman. Kipling was born on December 30th, 1865 in Bombay, India. When he was 5 years old his father sent him to England. There he went to school at the United Services College in Devon. He wrote about this school later in his life in his book called Stalky and Co. He finished school when he was 17 and returned to India. There, he worked as a reporter and wrote many books. His stories, especially those about soldiers, were very popular and he became very famous at the age of 25. He travelled to India, China, Japan and America and finally went to England. There, he worked on stories of India and wrote a book called Barrack Room Ballads.

In 1892 Kipling married an American - Caroline Balstier. For some time they lived in Vermont in the United States but later returned to Sussex, England. Kipling wrote books for readers of all ages. He also wrote children's stones. Some of them are The Jungle Book (1894), The Second Jungle Book (1895), and Just so Stories (1902). He received the 1907 Nobel Prize for literature.



as a reporter olarak

receive almak

64 VIDEO CLIPS


Did you see Michael Jackson's twenty-minute pop video 'Thriller'? He had to spend over $ 800,000 to make it, and it became very famous all over the world. Unknown singers and groups can become rich in one night when their pop videos get on the American MTV channel. The Birmingham group 'Duran Duran' became famous only after their first video. That made all the difference.

Videos became the biggest thing in the pop music world in the 1960s. British record companies are now spending more than £ 12 million a year on videos of new records. With these videos, singers and groups get on TV. People can also buy these videos in shops. These two things make singers and groups famous. They can't become famous if they don't make a good video.

Record companies send Jools Holland, the director of a British TV pop music programme, hundreds of videos very year. "I must say that most pop singers are very bad actors" says Jools, "but they don't look bad when record companies spend thousands of pounds on these videos. We've got some excellent film directors in Britain. Their videos are very good - much better than the American ones." Jools Holland gets all kinds of videos: some cost more than £50.000 for three minutes of film; others, from new groups cost £500 or less.
get on : çıkmak
65 DREAMS
People dream four to six times a night. They dream while they are in the REM (Rapid Eye Movement) stage of sleep. During REM sleep, you breathe faster, and your heart beats faster than in stages one through four. Sleepers go into the REM stage about every 90 minutes. The first dream of the night may last about ten minutes. Each dream gets a little longer. The last dream of the night may be an hour long.

People need their dreams. Younger children spend more time dreaming. Babies spend almost half of their sleep in the REM stage.

One experiment showed that everyone needs to dream. Doctors gave some people sleeping pills. These sleeping pills didn't let them go into REM sleep. After a few nights without dreams, they began to feel bad. They became angry easily, they worried a lot, and they wanted to fight with everyone. Then they stopped taking the sleeping pills. They all began to dream all night for a few nights to catch up.

Why do people dream? Dreams give them time to find the answers to some of their problems. If they think they will have difficult problems the 1next day, they may spend more time in REM sleep the night before. In their dreams, they may find an answer to their problems.



catch up yetismek

66 ORANGES


Everybody loves oranges. They are sweet and juicy. They are in sections, that is, Separate parts, so it is easy to eat them. Some oranges do not have any seeds, i.e. parts which grow into a new part. Some have a thick skin but others' have a thin skin.

The orange tree is beautiful. It has a lot of shiny green leaves The small white flowers smell very sweet. An orange tree has flowers and fruit at the same time.

There were orange trees twenty million years ago. The oranges were very small, not like the Qm5 today. The orange tree probably came from China. Many different kinds of wild oranges grow there today. In other words, these oranges grow in nature. The Chinese started to raise, or grow, orange trees around 2400 B.C.; Chinese art has lovely old pictures of oranges and orange trees.

Farmers in other parts of Asia , such as India and Pakistan and the Middle East, learned to raise oranges from the Chinese. Then they taught the Europeans. The Spanish planted orange trees in North and South America, called the New World .They took them to Florida first. Oranges are a very important crop (farm product) in Florida today

"Orange" is both a fruit and a colour. The colour of oranges is~ very beautiful. Therefore, in English we use the name of the fruit for the colour.
67

THE POSTAGE STAMP


Before the postage stamp, it was difficult to send a letter to another country. The sender paid for the letter to travel in his or her own country. Then the person in the other country paid for the other part of the trip. If a letter crossed several countries, the problem was bigger.
Rowland Hill, a British teacher, had the idea of a postage stamp with gum on the back. The British Post Office made the first stamps in 1840. They were the Penny Black and the Twopence Blue. A person bought a stamp and put it on a letter. The post office delivered the letter or took the letter to the person. When the person got the letter it was That is, the sender paid for it earlier.

Postage stamps became popular in Great Britain immediately other countries started making their own postage stamps very quickly

However, there were still problems with international mail. Some countries did not want to accept letters with the stamps of other countries. Finally, in 1874 a German organized the Universal Postal System (the UPS). Each country in the UPS agreed to accept letters with prepaid postage from the other members. Today the offices of the UPS are only in Switzerland. Almost every country in the world j5 a member of this organization. It takes care of any international mail problems.

Today post offices in every country sell beautiful stamps. Collecting stamps is one of the most popular hobbies in the world, and every stamp collector knows about the Penny Black and the Twopence Blue.

68

VOLCANOES


Earthquakes and volcanoes frighten people but they also give them great pleasure. Although volcanoes are mostly beautiful mountains, they have destroyed cities, forests and farmland throughout history. The word volcano comes from the name of the island of Vulcano, just north of Sicily. In classical times, people thought IL was the home of Vulcan - the god of destruction. Science has improved greatly. However, we still know very little about volcanoes.

A volcano is a kind of chimney, or vent. This chimney goes down to a liquid deep in the earth, called 'magma'. Three types of material come out of this vent: a hot liquid (lava), pieces of rock and great quantities of gas. The lava and rock often collect around the vent and form the volcano's 'cone'.

Scientists often classify, i.e. group, volcanoes according to the type of vent and kind of explosion.

CONTAINERS


We can find containers in our homes, schools, and places of work. For example, food and nonfood products are sold in containers. A favourite container of students and teachers is the wastebasket. Of course, containers are an important part of many professions: painters, doctors, biologists, photographers, chemists, and others use many kinds of specialized containers.

In this short article, it is not possible to discuss all kinds of containers. Therefore, let us look at some of the simple and basic containers. We will name them, identify their shapes and the materials they are made of, and say a few words about lids and tops.




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