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Azərbaycan Dillər Universiteti

Tərcümə və Mədəniyyətşünaslıq fakültəsi

German dillərinin tərcümə nəzəriyyəsi və praktikası kafedrası

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2017-2018-ci tədris ili

Azərbaycan / Rus bölmələri üçün

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B - A tərcümə fənni üzrə (50 mətn) (20 bal)
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Azerbaijan and the European Union

Since 1991, the European Union has gradually become closer to Azerbaijan. The European Union and Azerbaijan have worked together to conclude various political agreements. The most important is EU- Azerbaijan Partnership and Cooperation Agreement which aims at enhancing: trade, investment, the economy, legislation and culture.

Azerbaijan is part of the European Neighbourhood Policy ( ENP) and the Eastern Partnership initiative. The country is also a member of the Organisation of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC). Discussions on updating the legal basis for relations between the European Union and Azerbaijan are ongoing.

The EU is a key foreign investor in Azerbaijan. In 2013, its Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the country came in at €4.7 billion.

The EU also supports closer economic integration with Azerbaijan through the European Neighbourhood Policy and the Eastern Partnership initiative.

Azerbaijan is receiving technical assistance from the EU to help it become a WTO member.

Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection

The European Union is committed to helping victims of man-made and natural disasters worldwide. It helps over 120 million people each year. Collectively, the EU and its constituent countries are the world's leading donor of humanitarian aid.

The Treaty of Lisbon provides the legal basis for aid. Its purpose is to help people in distress, whatever their nationality, religion, gender or ethnic origin. The EU is committed to a leading role in disaster relief.

Since 2010, the European Commission has established a more robust and effective European mechanism for disaster response. A single organisation now deals with both humanitarian aid and civil protection, which is more efficient.

The EU Civil Protection Mechanism operates together with EU funding for humanitarian aid to tackle the needs arising from a conflict or disaster. This mechanism has helped provide emergency supplies from EU countries, while the European Commission has disbursed over €400 million in humanitarian aid.

Cooperation between Judicial Authorities

When you travel within the European Union, you are entitled to unrestricted access to the legal system of the country you are in. This also means that criminals cannot escape the consequences of their crime by crossing a border.

Cooperation has intensified between national judicial authorities to ensure that legal decisions taken in one EU country are recognised and implemented in any other. This is especially important in civil cases such as divorce, child custody, maintenance claims or even bankruptcy and unpaid bills, when the individuals involved live in different countries.

To help in the fight against serious crimes such as corruption, terrorism, drug trafficking and distribution, the EU has established the European Judicial Network.

The European arrest warrant has replaced lengthy extradition procedures, so that suspected or convicted criminals who have fled abroad can be swiftly returned to the country where they were tried, or are due to be tried.

Environment

Better air and water quality and improved waste management brings important health benefits and a better quality of life for citizens in partner countries to the European Neighbourhood Policy and to European Union citizens.

Strengthened environment protection improves community viability by better preserving natural resources and improving conditions for agriculture, fisheries, forestry and tourism. 

More sustainable resource use, increased resource efficiency and the use of more environmentally friendly technologies benefit business in European Neighbourhood Policy countries, contributing to job creation and the transition to a greener economy. 

Pollution does not respect borders – national action is not enough. The European Union and partner countries need to work together to limit air pollution and to ensure the protection of shared seas and river basins

The EU has acquired a wide-ranging expertise and know-how on how to protect the environment and promote the sustainable use of natural resources, which it is ready to share with partner countries.

Asylum and Immigration

European Union countries are working to develop a coherent EU immigration policy that takes advantage of the opportunities offered by legal immigration, while tackling the challenges of irregular immigration. The aim is to take account of the priorities and needs of each EU country and encourage the integration of non-EU nationals into their host societies.

The EU is also striving to create partnerships with the countries of origin and of transit in order to better organise legal immigration and curb irregular immigration, to improve the link between migration and development, as well as to strengthen the rule of law and promote respect for fundamental rights in these countries.

For people to have freedom to move throughout the EU, there must be effective controls at all points of entry into the EU. EU countries are working together to improve security through better external border controls, while making it easier for those with a right to enter the EU to do so.



Eastern Partnership

The Eastern Partnership is a joint policy initiative launched at the Prague Summit in May 2009. It aims to deepen and strengthen relations between the European Union and its six Eastern neighbours: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine.

The Eastern Partnership represents the Eastern dimension of the European Neighbourhood Policy. It is based on shared values of liberty, democracy, respect for human rights and the rule of law.

The commitment to the Eastern Partnership initiative and its objectives were reaffirmed at the Warsaw Summit in 2011 and the Vilnius Summit in 2013.

The Eastern Partnership has two tracks: bilateral and multilateral.

The bilateral dimension supports political and socio-economic reforms in partner countries to foster political association and further economic integration with the EU, enhance sector cooperation and support mobility of citizens and visa-free travel as a long-term goal.

The multilateral dimension complements bilateral relations with thematic platforms to exchange best practices on issues of mutual interest: good governance, economic integration and growth, energy security and transport, contacts between people.

Human Rights and Democracy

The European Union views all human rights as universal, indivisible and interdependent. It actively promotes and defends them both within its borders and when engaging in relations with non-EU countries.

The EU’s human rights and democracy policy encompasses civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights. The EU is adamant about protecting the universal nature of human rights when this is questioned on grounds of cultural or political differences. The EU furthermore believes that democracy is the only political system which can fully realize all human rights.

The EU is founded on a strong engagement to promote and protect human rights, democracy and rule of law worldwide. Sustainable peace and stability, long-term development and prosperity cannot exist without respect for human rights and democratic institutions. This commitment underpins all internal and external policies of the EU.

Countries seeking to join the EU must respect human rights and be democratic (Copenhagen criteria). All cooperation as well as trade agreements with third countries contain a clause stipulating that human rights are an essential element in relations between the parties.



European Neighbourhood Policy

Through its European Neighbourhood Policy, the European Union works with its southern and eastern neighbours to achieve the closest possible political association and the greatest possible degree of economic integration. This goal builds on common interests and on values — democracy, the rule of law, respect for human rights, and social cohesion. The ENP is a key part of the EU's foreign policy.

Partner countries agree with the EU an ENP action plan demonstrating their commitment to democracy, human rights, rule of law, good governance, market economy principles and sustainable development. The EU supports the achievement of these objectives: financial support – grants worth €12 bn were given to ENP-related projects from 2007 to 2013; economic integration and access to EU markets – in 2011 trade between the EU and its ENP partners totalled €230bn; easier travel to the EU – 3.2 m Schengen visas were issued to citizens, and in particular to students from ENP countries in 2012.

The EU also supports the civil society which plays an important role in bringing about deep and sustainable democracy in partner countries.



Justice and Home Affairs

Within the European Union, citizens have a right to live in any EU country. Borders can be crossed almost without noticing since the Schengen Agreement abolished checks at the EU's internal borders (with the exception of Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Ireland, Romania and the United Kingdom).

The EU also works to protect citizens from international crime and terrorism, and to ensure your access to the local justice system and respect for your fundamental rights wherever you are in the EU. Access to an effective justice system is an essential right, one of the founding principles of European democracies.

The EU Charter of Fundamental Rights sets out all the personal, civil, political, economic and social rights flowing from EU citizenship. Its Fundamental Rights Agency helps policymakers to pass new laws and works to raise public awareness of fundamental rights.

The EU acts on behalf of EU citizens to prevent discrimination on grounds of sex, racial or ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation. In the age of ubiquitous internet, the EU fights for everyone's right to the have their personal data protected.

European Union Enlargement

Enlargement is the process whereby countries join the European Union. Since it was founded in 1957, the EU has grown from 6 countries to 28.

Over the past 50 years, widening EU membership has promoted economic growth and strengthened democratic forces in countries emerging from dictatorship.

The 6 founding members of the EU in 1957 were Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. Several other West European countries joined after 1973.

Following the collapse of their regimes in 1989, many former communist countries from central and eastern Europe became EU members between 2004 and 2007. In 2013, Croatia became the 28th country to join.

The Treaty on European Union states that any European country may apply for membership if it respects the EU's democratic values and is committed to promoting them.

But specifically, a country can only join if it meets all the membership criteria: political – it must have stable institutions guaranteeing democracy, the rule of law and human rights; economic – it must have a functioning market economy; legal – it must accept established EU law and practice.

Legal System

Laws and Courts in the US

The US legal system is based on federal law, augmented by laws enacted by state legislatures and local laws passed by counties and cities. Most rights and freedoms enjoyed by Americans are enshrined in the first ten amendments of the US Constitution and popularly known as the “Bill of Rights”.

American law and the US Constitution apply to everyone in the US, irrespective of citizenship or immigration status, and even illegal immigrants have most of the same basic legal rights as US citizens. Under the US constitution, each state has the power to establish its own system of criminal and civil laws, resulting in 50 different state legal systems, each supported by its own laws, prisons, police forces, and county and city courts. There’s a wide variation in state and local laws, making life difficult for people moving between states. Never assume that the law is the same in different states (Conflict of State Laws is a popular course in American law schools).

The US Judiciary

The US judiciary is independent of the government and consists of the Supreme Court, the US Court of Appeals and the US District Courts. The Supreme Court, the highest court in the land, consists of nine judges who are appointed for life by the President. Its decisions are final and legally binding on all parties. In deciding cases, the Supreme Court reviews the activities of state and federal governments and decides whether laws are constitutional. The Supreme Court has nullified laws passed by Congress and even declared the actions of US presidents unconstitutional. Momentous judgements in recent years have involved the Watergate scandal, racial segregation, abortion and capital punishment.

However, when appointing a Supreme Court judge, the President’s selection is based on a candidate’s political and other views, which must usually correspond with his own. The Supreme Court was for many years made up of members with a liberal or reformist outlook, although this trend has been reversed in recent years with the appointment of conservative judges by successive Republican presidents.

European Union Law: EU Court System

The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) is the collective name for the judicial branch of the EU.  Its purpose, in cooperation with the national courts and tribunals of the Member States, is to ensure the uniform interpretation and application of EU law.

The CJEU consists of three distinct judicial entities, the highest of which is the European Court of Justice (ECJ), which constitutes the EU’s final court of appeal.  Beneath the ECJ are two subordinate courts, the General Court and the Civil Service Tribunal.  Each court is described in greater detail below.

Bear in mind that EU courts have limited jurisdiction.  Most cases that apply EU law are adjudicated by the national courts of the Member States.  When novel questions of interpretation arise with respect to EU law, EU courts may be asked to intervene in cases where they otherwise lack jurisdiction.



The Litigation

Litigation is an American tradition and national sport, and every American has a right to his day in court (as well as to his 15 minutes of fame). There are 15 to 20 million civil suits a year, which leads to a huge backlog of cases in all states and even the Supreme Court. One of the most unusual aspects of US law is that lawyers are permitted to work on a contingency fee basis, whereby they accept cases on a ‘no-win, no-fee’ basis. If they win, their fee is as high as 50 per cent of any damages. If you must hire a lawyer on a non-contingency basis, the cost is usually prohibitive.

Many people believe this system helps pervert the cause of justice, as a lawyer’s only concern is winning a case, often irrespective of any ethical standards or the facts of the matter. The contingency-fee system is responsible for the proliferation of litigation cases, which lawyers are happy to pursue because of the absurdly high awards made by US courts.

United Kingdom - Judicial system

The United Kingdom does not have a single body of law applicable throughout the realm. Scotland has its own distinctive system and courts; in Northern Ireland, certain spheres of law differ in substance from those operating in England and Wales. A feature common to all UK legal systems, however—and one that distinguishes them from many continental systems—is the absence of a complete code, since legislation and unwritten or common law are all part of the "constitution."

The main civil courts in England and Wales are 218 county courts for small cases and the High Court, which is divided into the chancery division, the family division, and the Queen's Bench division (including the maritime and commercial courts), for the more important cases. Appeals from the county courts may also be heard in the High Court, though the more important ones come before the Court of Appeal; a few appeals are heard before the House of Lords, which is the ultimate court of appeal for civil cases throughout the United Kingdom.

HOW FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS INTERACT

The Constitution not only defines the structure and powers of the federal government, but also contains general provisions regarding state government. Each state, in turn, has its own constitution which contains provisions for local governments within the state. Local governments may include cities, counties, towns, school districts, and special-purpose districts, which govern such matters as local natural resources or transportation networks. The federal government is limited to the powers and responsibilities specifically granted to it by the U.S. Constitution. Some of the powers listed in the Constitution include regulating commerce between the states, providing for national defense, creating money, regulating immigration and naturalization, and entering into treaties with foreign countries. Over time, however, the Constitution has been interpreted and amended to adapt to changing circumstances, and the powers exercised by the federal government have changed with it. Working with the states, the federal government creates certain laws and programs that are funded federally, but administered by the states. Education, social welfare, assisted housing and nutrition, homeland security, transportation, and emergency response are key areas where states deliver services using federal funds and subject to federal guidelines.



THE LEGISLATIVE BRANCH

The legislative branch of the federal government is comprised of two chambers of Congress: the U.S. Senate and the U.S. House of Representatives. Legislation must pass both houses before it is presented to the President to be signed into law. Each year, thousands of bills are introduced in Congress, but only a few hundred are passed into law. The following is a summary of how a bill makes its way from draft to being signed into law by the President. 1. A bill is written. A Senator or Representative may draft original legislation, or a trade association or private citizen may request that a bill be prepared and may assist in its writing. Only a Senator or Representative, however, can actually introduce a bill. Once written, the author of the bill will seek co-sponsors from among his or her colleagues to add greater credibility to the initiative.



How a bill becomes law

The bill is introduced in the Senate and/or House. It is assigned a number and its title and sponsors are published in the Congressional Record. The Parliamentarians of the House and Senate assign the bill to the committee with appropriate jurisdiction. The chair of the committee may then assign the bill to the most appropriate subcommittee. It is important to note that the committee and subcommittee chairs have a great deal of power over how a bill assigned to them is considered. If the chair opposes the legislation, he or she may simply not act on it. . The subcommittee may hold hearings on the bill and invite testimony from public and private witnesses. Many witnesses are Executive Branch officials, experts, or affected parties from trade associations, labor unions, academia, public interest groups, or the business community. Individuals may also make their views known by testifying, by providing a written statement, or by allowing interest groups to represent their views.



The Types of Adoption Available in America

There are many variations in types of adoption. Below we break-down the possibilities and options available.

The first option is domestic adoption versus international adoption. For those in the US, domestic adoption involves adopting from within the U.S.. International adoption refers to a situation in which a child is born outside of the U.S. and one would bring the child to live in this country.

The next major distinction is a closed adoption versus an open adoption.

A closed adoption is an adoption in which no identifying information about the birthfamily or the adoptive family is shared between the two. Additionally, there is no contact between birthparents and adoptive parents. The adoptive family usually receives non-identifying information about the child and the birthfamily before placement. In a closed adoption, after finalization, the records are sealed. Depending on local law and what paperwork was signed and filed at the finalization these records may or may not be available to the adopted child upon their 18th birthday.

Agency adoption

The next major distinction is an agency adoption versus a private adoption. An agency adoption is one that is arranged by a public or private adoption agency. This is as opposed to a private adoption which is arranged through an intermediary such as a lawyer, physician, or other facilitator, rather than through a licensed adoption agency.

Usually independent adoptions involve infants who are healthy or believed to be healthy. They often do not include counseling for the birthparents or parent preparation for the adoptive parents, and are not legal in all states. Children adopted through private adoptions are not usually eligible for adoption assistance for special needs that may not have been noticeable at birth. Such adoptions can be open adoptions, but this is not always the case. Private adoptions should not be confused with private agency adoptions.

A special type of agency adoption is foster adoption aka fost-adopt. This is a form of adoption in which a child is placed into a home as a foster child, with the expectation that the child will become legally free and be adopted by the foster parents. Also, children may be adopted directly from the foster care system without the period of fostering.



Saudi Arabia is playing chicken with its oil
Russia and Iran are highly dependent on stable oil prices. By many estimates, Russia needs prices at around $100 a barrel to meet its budget commitments. Iran, facing Western sanctions and economic isolation, needs even higher prices. Already, Iran has taken an economic hit from Saudi actions. On Nov. 30, as a result of OPEC’s decision not to increase production, the Iranian rial dropped nearly six percent against the dollar.

The kingdom believes it can protect itself from the impact of the price drops. It can always increase oil production to make up for falling prices, or soften the blow of lower profits by accessing some of its $750 billion stashed in foreign reserves.

Still, Saudi Arabia is playing a dangerous game—there is little evidence that authoritarian regimes like Russia and Iran would change their behavior under economic pressure. Worse, the Saudi policy could backfire, making Russia and especially Iran more intransigent in countering Saudi influence in the Middle East.

With ongoing proxy wars in Syria and Iraq, Saudi Arabia risks instigating an oil war with Russia and Iran—a war that the kingdom can perhaps win in the short term. But like sectarian conflict, Saudi actions threaten a conflagration that can spin out of everyone’s control.



Boeing Co's China office declined to comment.

Boeing anticipates China will need 6,800 new jetliners worth $1 trillion over the next 20 years.

In October, Boeing and Chinese planemaker Commercial Aircraft Corp of China Ltd signed an agreement to open a Boeing 737 completion facility in the Chinese coastal city of Zhoushan.

The widely-read Global Times, run by the ruling Communist Party's official People's Daily, is known for its stridently nationalist tone, but its editorials cannot be viewed as representing government policies or official statements.

In recent weeks, the Global Times and other state-run Chinese news outlets have issued several warnings of possible retaliation if the Trump administration carries out threats of tariffs or undermines Beijing's claims on self-ruled Taiwan.

In November, the Global Times warned that China could switch large orders from Boeing to Europe, Apple phones would "essentially be crowded out" and U.S. soybeans and corn banished from China if Trump creates problems for China on trade.

China is the world's top producer and consumer of cotton and top buyer of grains such as soybeans to feed its vast livestock industry.

BROAD GAINS

The reports came a day before Federal Reserve officials gather for a two-day meeting to assess the economy's health and deliberate on monetary policy.

Economists expect the U.S. central bank to open the door a bit wider to interest rate hikes next year after the recent run of bullish data.

U.S. financial markets were little moved by the mixed data as investors kept a wary eye on oil prices, which hit fresh 5-1/2 year lows.

Manufacturing output in November was led by a 5.1 percent jump in automobile production after three straight months of decline. There were also solid gains in machinery, apparel and leather, and petroleum and coal products.

Mining output slipped 0.1 percent. Utilities production jumped 5.1 percent as a cold snap boosted demand for utilities, prompting forecasting firm Macroeconomic Advisers to raise its fourth-quarter growth estimate by one-tenth of a percentage point to a 2.6 percent annual rate.

Strong manufacturing and utilities output combined to lift overall industrial production by 1.3 percent in November, the largest increase since May 2010.

The amount of manufacturing capacity in use last month rose to its highest since December 2007. Overall industrial capacity use hit its highest level in more than 6-1/2 years.

Demographic and economic destiny

Consider one of the big economic forces of the post-World War II economy: women entering the labor force on a mass scale. In 1948, only 33 percent of American women between 25 and 54 worked or sought work. By the time George W. Bush took office in January 2001, that had risen to about 77 percent.

That means that throughout the second half of the 20th century, the economy had a huge tailwind, as millions of women joined the work force and stated contributing to G.D.P. Richard Nixon, Ronald Reagan and Bill Clinton didn't create that trend; broader social forces did. But the fact that it happened made their economic records look better.

Expand the idea to other elements of demographics: the baby boom generation entering the labor force from the 1960s through the 1980s and now retiring; the large millennial generation coming into the work force. You see that a big part of the economic growth that might take place during a given presidency is determined by forces not under any politician's control.



Everything else affects the economy — slowly

There's a broad range of other areas in which presidential action affects the economic future. Name a field, and the president exerts power over it: health care, energy, technology innovation, financial regulation, labor policies, trade, transportation infrastructure, agricultural policy. The list is endless. Even foreign policy matters; stable geopolitics is generally good for business.

The problem is that all of these big policy areas affect the nation's economic prospects over the long run. The downsides of regulating banks poorly might show up as a crisis a decade down the road. The benefits of better infrastructure will tend to show up over many years. The payoffs of well-designed education policies come to fruition as young people enter the labor market with better skills years later.

Likewise, from a more conservative vantage point, the cost of environmental restrictions limiting energy production may not show up in the price of fuel for years. Burdensome, outdated regulations tend to show up as a modest drag on business year after year, not as an acute, clear crisis.



For fiscal policy, talk to Congress

This is often what we think of when we talk about a president's economic policy. The occupants of the Oval Office can steer policy around taxing and spending priorities. But they can't do it alone.

It's certainly true that tax and spending policy carries a president's imprint. President Obama's election victories enabled him to enact a major fiscal stimulus in 2009 and increase taxes on the wealthy starting in 2013. President Reagan's election brought a sharp cut in tax rates. Different election results would have made for different fiscal policy.

But Congress has, if anything, greater power than the president over how the government taxes and spends. It's almost a punch line that when a president issues a proposed budget each winter, congressional opponents call it "dead on arrival."

And while Mr. Obama had fiscal policy wins, he also met stiff resistance. The spending cuts known as "sequestration" happened because Republicans took control of Congress in 2010.

So to the degree that taxes and spending shape the course of the economy — and there's no doubt they do — presidents can set direction, but not steer the ship themselves. It is a lesson Mr. Trump will soon learn.



Presidents have less power over the economy than you think

Presidential reputations rise or fall with gross domestic product. The state of the economy can determine if presidents are re-elected, and it shapes historical memory of their success or failure.

In the news media, we often use the handover of power as the time forassessing the economic record of the departing president. (I've done it myself recently.) Some economists have predicted that the Trump administration could create the next recession or financial crisis. And scholars have studied the relative economic conditions generated by Republicans and Democrats for predictive meaning (Democrats have done better since World War II, they found).

But the reality is that presidents have far less control over the economy than you might imagine. Presidential economic records are highly dependent on the dumb luck of where the nation is in the economic cycle. And the White House has no control over the demographic and technological forces that influence the economy.

Even in areas where the president really does have power to shape the economy — appointing Federal Reserve governors, steering fiscal and regulatory policy, responding to crises and external shocks — the relationship between presidential action and economic outcome is often uncertain and hard to prove.

Air pollution

Air pollution is the introduction of particulates, biological molecules, and other harmful substances into Earth's atmosphere, causing diseases, allergies, and death to humans, damage to other living organisms such as animals and food crops, or the natural or built environment. Air pollution may come from anthropogenic or natural sources. The atmosphere is a complex natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on planet Earth. Indoor air pollution and urban air quality are listed as two of the worlds worst toxic pollution problems in the 2008 Blacksmith Institute World's Worst Polluted Places report. According to the 2014 WHO report, air pollution in 2012 caused the deaths of around 7 million people worldwide, an estimate roughly matched by the International Energy Agency. An air pollutant is a substance in the air that can have adverse effects on humans and the ecosystem. The substance can be solid particles, liquid droplets, or gases.



Airplane

The dream of flying is as old as mankind itself. However, the concept of the airplane has only been around for two centuries. Before that time, men and women tried to navigate the air by imitating the birds. They built wings to strap onto their arm or machines with flapping wings .On the surface, it seemed like a good plan. After all, there are plenty of birds in the air to show that the concept does work. The trouble is, it works better at bird-scale than it does at the much larger scale needed to lift both a man and a machine off the ground. So people began to look for other ways to fly. Beginning in 1783, a few people made daring, uncontrolled flights in air balloons, filled with either hot air or hydrogen gas. But this was hardly a practical way to fly.



Car

The early history of the automobile can be divided into a number of eras, based on the prevalent means of propulsion. Later periods were defined by trends in exterior styling, size, and utility preferences. In 1769 the first steam-powered automobile capable of human transportation was built by Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot. In 1807 François Isaac de Rivaz designed the first car powered by an internal combustion engine fuelled by hydrogen. In 1864 Siegfried Marcus built the first gasoline powered combustion engine, which he placed on a pushcart, building four progressively sophisticated combustion-engine cars over a 10-to-15-year span that influenced later cars. Marcus created the two-cycle combustion engine. The car's second incarnation in 1880 introduced a four-cycle, gasoline-powered engine, an ingenious carburetor design, and magneto ignition. He created an additional two models further refining his design with steering, a clutch, and brakes. His second car is on display at the Technical Museum in Vienna.



Climate

Climate change, also called global warming, refers to the rise in average surface temperatures on Earth. An overwhelming scientific consensus maintains that climate change is due primarily to the human use of fossil fuels, which releases carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the air. The gases trap heat within the atmosphere, which can have a range of effects on ecosystems, including rising sea levels, severe weather events, and droughts that render landscapes more susceptible to wildfires. There is broad-based agreement within the scientific community that climate change is real. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration concur that climate change is indeed occurring and is almost certainly due to human activity. The primary cause of climate change is the burning of fossil fuels, such as oil and coal, which emits greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.



Satellite

In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as Earth's Moon. The world's first artificial satellite, the Sputnik 1, was launched by the Soviet Union in 1957. Since then, thousands of satellites have been launched into orbit around the Earth. Some satellites, notably space stations, have been launched in parts and assembled in orbit. Artificial satellites originate from more than 40 countries and have used the satellite launching capabilities of ten nations. About a thousand satellites are currently operational, whereas thousands of unused satellites and satellite fragments orbit the Earth as space debris. A few space probes have been placed into orbit around other bodies and become artificial satellites to the Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Vesta, Eros, Ceres, and the Sun.



Global warming

Global warming is a serious problem in this century, with its detrimental effects already being brought to limelight by the recurring events of massive floods, annihilating droughts and ravaging cyclones throughout the globe. The average global temperatures are higher than they have ever been during the past millennium, and the levels of CO2 in the atmosphere have crossed all previous records. A scrutiny of the past records of 100 years indicates that India figures in the first 10 in the world in terms of fatalities and economic losses in a variety of climatic disasters. Before embarking on a detailed analysis of Global warming and its impacts on Indian climate, we should first know what climate, greenhouse effect and global warming actually mean. The climate is defined as’ the general or average weather conditions of a certain region, including temperature, rainfall, and wind’.



Spaceflight

Human spaceflight is space travel with a crew or passengers aboard the spacecraft. Spacecraft carrying people may be operated directly, by human crew, or it may be either remotely operated from ground stations on Earth or be autonomous, able to carry out a specific mission with no human involvement. The first human spaceflight was launched by the Soviet Union on 12 April 1961 as a part of the Vostok program, with cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin aboard. Humans have been continually present in space for 16 years and 14 days on the International Space Station. All early human spaceflight was crewed, where at least some of the passengers acted to carry out tasks of piloting or operating the spacecraft. After 2015, several human-capable spacecraft are being explicitly designed with the ability to operate autonomously. Since the retirement of the US Space Shuttle in 2011, only Russia and China have maintained human spaceflight capability with the Soyuz program and Shenzhou program.



The first submarine

The concept of underwater combat has roots deep in antiquity. There are images of men using hollow sticks to breathe underwater for hunting at the temples at Thebes, but the first known military use occurred during the siege of Syracuse (415 - 413 BC), where divers cleared obstructions, according to the History of the Peloponnesian War. At the siege of Tyre (332 BC), Alexander the Great used divers, according to Aristotle. Later legends from Alexandria, Egypt from the 12th century AD, suggested that Alexander conducted reconnaissance, using a primitive submersible in the form of a diving bell, as depicted in a 16th-century Islamic painting. Although there were various plans for submersibles or submarines during the Middle Ages, the Englishman William Bourne designed one of the first prototype submarines in 1578. This was to be a completely enclosed boat that could be submerged and rowed beneath the surface.



Pollution

To emphasize the link between environmental pollution and public health in an urban setting, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) commissioned a pilot study of the Dandora municipal waste dumping site in Nairobi, Kenya. Environmental samples (soil and water) were analyzed to determine the content and concentrations of various pollutants (heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls and pesticides) that are known to affect human health. Soil samples from the dumpsite were compared to samples taken from another site - Waithaka, which is a peri-urban residential area on the outskirts of Nairobi. The flow chart below shows the link between the environmental pollutants from the dumpsite and public health impacts on the adjacent communities. This link is further explained in this report. A medical camp was set up at the St. John Informal School that is located next to the dumpsite. A total of 328 children and adolescents living and schooling adjacent the dumpsite were examined and treated for various ailments.



Water pollution

Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater). This form of environmental degradation occurs when pollutants are directly or indirectly discharged into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds. Water pollution affects the entire biosphere – plants and organisms living in these bodies of water. In almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and population, but also to the natural biological communities. Water pollution is a major global problem which requires ongoing evaluation and revision of water resource at all levels. It has been suggested that water pollution is the leading worldwide cause of deaths and diseases, and that it accounts for the deaths of more than 14,000 people daily. An estimated 580 people in India die of water pollution related illness every day.



Delhi’s smog-fighting helicopters can’t fly because of smog

An ambitious plan to use helicopters to fight Delhi’s air pollution has been grounded – because the aircraft cannot operate in such thick smog.

The Delhi government had engaged a state-owned helicopter company to formulate a plan to use the aircraft to sprinkle water over the city.

It was hoped the water would help to settle the thick haze of pollutants that has engulfed the Indian capital in the last week, triggering what doctors have called a “public health emergency”.

But that plan hit a bump on Monday, when city administrators were told the choppers would be unable to help dissipate the smog until the smog itself cleared.

“Right now, with the prevailing smog, it is not possible for the helicopters to carry out operations,” the chairman and managing director of the company, BP Sharma, told the Indian Express.

“We have communicated the same to the Delhi government. There was a meeting regarding this on Monday.”

Cambodia’s Hun Sen should be granted “ dignified exit”: former opposition leader

The international community must be prepared to offer Cambodian Prime Minister Hun Sen guarantees for a “dignified exit”, the Southeast Asian country’s exiled former opposition leader told Euronews.

Sam Rainsy, who has been living in France since 2015 amid a slew of charges and convictions widely seen as politically motivated, said the leader of more than three decades is “understandably very afraid, very concerned for his security, for his safety when he steps down.”

Cambodians are due to head to the polls in July 2018 for a national election.

“Nobody is eternal. He [Hun Sen] must realise that he has to prepare his retirement and I think we need to give him some guarantees,” Rainsy said.

“If it is not enough that those guarantees are provided by Cambodians… then there must be some international guarantees to allow him to leave the country, to go somewhere safely, to have a kind of dignified exit whereby he cannot only preserve his safety, but preserve his freedom and also preserve a portion of his wealth.”

Children were sleeping inside”: Amnesty urges Nigeria to end bulldozer evictions

Amnesty International has called on the Nigerian government to stop the violent evictions of people from waterfront communities in Lagos that have left 11 dead.

The human rights organisation says 30,000 people have been evicted and 11 have died in midnight evictions in which police have set houses on fire, shot live ammunition and teargas at residents and then sent bulldozers in to destroy their homes.

These fishing communities live on land that has become very desirable for property developers in a city where the rich mostly inhabit islands linked to mainland Lagos by long causeways.

The evictions have been carried out in defiance of court orders. Residents have told of children being killed by bulldozers.

“The children were still sleeping inside when the demolishers started tearing their house apart,” Pastor Ashegbon, a resident of Otodo Gbame, told the Guardian in May, while Pastor Mallon Agbejoye said: “We sleep in these piles of ruins. When it gets dark we make tents of mosquito nets and sleep inside them with our children.

A black night for Italian football”- Italy fail to qualify for Russia World Cup 2018

A night to remember for Sweden as they qualify for next year’s World Cup in Russia but catastrophe for Italy.

For the first time since 1958 the Azzurri will miss out on the finals – They failed to score in two legs against Sweden, enabling the Scandinavians to go through with a 1-0 aggregate playoff victory..

Italy’s Coach Gian Piero Ventura is contemplating his future:

“When you have a bad result, even if this is a fair result or not, the responsibility lies with the coach, this is obvious.”

Emotions were running high among Italian fans as they left the San Siro stadium in Milan:

“ Ventura had a team that did not deserve to be on the field. The team could have done much, much better than this.”

“Italy doesn’t show the hunger, the will to win. Everybody was saying that we were strong, but it’s not true. Because Sweden is going through, and we go home.”



UK parliament to vote on final Brexit deal
The British parliament will get to examine and vote on any final Brexit deal, the government said on Monday.

It’s a concession to Conservative Party rebels, who have demanded more power over the process and threatened to stall with a sea of amendments a key bill that Britain needs to actually sever ties with the EU.

“I can now confirm that once we’ve reached an agreement we will bring forward a specific piece of primary legislation to implement that agreement,” UK Brexit Secretary Davis told MPs.

“This also means that parliament will be given time to debate, scrutinise and vote on the final agreement we strike with the European Union. This agreement will only hold if parliament approves it.”

Brexit Minister David Davis made the announcement just as the House of Commons was preparing to debate on Tuesday the bill on Britain’s withdrawal from the European Union.

The EU Withdrawal bill aims to both end Britain’s EU membership and transfer EU law into British law.



Peruvian farmer scores small win in court over German energy giant
A Peruvian farmer won a small but significant legal victory on Monday when a German court said his appeal against energy giant RWE, which he accuses of contributing to climate change that is threatening his Andean home, had merit.

After hearing oral arguments from both sides, the higher regional court in the western city of Hamm said Saul Luciano Liluya’s demand for damages from RWE was “admissible”, paving the way for the case to proceed.

Luciano argues that RWE, as one of the world’s top emitters of climate-altering carbon dioxide, must share in the cost of protecting his hometown Huaraz from a swollen glacier lake at risk of overflowing from melting snow and ice.

The appeal court’s decision not to throw out the case immediately, as a lower court had done in the first instance last December, was hailed as a win by climate change activists.

The court in Hamm has written “legal history”, said Klaus Milke, chairman of the pressure group that is advising Luciano.

Donald Trump Jr communicated with Wikileaks during final stages of election

Donald Trump Jr the eldest son of the US president, was in direct communication with WikiLeaks in the crucial final stages of the 2016 presidential election, a new leak of private correspondence from inside the Trump circle reveals.

The younger Trump exchanged direct messages with the WikiLeaks account on Twitter between 20 September and 12 October 2016. Copies of the correspondence were handed to congressional investigators by Trump Jr’s lawyers and subsequently obtained by the Atlantic magazine.

The communication occurred at a highly sensitive moment for both the Trump presidential campaign and for WikiLeaks, just weeks before election day and at the height of WikiLeaks’ publication of hacked emails belonging to senior Democratic figures at the instigation, US intelligence agencies allege, of the Russian government.

The most politically explosive communication between the two parties, according to the Atlantic, came on and after 12 October 2016.

Lebanese Prime Minister Saad al-Hariri resigns
Lebanese Prime Minister Saad al-Hariri who resigned from his post in a shock move earlier this month says he’s well and will return to Lebanon from Saudi Arabia in the next two days.

Hariri blamed interference in Lebanon by Iran and its Lebanese ally Hezbollah for his decision.

Writing on Twitter, he urged people in Lebanon to remain calm, adding his family would stay in Saudi Arabia.

Hariri’s resignation pushed Lebanon into the Middle East power struggle between Saudi Arabia and Iran.

But an Hezbollah MP says Michel Aoun still heads a legitimate government.

On an historic visit to Riyadh, Lebanon’s Christian Maronite Patriarch met Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman and King Salman. He also expressed support for Hariri’s resignation.

An official visit to Saudi Arabia by such a senior non-Muslim cleric is a rare, but the kingdom has recently shown signs of wanting to open up more to the world.


New Zealand urged to bypass Australia to resolve refugee crisis
Refugee advocates in New Zealand and beyond are urging the new Labour government to bypass talks with Australia to resolve the escalating humanitarian crisis on Manus Island.

Prime minister Jacinda Ardern has offered to take 150 of the 400 refugees and asylum seekers who have barricaded themselves in an abandoned detention centre on Manus Island in Papua New Guinea. The men are living in squalor without power, sanitation facilities or medical treatment, but say they fear for their safety in PNG if they were to leave.

One week ago Australian prime minister Malcolm Turnbull refused New Zealand’s offer, and the situation continues to deteriorate, with Amnesty International reporting 90 men are now sick.

Ardern said she intended to press Turnbull to accept New Zealand’s offer this week at their meeting in Manila, as direct talks with Australia were the “fastest route” to resolve the crisis.



Who hacked the NASA?

The US intelligence community is reeling from what veterans call the biggest cyber security breach ever.

Just over a year ago, hackers got into the National Security Agency (NSA), getting away with some of the agency’s top cyber security defenses and weapons.

The cyber weapons were then used to launch ransomware attacks against hospitals, banks, shipping and drug companies.

The question remains: who are the Shadow Brokers? The group has claimed responsibility for the security breach, and is now taunting the country in posts riddled with spelling errors – recently writing: “Is NSA chasing shadowses?”

Cybersecurity experts are scratching their heads trying to find out whether the breach was the work of foreign hackers or someone on the inside.

Former NSA analyst Oren Falkowitz says it’s certainly had a chilling effect on NSA staffers, as they wonder whether it was a foreign hacker or someone on the inside.

“It puts them under suspicion, it puts the people they work with into question and it slows the progress of protecting the country,” he told NBC News.



Polish president condemns far-right scenes at Independence Day march
The Polish president has condemned expressions of xenophobia and racism at a weekend march by nationalists, saying there is no place in the country for antisemitism and “sick nationalism.”

It was the strongest and first unequivocal condemnation by a representative of the country’s conservative leadership of the white supremacist and racist views expressed by some of the 60,000 people who took part in a march on Saturday’s Independence Day holiday in Warsaw.

Government members over the past two days had mostly described participants as patriots and played down the nature of the xenophobic messages.

But Jewish groups called on the Polish authorities to condemn the message of banners with slogans such as “pure blood, clear mind” or “Europe will be white or uninhabited” that some nationalists carried at a march on 11 November – the anniversary of Polish independence from Russia, Austria and Germany at the end of the first world war.



Tobacco at a cancer summit: Trump coal push savaged at climate conference
The Trump team was heckled and interrupted by a protest song at the UN’s climate change summit in Bonn on Monday after using its only official appearance to say fossil fuels were vital to reducing poverty around the world and to saving jobs in the US.

While Donald Trump’s special adviser on energy and environment, David Banks, said cutting emissions was a US priority, “energy security, economic prosperity are higher priorities”, he said. “The president has a responsibility to protect jobs and industry across the country.”

Other attendees at the summit condemned the argument.

“Promoting coal at a climate summit is like promoting tobacco at a cancer summit,” said Michael Bloomberg, the former New York mayor and a UN special envoy for cities and climate change.

Benson Kibiti, from the Kenya Climate Working Group, said: “More coal will entrench poverty.”

When questioned, just one of the four energy executives Trump’s team chose to speak at the event expressed support for his decision to withdraw the US from the Paris climate agreement.



The World is watching Leonardo da Vinci’s Salvator Mundi

After centuries in the hands of private owners, Leonardo da Vinci’s Salvator Mundi went on show in public and over 20,000 people turned up to see it, including Leonardo DiCaprio.

The painting was on display in Christie’s exhibition space in New York's Rockefeller Center in November 2017 and prompted queues around the block, 500 years on from when da Vinci created his iconic depiction of Christ.

Photographer Nadav Kander decided to show the significance of the painting by filming the public's reactions to it.

DiCaprio, who is to star in a da Vinci biopic, made a subtle appearance, dressed in a black cap and coat.

Singer Patti Smith also featured in the film, which was cut down to four minutes and 14 seconds, as da Vinci represents Christ as he is characterised in the Gospel of John 4:14.



The painting was on show until November 15 and was then to be put up for auction.

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