Change models – an exercise

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Change models – an exercise

  • Change models – an exercise

  • Conceptual reflections and debate

  • Edutainment – the art of telling stories

  • Case: Soul City

  • Lessons learnt and future challenges for health communication



Change models….

  • Change models….



Definition of communication: information transfer - vertical

  • Definition of communication: information transfer - vertical

  • Definition of development communication: information dissemination via mass media

  • Problem: lack of information

  • Solution: information transfer: Knowledge  Attitudes  Practice

  • Goal: outcome oriented: behavior change

  • Frameworks: Types of interventions

  • Modernization Social marketing

  • Diffusion of innovations Entertainment-education



Definition of communication: information exchange/dialogue - horizontal

  • Definition of communication: information exchange/dialogue - horizontal

  • Definition of development communication: grassroots participation via group interaction

  • Problem: structural inequalities/local knowledge ignored

  • Solution: information exchange/ participation

  • Goal: process-oriented: empowerment, equity, community

  • Frameworks: Types of interventions

  • Social change/praxis (Freire) Empowerment education

  • Social mobilization/activism Participatory Action Research

  • Rapid Participatory Appraisal

  • Community Involm. in Health







Re-considering the field of EE

  • Re-considering the field of EE

  • One of the most innovative and used comm strategies in ComDev in the past 2 decades

  • Consolidated strategy, but doing excactly what?

  • Critiques of limited behavioural focus







The Known Story (1970s-mid/late 1990s)

  • The Known Story (1970s-mid/late 1990s)

  • Communication and Development: New Theoretical Perspectives (1995 – 1999)

  • The Golden Years of – a particular form of - Entertainment Education? (1999 – 2004)

  • Proliferation of EE (2004-)



EE in Practice

  • EE in Practice

    • JHU, PSI, BBC
  • Theoretical Perspectives

    • Heidi Noel Nariman (1993)
    • Anna Maria Fadul (1993)
    • Emile McAnany (1990s)
    • Piotrow (1997) – family planning book
    • Singhal (1997) – India’s information revolution
    • First International EE Conference (1997) –Athens
    • Larry Kincaid (1981 onwards - ideation)
    • Doug Storey


EE and Social Change: Singhal and Rogers (1999)

  • EE and Social Change: Singhal and Rogers (1999)

  • Critiques of EE

    • A critique of the narrow focus on BCC – Waisbord (2001)
    • Diffusion and participation: a false dichotomy – Morris (2003/2005)


Proliferation of EE scholarship

  • Proliferation of EE scholarship

    • Communication Theory Journal (2002)
      • Suruchi Sood – Audience Involvement
      • John Sherry – EE and Mass Mobilization
      • Singhal and Rogers – Outlining a research agenda
    • EE and Social Change Revisited: Sabido, Cody, Rogers, Singhal (2004)
      • EE from a Freireian perspective
        • Sood and Witte
        • Singhal
        • Singhal and Rogers – Combating AIDS (2004)
      • EE and the Public Sphere
        • Tom Jacobson
      • Sense–making and multiple mediations
        • Tufte (2004)
        • Barbero (1993)
        • Orozco


Telling stories strategically….

  • Telling stories strategically….



Compared with the reality which comes from being seen and heard, even the greatest forces of intimate life – the passions of the heart, the thoughts of the mind, the delights of the senses – lead to an uncertain, shadowy kind of existence unless and until they are transformed, deprivatized and deindividualized, as it were, into a shape to fit them for public appearance. The most current of such transformations occurs in storytelling… (Hannah Arendt, The Human Condition, 1958: 50)

  • Compared with the reality which comes from being seen and heard, even the greatest forces of intimate life – the passions of the heart, the thoughts of the mind, the delights of the senses – lead to an uncertain, shadowy kind of existence unless and until they are transformed, deprivatized and deindividualized, as it were, into a shape to fit them for public appearance. The most current of such transformations occurs in storytelling… (Hannah Arendt, The Human Condition, 1958: 50)



Storytelling is a coping strategy that involves making words stand for the world, and then, by manipulating them, changing one’s experience of the world. By constructing, relating and sharing stories, people contrive to restore viability to the relationship with others, redressing a bias toward autonomy when it has been lost, and affirming collective ideals in the face of disparate experiences. It is not that speech is a replacement for action: rather that it is a supplement, to be exploited when action is impossible or confounded (Michael Jackson, 2002: 18)

  • Storytelling is a coping strategy that involves making words stand for the world, and then, by manipulating them, changing one’s experience of the world. By constructing, relating and sharing stories, people contrive to restore viability to the relationship with others, redressing a bias toward autonomy when it has been lost, and affirming collective ideals in the face of disparate experiences. It is not that speech is a replacement for action: rather that it is a supplement, to be exploited when action is impossible or confounded (Michael Jackson, 2002: 18)



Introduction: concept and aim

  • Introduction: concept and aim

  • Video with three Soul City stories

  • Results

  • Lessons learnt



An NGO with 80 staff. Established in 1994. Many donors on board.

  • An NGO with 80 staff. Established in 1994. Many donors on board.

  • ’Campaigns’ approx every 1½ year. Duration: 6 months

  • Since 2000: Soul Buddyz.



Weekly tv-series episode, 13 weeks (Engelsk ++)

  • Weekly tv-series episode, 13 weeks (Engelsk ++)

  • Followed by 60 daily radio-drama episodes (9 different languages)

  • Educational packages, incl teachers guide

  • Adult education packages

  • Sections/publications for 10 largest newspapers in SA

  • One off publications for journalists

  • Workshops for journalists, local community workers, police, health workers, etc

  • Competitions: (Soul City Health Worker of the Year, essays competitions, etc)

  • Soul Buddyz Club structure in schools



Edutainment as core concept

  • Edutainment as core concept

  • Continuity, since 1994

  • Branded

  • High quality

  • Multi-media

  • Research-driven

  • Training and educational components

  • Strategic partnerships (ie NVAW)

  • Community moblizing

  • Multi-level advocacy



Soul City video clips

  • Soul City video clips

  • Examples:

  • Domestic Violence

  • Disability (Soul Buddyz)

  • HIV/AIDS Prevention



The private becomes a public concern

  • The private becomes a public concern

  • The importance of social networks

  • The local community is challenged…reacts positively

  • Legal framework enhance the change process

  • Role models undergo a positive and forward moving development



16.2 mio viewers of tv-series

  • 16.2 mio viewers of tv-series

  • Campaign materials used by more than 4300 South Africa organisations and institutions

  • Campaign influenced policy

  • Increased contact with organisations working with domestic violence



8 procent-point more in post-intervention assessment than in pre-intervention recognize ’emotional battering’ as a kind of ’domestic violence’ (from 81% to 89%)

  • 8 procent-point more in post-intervention assessment than in pre-intervention recognize ’emotional battering’ as a kind of ’domestic violence’ (from 81% to 89%)

  • Knowledge about ’Stop Women Abuse Helpline’: From 16% til 61% knowledge! (comparing those with no contact with Soul City and those with contact to all 3 Soul City media outputs



Individual Change

  • Individual Change

  • Knowledge

  • Skills

  • Attitudes

  • Practices



  • Different levels of intervention:

    • Individual level
    • Household/Community level
    • Societal/national level
  • Distinguish between process evaluation and ’outcome’ evaluation (results)



Complexity. Complex problems require complex answers.

  • Complexity. Complex problems require complex answers.

  • Multi-level interventions. Collaboration between community, region, nation….

  • Synergies. Using a broad palet af media platforms and forms of communication (and targeting more than one audience – based on network analysis)

  • Systematic approaches pre and post. Evaluate both social processes and KAP.



How do we Improve HIV/AIDS Communication?

  • How do we Improve HIV/AIDS Communication?

  • Building relations of trust/build confidence

  • Through recognition and identification increase ownership of problem

  • Stimulate reflection and both individual and collective action



How do we Push a Social Change Agenda?

  • How do we Push a Social Change Agenda?

  • Voice and Visibility of affected populations – both in public AND private dialogue

  • Enhance Cultural Citizenship in Content and Mode of Address (communicate about issues and in ways that are culturally appropriate but also challenge fx gender relations)

  • Support systems in place (hotlines, counselling centres, access to services)

  • Addressing both general public, opinion leaders, decision makers – multilevel



Potential Outcome of CFSC

  • Potential Outcome of CFSC

  • Social Critique

  • Social Action

  • Social and Structural Change

  • …NOT thereby excluding the need for individual behaviour change.



www.soulcity.org

  • www.soulcity.org

  • www.communicationforsocialchange.org

  • www.comminit.com

  • www.fooddudes.co.uk

  • www.ruc.dk

  • ttufte@ruc.dk

  • http://ruc-dk.academia.edu/ ThomasTufte




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