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29(2): 182-191.

Numerous Alaska Native groups have begun movements to preserve and revitalise their cultures. They believe that by bringing back traditional practices and values people will be increasingly proud of their heritage and thus feel better about themselves as Native people. This paper describes the cultural revitalisation movement of the Alutiiq people of Kodiak Island from the personal viewpoint of the author.


Purdue, D. (1995). “Hegemonic Trips: World Trade, Intellectual Property and Biodiversity.” Environmental Politics 4(1): 88-107.

This article argues that the attempt to establish uniform global IPRs over living material is a hegemonic project driven by the biotechnology industry with its complex articulations of moleular biology, agro-chemical transnational corporations and state intervention.


Pushpangadan, P. (1996). Tropical Garden and Research Institute: People Oriented Sustainable Development Programme. Geneva. U.-G. I. P. Consultation. May 29-31.

Describes the work of the Tropical Garden and Research Institute that relates to conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources in India. This work includes a benefit sharing scheme whereby the Kani tribals will receive a share of the profits and the licence fee from commercialisation of extract from a plant called Trichopus zeylanicus.


Pushpangadan, P., S. Rajasekharan, et al. (1998). Benefit Sharing with Kani Tribe: A Model Experimented by Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute (TBGRI). 16-19 February. M. P. f. S. I. C. o. M. Plant. Bangalore.

Describes groundbreaking benefit sharing agreement between an Indian drug company, a botanic garden and the Kani tribals of Kerala State, India.


Putterman, D. M. (1997). Genetic Resources Utilization: Critical Issues in Conservation and Community Development, Biodiversity Conservation Network. http://www.bcnet.org/whatsnew/biopros.html.

Biodiversity conservation projects can benefit by incorporating sustainable utilisation of genetic resources, involving the private sector on mutually-agreed terms. To such end, the following policy recommendations are proposed: (a) regulate access up-front with contracts; (b) develop a prior informed consent mechanism; (c) establish sui generis rights to tangible property and traditional knowledge; and (d) create a national benefit-sharing formula.


Putterman, D. M. (1997). Model Material Transfer Agreements for Equitable Biodiversity Prospecting. Access to Genetic Resources: Strategies for Sharing Benefits. J. Mugabe, C. V. Barber, G. Henne, L. Glowka and A. La Viña. Nairobi, ACTS Press: 299-328.

CBD Article 15 recognises the sovereign rights of governments over genetic resources. This implies that these resources are tradable goods with economic value, suggesting that world trade may be used to create new economic incentives for biodiversity conservation in developing countries. A simple model to implement Article 15 would be to require parties to negotiate and sign Material Transfer Agreements (MTAs) based on model contracts before approving research or collection permits issued by source countries. Two model MTAs are presented in this chapter: one for transfer of genetic resources to non-commercial or non-profit research institutions, the other for transfer to companies.


Puyvelde, L. v. (1996). The Rwanda Experience in Enhancing and Commercializing the Use of Traditional Medicinal Plants. Medicinal Resources of the Tropical Forest: Biodiversity and Its Importance to Human Health. M. J. Balick, E. Elisabetsky and S. A. Laird. New York, Columbia University Press: 261-265.

Rwanda has a rich and still very popular traditional medicine. Even nowadays, the major part of the population initially consults and traditional healer before calling on the primary health care or hospital facilities. This chapter describes a project to evaluate the native medicine and flora of Rwanda., and to develop and produce plant-based drugs.


Pye-Smith, C., G. Borrini Feyerabend, et al. (1994). The Wealth of Communities: Stories of Success in Local Environmental Management. London, Earthscan Books.

Environmental problems are serious, yet communities all over the world are making intelligent and sustainable use of the resources on which they depend. This book tells the stories of ten such communities, from the Philippines to Poland, from Los Angeles to Zimbabwe. Whether reviving depleted fisheries, finding novel ways of waste disposal, controlling industrial pollution or replanting forests, they are shaping their own destinies and meeting their own needs while at the same time protecting the environment: often in the face of hardship and opposition.


Quiroz, C. (1994). “Biodiversity, Indigenous Knowledge, Gender and Intellectual Property Rights.” Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor 2(3): 12-15.

Evidence of the accelerating depletion of natural resources and other environmental and social problems has resulted in a global consensus on the need to see development in terms of long-term sustainability. This interest in sustainable development has been accompanied by an interest in important related issues, such as the conservation of natural resources (e.g. biodiversity), indigenous knowledge systems (e.g. cultural diversity), gender and IPRs. This article explores the relationship between those issues and gives some recommendations for further research and action.


Quiroz, C. (1996). “Local Knowledge Systems Contribute to Sustainable Development.” Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor 4(1): 3-5.

The value of local knowledge systems in facilitating development is gradually being recognised by national and international development agencies. Nevertheless, these systems are not yet familiar to many professionals working in agricultural and rural development. This article presents a literature review of local knowledge systems in Latin America which are capable of contributing to sustainable development approaches in the region.


Rabinow, P. (1996). Making PCR: A Story of Biotechnology. Chicago & London, University of Chicago Press.

Anthropological account of the invention of one of the most significant of the new biotechnologies: polymerase chain reaction. The book explores the culture of biotechnology as it emerged at Cetus Corporation during the 1980s and portrays the individuals who contributed to the making of PCR.


Raghavan, C. (1990). “Recolonization: GATT in its Historical Context.” The Ecologist 20(6): 205-207.

The chief priority of the industrialised countries in the Uruguay Round was to extend their control over the global economy. In the past, this was achieved through a mixture of colonialism and threats of military intervention. It is argued that today these countries intend to have GATT and the threat of trade retaliation serve the same purpose.


Rangnekar, D. (1996). GATT, Intellectual Property Rights, and the Seed Industry: Some Unsolved Problems. Kingston upon Thames, Surrey, Kingston University - Faculty of Human Sciences.

Reflects on recent changes for the international protection of IPRs achieved through GATT. Specific aspects of the global harmonisation of domestic regimes of protection are identified. These substantive changes contrast with general presumptions of theoretical economics on IPRs. Through a survey of economic literature on this subject, the paper concludes that the achievements at GATT are not supported by theory. Emphasis is given to the subject of plant variety protection.


Rangnekar, D. (2000). Plant Breeding, Biodiversity Loss and Intellectual Property Rights. Kingston upon Thames, Surrey, Kingston University - Faculty of Human Sciences.

There is a general perception that modern agroecosystems have a negative biodiversity impact. The adverse implications are a reflection of modern varieties being bred from a narrow circle of parental genetic material and of the high level of genetic uniformity of the varieties. The paper historically exmines the breeding of genetically uniform varieties. Institutional factors, like IPRs, that reinforce the bias towards genetic uniformity are also examined. The paper comcludes that the system of IPRs were developed in a specific manner to provide juridical legitimisation to the breeding of genetically uniform varieties.


Rankin, A. (1995). “‘Real History’ Revives Argentina’s Indians.” History Today 45(6): 8-10.

The Wichi Indians of Argentina and Bolivia have lived there for thousands of years before those countries were names. Throughout this century they have been dispossessed by non-Indian settlers and have seen their fertile lands reduced to an inhospitable dust bowl. With the help of Survival International, they have constructed a map of their entire territory and put into writing the rich oral history which reinforces their land claim. This project, whereby a crucial cultural tradition -- that of oral communication of a people’s history -- has come to be written down, has a profound significance for the cause of indigenous peoples’ land rights throughout the world.


Rao, K. (1996). Sanctuaries at the Crossroads. The Hindu Survey of the Environment ‘96: 137-143.

Demographic pressures and demand for resources are at the root of most problems confronting protected areas in India. The author calls for some imaginative policy and legislative initiatives to give the conservation programme a renewed sense of purpose and direction.


Raustiala, K. and D. G. Victor (1996). Biodiversity since Rio: The Future of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Environment. 38: 17-20, 37-45.

Describes the problem of biodiversity loss, charts how the biodiversity agenda has expanded to include many other concerns such as access to genetic resources, IPRs, and biotechnology, and reviews the operation of the CBD and its prospects.


Ravishankar, A. and S. Archak (1999). “Search for Policy Options: Is CoFaB a Suitable Alternative to UPOV?” Economic and Political Weekly 34(52): 3661-3667.

This article compares and contrasts the Convention of Farmers and Breeders (CoFaB) text with the UPOV 1991 provisions. It also lists the plausible reasons behind the areas of disagreement, issues of silence and exclusive provisions. It then highlights suggestions that can form inputs for fine tuning India’s domestic law for plant variety protection.


Redford, K. H. (1990). The Ecologically Noble Savage. Orion. 9: 26-49.

Criticises those who justify the investigation of indigenous knowledge on economic grounds or who seek to ‘sell’ biodiversity by urging the preservaton of species on the grounds of their industrial potential. Both approaches have their roots in the myth of the noble savage.


Redford, K. H. and A. M. Stearman (1993). “Forest-Dwelling Native Amazonians and the Conservation of Biodiversity: Interests in Common or in Collision?” Conservation Biology 7(2): 248-55.

The indigenous peoples organisation, COICA, proposes a framework for cooperation with environmentalists. It appears that indigenous people and environmentalists define conservation and biodiversity in different ways, with indigenous people focusing more on preservation of general habitat characteristics and exclusion of extensive habitat alteration. In fact, the interests of conservation biologists may not be completely compatible with the agenda of indigenous peoples, argue the authors.


Redford, K. H., R. Godshalk, et al. (1995). What about the Wild Animals? Wild Animal Species in Community Forestry in the Tropics. Rome, FAO.

Wild animals represent a natural resource of great significance for most forest-dwelling communities, as well as those living in many other rural contexts. In spite of this, most development projets ignore their role in subsistence as well as non-subsistence rural economies. The intent of this paper is to raise wild animals to their rightful place in the community forestry development process, and to provide an input for designing projects in ways that better fit the reality of most rural people in the tropics.


Redford, K. H. and J. A. Mansour (1996). Traditional Peoples and Biodiversity Conservation in Large Tropical Landscapes. Arlington, America Verde Publications.

While conservation professionals around the globe are beginning to appreciate the importance of including indigenous peoples in their efforts, few guidelines exist for accomplishing that goal. Through case studies of projects in Latin America, this volume demonstrates the ways in which The Nature Conservancy, one of the world’s largest conservation organisations, and its Latin American partners have worked with indigenous peoples, and suggests ways of improving future efforts.


Regional Program for the Promotion of Indigenous Knowledge (Reppika) and International Institute for Rural Reconstruction (IIRR) (1993). Indigenous Knowledge and Sustainable Development. Indigenous Knowledge and Sustainable Development, Silang, Cavite, Philippines, IIRR.

Summary report of a symposium that brought together a broad spectrum of people interested in documenting and preserving indigenous knowledge. it concludes with recommendations for further work in promoting indigenous knowledge for sustainable development and gives the action plan agreed to during the symposium. It also includes abstracts of 25 of the papers and a list of attendees.


Reichel-Dolmatoff, G. (1976). “Cosmology as Ecological Analysis: A View from the Rain Forest.” Man 11(3): 307-318.

Until recently, the cultural image of the Indian tribes of tropical America has been that of a group of primitive and hostile peoples whose contribution to human thought had been negligible and whose level of social complexity had remained far below that of most aboriginal societies of the Old World. With reference to Indian groups of the Colombian Amazon, the author seeks to demonstrate that aboriginal cosmologies and myth structures represent a set of ecological principles and that these formulate a system of social and economic rules that have a highly adaptive value in the continuous endeavour to maintain a viable equilibrium between the resources of the environment and the demands of society.


Reid, W. V. (1992). Genetic Resources and Sustainable Agriculture: Creating Incentives for Local Innovation and Adaptation. Nairobi & Maastricht, African Centre for Technology Studies.

Current policy regimes fail to promote local innovation or provide incentives for the upstream exploration of potential values of genetic resources. Changes will require acceptance by all countries of new ownership regimes for genetic resources. It is argued that the only lasting solutions to maintaining the genetic resources base of agriculture are in situ conservation, recognition of local and national ownership of genetic resources, and research and investment aimed at informal innovation.


Reid, W. V., S. A. Laird, et al., Eds. (1993). Biodiversity Prospecting: Using Genetic Resources for Sustainable Development. Washington DC, World Resources Institute, Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, Rainforest Alliance, African Centre for Technology Studies.

The proliferation of bioprospecting in the tropics makes it urgent to develop equitable legal arrangements so that the natural environment is enhanced rather than diminished, and developing countries benefit.


Reid, W. V., S. A. Laird, et al. (1993). A New Lease on Life. Biodiversity Prospecting. W. V. Reid, S. A. Laird, C. A. Meyeret al. Washington DC, WRI, INBio, RA, ACTS: 1-52.

The agreement between INBio and Merck sets a precedent in the history of biodiversity prospecting. More and more companies are now screening natural products, and this may provide incentives and funds for conservation, as long as appropriate and effective policies are put in place. This article puts forward some general principles for such policies.


Reid, W. V. (1994). Biodiversity Prospecting: Strategies for Sharing Benefits. Biodiplomacy. V. Sanchez and C. Juma. Nairobi, ACTS: 241-268.

Reviews some examples from the rapidly growing number of bioprospecting ventures, and offers suggestions on designing effective and equitable bioprospecting programmes, with a particular focus on the use of biodiversity in the pharmaceutical industry. The premise is that appropriate policies and institutions are needed to ensure that the commercial value obtained from biogenetic resources is a positive force for development and conservation.


Reid, W. V., C. V. Barber, et al. (1995). “Translating Genetic Resource Rights into Sustainable Development: Gene Cooperatives, the Biotrade and Lessons from the Philippines.” Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter(102): 1-17.

The CBD established that states have sovereign rights over their genetic resources, thereby enabling market incentives to complement various multilateral mechanisms that might directly fund biodiversity conservation. A number of obstacles face countries that are translating this broad right to regulate access into specific policies, laws and regulations designed to meet conservation and development objectives. The paper suggest various actiond that should be taken and reviews recent legislation on genetic resource access regulation in the Philippines.


Reid, W. V., S. A. Laird, et al. (1996). Biodiversity Prospecting. Medicinal Resources of the Tropical Forest: Biodiversity and Its Importance to Human Health. M. J. Balick, E. Elisabetsky and S. A. Laird. New York, Columbia University Press: 142-173.

The proliferation of bioprospecting in the tropics makes it urgent to develop equitable legal arrangements so that the natural environment is enhanced rather than diminished, and developing countries benefit.


Reid, W. V. (1997). Technology and Access to Genetic Resources. Access to Genetic Resources: Strategies for Sharing Benefits. J. Mugabe, C. V. Barber, G. Henne, L. Glowka and A. La Viña. Nairobi, ACTS Press: 53-70.

Biotechnology is one of the most rapidly evolving fields of science today. In many respects, technological changes are blurring the distinctions between agricultural, industrial and pharmaceutical applications of biodiversity. New technologies also affect the economic value of biodiversity and genetic resources, and help to determine potentially useful provisions in benefit-sharing arrangements between suppliers and recipients of biodiversity. Policies to regulate access to genetic resources and biochemical samples under the CBD must take into account trends in the biotechnology industry and, in particular, the implications of these trends for effective benefit-sharing arrangements.


Reyes, V. (1996). “The Value of Sangre de Drago.” Seedling(March): 16-21.

Shaman Pharmaceuticals uses the traditional knowledge of indigenous peoples and local communities as part of its research strategies. This article questions Shaman’s supposedly altruistic business dealings with traditional communities in Ecuador.


Rhoades, R. E. (1997). Pathways Towards a Sustainable Mountain Agriculture for the 21st Century: The Hindu Kush Experience. Kathmandu, International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development.

Addresses the problems of sustainable agriculture in the Hindu-Kush Himalayas, and concludes with a number of recommendations to promote sustainable mountain agriculture in the 21st century.


Richards, E. M. (1993). “Lessons for Participatory Natural Forest Management in Latin America: Case Studies from Honduras, Mexico and Peru.” Journal of World Forest Resource Management 7: 1-25.

The need for innovative and participatory natural forest management approaches has never been greater. This paper describes three important participatory experiences in Latin America. The results underline some of the basic conditions for successful participatory management.


Richards, P. (1997). Common Knowledge and Resource Conservation, Globally and Locally. Cross-Cultural Protection of Nature and the Environment. F. Arler and I. Svennevig. Odense, Odense University Press: 107-118.

Investigates anthropological understandings of ‘science’ and ‘common sense’ and how anthropologists have sought to understand indigenous knowledge. Perhaps the biggest challenge for those interested in the democratisation of conservation will be to establish a conceptual framework within which local knowledge will be seen and respects as instances of a global human capacity for common sense.


Richarson, B. J., D. Craig, et al. (1994). Aboriginal Participation and Control in Environmental Planning and Management: Review of Canadian Regional Agreements and their Potential Application to Australia. Darwin, North Australian Research Unit, Australian National University.

Over the past two decades, some indigenous peoples in Canada have sought to achieve self-government and a better framework for economic and environmental management through the negotiation of regional agreements. This paper examines what regional agreements stand for, and considers whether they are useful examples for settlement of outstanding native title claims in Australia. The Canadian experience is one strategy which Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia might consider in attempting some of the issues raised by the High Court’s Mabo ruling.


Richie, M. (1990). “GATT, Agriculture and the Environment.” The Ecologist 20(6): 214-220.

The US government, backed by corporate interests, is using GATT to push through drastic measures to deregulate global trade in agricultural and related products. The proposals would devastate small farmers around the world and massively increase the control of big businesses over the production of, and trade in, food and other natural products. The rights of national and regional legislatures to implement environmental and health protection regulations would also be seriously compromised.


Rivas, R. (1994). The Case of the Pech in Honduras. Voices of the Earth. L. v. d. Vlist. Amsterdam, NCIV & International Books: 52-55.

Describes the situation of the Pech people of Honduras.


Roberts, L. (1992). “Chemical Prospecting: Hope for Vanishing Ecosystems?” Science 256(22 May): 1142-3.

Describes the INBio-Merck bioprospecting agreement and the role of some prominent conservationist scientists in promoting and justifying the deal.


Roberts, T. (1996). “Patenting Plants Around the World.” European Intellectual Property Review(10): 531-536.

Reviews plant -related IPR practice in Europe and the United States, with some comments on positions in other countries; notes the requirements of the TRIPS Agreement; and offers some comments.


Robineau, L. and D. D. Soejarto (1996). TRAMIL: A Research Project on the Medicinal Plant Resources of the Caribbean. Medicinal Resources of the Tropical Forest: Biodiversity and Its Importance to Human Health. M. J. Balick, E. Elisabetsky and S. A. Laird. New York, Columbia University Press: 317-325.

Presents Traditional Medicine in the Islands (TRAMIL), an applied research project whose aims are to provide scientific rationale to the traditional popular uses of plants for therapy in the Caribbean basin, and campaigns to return the findings to the local peoples in this region in the form of recommendations on the safety of these plants.


Robinson, N. A. (1995). “‘Colloquium: The Rio Environmental Law Treaties’: IUCN’s Proposed Covenant on Environment and Development.” Pace Environmental Law Review 13(1): 133-189.

The IUCN draft Covenant on Environment and Development was designed as an umbrella agreement to govern the interactions of nations with the Earth’s natural systems, i.e. to integrate environmental protection with socio-economic concerns. This article examines the genesis and scope of the IUCN draft Covenant.


Rolston, H. (1993). Whose Woods These Are: Are Genetic Resources Private Property or Global Commons? Earthwatch

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