Asking questions constructing questionnaires



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tarix06.03.2018
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  • ASKING QUESTIONS

  • CONSTRUCTING QUESTIONNAIRES
































Administer questionnaires to large samples to explain larger populations.

  • Administer questionnaires to large samples to explain larger populations.

  • Can guarantee anonymity

  • Used extensively today by researchers, politicians, and news organizations in:

      • Marketing
      • Social research
      • Public opinion
      • Attitudes


To obtain information from a large number of individuals

  • To obtain information from a large number of individuals

  • To provide anonymity to respondents

  • To provide confidentiality to respondents

  • When observation is impossible – impractical

  • When information is obtained for descriptive purposes

  • When information is obtained for broad explanatory purposes



Information is collected by means of standardized procedures so that every individual is asked the same questions in more or less the same way. The survey's intent is not to describe the particular individuals who, by chance, are part of the sample but to obtain a composite profile of the population.

  • Information is collected by means of standardized procedures so that every individual is asked the same questions in more or less the same way. The survey's intent is not to describe the particular individuals who, by chance, are part of the sample but to obtain a composite profile of the population.



Follows a deductive approach:

  • Follows a deductive approach:

  • Develop hypotheses.

  • Develop an instrument (questionnaire).

    • (remember operationalization)
  • Pilot test the questionnaire.

  • Decide on population, get a representative sample.

  • Administer the survey

  • Analyze, interpret, and communicate the results



Remember, the questionnaire is a total package and needs

  • Remember, the questionnaire is a total package and needs

  • to be considered as such.

  • It needs a strong introduction conveying to the respondent what the survey is about.

  • It should indicate why the questions are being asked.

  • It needs interesting and readily answerable questions at the beginning to gain respondent attention and build rapport.

  • The conclusion should be gentle and friendly, expressing gratitude for the respondent's time and effort.



As respondents hear or read a survey question, they

  • As respondents hear or read a survey question, they

  • construct a “pragmatic meaning” that incorporates their

  • interpretation of the question, why it is being asked, and

  • what constitutes an acceptable answer.

  • Respondents may also expand or restrict the meaning of

  • concepts because the wording of a question evokes meanings that then dominate the definition of the concept.

  • The respondent’s interpretation of the question can also be influenced by information in response categories



different groups may use different vocabularies or organize their behavior in different ways.

  • different groups may use different vocabularies or organize their behavior in different ways.

    • to provide the analytic definition and ask the respondent to answer in its terms.
    • to allow respondents to answer using their native concepts and structure the sequence of questions so that the analyst can map native concepts onto the analytic concept.


two general approaches to defining a target event or behavior.

  • two general approaches to defining a target event or behavior.

    • to provide the analytic definition and ask the respondent to answer in its terms.
      • Next I’d like to know about vehicles, including automobiles, motorcycles, motor
      • scooters, and trucks. How many vehicles do you own?
    • to allow respondents to answer using their native concepts
      • I’d like to know about the vehicles you own. How many vehicles do you own?
  •  



Open Ended

  • Open Ended

    • What is your income? ________
    • What situations are particularly stressful for you? _________________________


closed ended

  • closed ended

    • Do you agree that Turkey should join the European Union and have free labor exchange with other European countries? Yes/No
    • Eğitiminde hedefin nedir?
      • Bu okuldan sonra okumayacağım
      • Lise’ye gideceğim
      • Meslek okuluna gideceğim
      • Üniversiteye gideceğim


Statement Rating - Likert Scales

  • Statement Rating - Likert Scales









Make items clear

  • Make items clear

    • Short
    • Avoid negatives
  • Avoid double barreled questions

  • Answering the question should be possible

    • Questions should be relevant
  • Respondent cooperation should be likely

  • Questions should have face validity

  • Avoid biased or loaded terms



Make items clear

  • Make items clear

    • Short ???
  • Avoid ambiguity and vagueness?

    • What is your income?
    • Do you exercise regularly?
    • What do you think about the proposed peace plan?
    • How many times did you take the subway last week?


Avoid negatives

  • Avoid negatives

    • Appearence of negation leads to misinterpretation
    • Examples
    • The United States should not recognize Cuba
    • Students should not be required to take a comprehensive exam. (A respondent who disagree with this statement…)
    • Does it seem possible or does it seem impossible to you that the Nazi extermination of the Jews never happened?


Avoid biased items and terms

  • Avoid biased items and terms

    • More support less support
    • Assistance to the poor welfare
    • Halting rising crime rate law enforcement
    • Dealing with drug addiction drug rehabilitation
    • Solving problems of big cities urban assistance program


Avoid double barreled questions

  • Avoid double barreled questions

    • Examples:
    • United States should abandon its space program and spend the money on domestic programs
    • Do you listen to music and have the TV on while you are studying?


Answering the question should be possible

  • Answering the question should be possible

    • Questions should be relevant
    • Example
    • Biliyorsunuz devlet verilen vergilerle bazı hizmetleri yerine getiriyor. Aşağıda size bazı hizmet alanları sayacağız. Bunların her biri için devletin aldığı vergilerden daha az mı, daha çok mu, yoksa şimdi harcadığı kadar mı harcama yapması gerektiğini düşünüyorsunuz? Yani mesela, devlet toplam 100 lira vergi topluyorsa bunu aşağıdaki hizmetler arasında nasıl dağıtmalı, paylaştırmalı?
    • Eğitim
    • Savunma
    • Sağlık
    • Sanayi-kalkınma
    • SanatSu-kanalizasyon-yol
    • Bilimsel araştırma-geliştirme
    • Yoksulluk
    • Göç


Avoid biased or loaded terms

  • Avoid biased or loaded terms

    • Bias refers to any property of questionnaire that encourages respondents to answer in a particular way
    • Examples:
    • Do you agree or disagree with the recent Supreme Court decision…..
    • Should the government spend even more money on military?


Avoid asking questions beyond the capabilities of respondents:

  • Avoid asking questions beyond the capabilities of respondents:

    • How many hours of TV did you watch last month?
  • Evinizde yaklaşık olarak kaç kitap var?

  • 1> 1-25 arası

  • 2> 26-50 arası

  • 3> 51-200 arası

  • 4> 201- 400 arası

  • 5> 401 +

  • 99> Fikri Yok / Cevap Yok

  • Geçtiğimiz sene içinde kaç tane kitap okudunuz?

  •  Cevap:................................................................



Theratening questions:

  • Theratening questions:

    • Topic % very uneasy
    • Masturbation 56
    • Sexual intercourse 56
    • Use of marijuhana 42
    • Drugs 31
    • Getting drunk 29
    • Kissing 20
    • İncome 19
    • Gambling 12
    • Happiness 4
    • Education 3


Close vs. open-ended questions

  • Close vs. open-ended questions

  • Contingency questions

  • Question order

    • Order effects
    • Context effects
  • non-attidues and middle positions

  • Probing

  • Social desirability

  • Format and layout

  • Lenght of survey



  • They are composite measures of variables: measurement based on more than one variable (data item)



An index is constructed thru simple accumulation of scores assigned to individual attributes

  • An index is constructed thru simple accumulation of scores assigned to individual attributes

  • Political activism index



Need to have face validity (logical validity)

  • Need to have face validity (logical validity)

  • Unidimensionality—a composite measure should represent only one dimension

  • İtems should be correlated with each other



Tax compliance:

  • Tax compliance:

  • Diyelim ki bir gelir elde ettiniz ve bu gelirden ödemeniz gereken

  • bir vergi miktarı var. Ama ödemeseniz de hiçbir şekilde fark

  • edilmeyecek. Ödemeniz gereken bu vergiyi, ödemezseniz fark

  • edilmeyeceği halde, yalnızca vatandaşlık göreviniz olduğu için

  • öder misiniz?

  • Diyelim ki 100 liralık bir malı nakit ödeyerek almaya karar

  • verdiniz. Satıcı size fiş istemezseniz malı 90 liraya vereceğini

  • söyledi. Biliyorsunuz vergi iadesi de kalktı. Siz ne yaparsınız?

  • Diyelim ki bir ev kiralamak üzeresiniz. Ev sahibi daha az vergi

  • vermek için kira miktarını kontratta(sözleşmede) düşük

  • göstermeyi planlıyor. Bunun karşılığında, kira miktarında indirim

  • yapacak. Ev sahibinin kira bedelini kontratta düşük göstermesini

  • kabul eder misiniz?



Hiç kimse vergisini ödemese bile, biz aile olarak üzerimize düşen vergiyi ödemeliyiz. Bu düşünceye...

  • Hiç kimse vergisini ödemese bile, biz aile olarak üzerimize düşen vergiyi ödemeliyiz. Bu düşünceye...

  • Bildiğiniz gibi Türkiye’de kimileri vergilerini ödüyor, kimileri

  • ödemiyor. Ailenizin ödediği vergileri göz önünde bulundurduğunuzda şu sayacaklarımdan hangisinin görüşünüze en uygun olduğunu düşünüyorsunuz?

  • (SEÇENEKLERİ OKU, TEK CEVAP)

  • 1> Insanlar kendi payına düşen vergilerin tamamını mutlaka

  • ödemelidir

  • 2> İnsanlar kendi paylarına düşen vergilerin çoğunu ödemelidir

  • 3> İnsanlar fırsatını bulduklarında vergilerinin çoğunu



A scale is constructed thru the assignment of scores to patterns of attributes

  • A scale is constructed thru the assignment of scores to patterns of attributes

  • İntensity

    • İtems represent different degrees of intensity


Are you willing to permit Albanians to live in your country?

  • Are you willing to permit Albanians to live in your country?

  • Are you willing to permit Albanians to live in your community?

  • Are you willing to permit Albanians to live in your neighborhood?

  • Are you willing to permit Albanians to live next door to you?

  • Are you willing to permit Albanians to teach in your children’s school?

  • Would you let your child marry an Albanian?



Errors by the respondents

  • Errors by the respondents

  • Unintentional errrors or interviewer slopiness

  • İntentional subversion by the interwiever

  • Influence due to the interviewer’s expactations

  • Failure of an interviewer to probe

  • İnfluence on the answers due to interviewer’s apperance, tone, attitude, reactions to answers



  • Contingency questions

  • Question order

    • Order effects
    • Context effects
  • non-attidues and middle positions

  • Probing

  • Social desirability

  • Format and layout

  • Lenght of survey



Face-to-face surveys

  • Face-to-face surveys

  • Self –administered surveys

  • Mail surveys

  • Telephone surveys

  • Internet (online / e-mail) surveys

  • Mixed mode surveys





Response rate:

  • Response rate:

    • # of surveys returned / #of surveys distributed (participants contacted)
    • 50- 60 % acceptable. 70 - 80% better
    • Lower percentages are acceptable for pre-post designs.
  • Enhancing response rates

    • Follow-up
    • Gifts
    • Presentation of the interviewers


Strengths:

  • Strengths:

    • Useful in describing large populations.
    • Make large samples feasible
    • Can ask questions from a variety of topics
    • Easy to code/analyze
    • Strong in reliablity
  • Weaknesses:

    • Standarization
    • Self-administration can be problematic
    • Weak in validity




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