(1) Every employee has the right to strike and every employer has recourse to lock-out if—
(a) the issue in dispute has been referred to a council or to the Commission as required by this Act, and—
(i) a certificate stating that the dispute remains unresolved has been issued; or
(ii) a period of 30 days, or any extension of that period agreed to between the parties to the dispute, has elapsed since the referral was received by the council or the Commission; and after that—
(b)in the case of a proposed strike, at least 48 hours’ notice of the commencement of the strike, in writing, has been given to the employer, unless—
(i) the issue in dispute relates to a collective agreement to be concluded in a council, in which case, notice must have been given to that council; or
(ii) the employer is a member of an employers’ organisation that is a party to the dispute, in which case, notice must have been given to that employers’ organisation; or
(c) in the case of a proposed lock-out, at least 48 hours’ notice of the commencement of the lock-out, in writing, has been given to any trade union that is a party to the dispute, or, if there is no such trade union, to the employees, unless the issue in dispute relates to a collective agreement to be concluded in a council, in which case, notice must have been given to that council; or
(d) in the case of a proposed strike or lock-out where the State is the employer, at least seven days’ notice of the commencement of the strike or lock-out has been given to the parties contemplated in paragraphs (b) and (c).” (Emphasis in original.)
34 Above at .
35 Section 23(2)(c) of the Constitution provides that “[e]very worker has the right to strike.”
36 South African Police Service v Police and Prisons Civil Rights Union and Another  ZACC 21; 2011 (6) SA 1 (CC); 2011 (9) BCLR 992 (CC) (Popcru) at paras 29-30; National Union of Metalworkers of South Africa and Others v Bader Bop (Pty) Ltd and Another  ZACC 30; 2003 (3) SA 513 (CC); 2003 (2) BCLR 182 (CC);  2 BLLR 103 (CC) (Bader Bop) at paras 13 and 67; and National Education Health & Allied Workers Union v University of Cape Town and Others  ZACC 27; 2003 (3) SA 1 (CC); 2003 (2) BCLR 154 (CC) at para 39.
37 Investigating Directorate: Serious Economic Offences and Others v Hyundai Motor Distributors (Pty) Ltd and Others: In re Hyundai Motor Distributors (Pty) Ltd and Others v Smit NO and Others  ZACC 12; 2001 (1) SA 545 (CC); 2000 (10) BCLR 1079 (CC) (Hyundai) at paras 22-3. See also Wary Holdings (Pty) Ltd v Stalwo (Pty) Ltd and Another  ZACC 12; 2009 (1) SA 337 (CC); 2008 (11) BCLR 1123 (CC) (Wary Holdings) at paras 46-7 and De Lange v Smuts NO and Others  ZACC 6; 1998 (3) SA 785 (CC); 1998 (7) BCLR 779 (CC) at para 85.
38 Compare CWIU v Plascon Decorative (Inland) (Pty) Ltd  12 BLLR 1191 (LAC) at para 21.
(i) the employees are identified in the agreement;
(ii) the agreement expressly binds the employees; and
(iii) the trade union or those trade unions have as their members the majority of the employees employed by the employer in the workplace.”
40 The employer only conceded this before the hearing in the Labour Appeal Court.
41 Above at .
42 See cases referred to in n 36 above.
43 Section 1(a) provides:
“The purpose of this Act is to advance economic development, social justice, labour peace and the democratisation of the workplace by fulfilling the primary objects of this Act, which are to give effect to and regulate the fundamental rights conferred by section 27 of the Constitution” (footnote omitted).
“[T]he Constitution” referred to is the Interim Constitution, which was repealed by the Constitution. Therefore, although the Act refers to section 27 of the Interim Constitution, for the purposes of interpretation of the Act, that should be read to refer to section 23 of the Constitution. See Bader Bop above n 36 at 19, fn 20.
44 Above n 36.
45 Id at paras 29-30.
46 Whether the restriction amounts to a limitation of the right or not: see  below.
47 Above n 38 at para 21.
48 Ex Parte Chairperson of the Constitutional Assembly: In reCertification of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996  ZACC 26; 1996 (4) SA 744 (CC); 1996 (10) BCLR 1253 (CC) (First Certification case) at para 66.
49 Bader Bop above n 36 at para 34. Compare also the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, G.A. Res. 217A(III), UN. Doc. A/810 (1948). It guarantees every person the right “to freedom of . . . association” (article 20(1)) and “to form and join trade unions for the protection of [their] interests” (article 23(4)).
50 Compare Novitz International and European Protection of the Right to Strike – A Comparative Study of Standards Set by the International Labour Organization, the Council of Europe and the European Union (Oxford University Press, Oxford 2003) at 49-73.
51 Bader Bop above n 36 at paras 32 and 34.
52 Above at  n 48.
53 The definition reads as follows:
“‘strike’ means the partial or complete concerted refusal to work, or the retardation or obstruction of work, by persons who are or have been employed by the same employer or by different employers, for the purpose of remedying a grievance or resolving a dispute in respect of any matter of mutual interest between employer and employee, and every reference to ‘work’ in this definition includes overtime work, whether it is voluntary or compulsory”.
54 Compare Schoeman & Another v Samsung Electronics SA (Pty) Ltd (1997) 18 ILJ 1098 (LC).
55 Above n 36 at para 13.
56 Above n 38 at para 17.
Equity Aviation Services (Pty) Ltd v South African Transport and Allied Workers Union and Others 2012 (2) SA 177 (SCA) at para 26.
57 Above n 36.
58 Id at paras 1 and 25.
59 Id at para 35.
60 Above n 38.
61 Id at para 21.
62 New National Party v Government of the Republic of South Africa and Others  ZACC 5; 1999 (3) SA 191 (CC); 1999 (5) BCLR 489 (CC) at para 123.
63 See South African Transport and Allied Workers Union and Another v Garvas and Others  ZACC 13 at para 69.
64 Section 36(1)(e).
65 Wary Holdings above n 37 at paras 46 and 47 and Hyundai above n 37 at paras 21-6.
66 Above n 38 at paras 27-8.
67 Ceramic Industries Ltd t/a Betta Sanitaryware and Another v NCBAWU and Others  6 BLLR 697 (LAC) (Ceramic Industries).
68 Id at 702F-I.
69 Section 1.
70 The purported purposes of the strike notice are elaborated on by Helen Seady and Clive Thompson in their chapter “Strikes and Lockouts”(in Thompson and Benjamin South African Labour Law (loose-leaf) Vol 1 AA1-314), which is also relied upon in the judgment of the Supreme Court of Appeal (above n 57) at para 15.
71 The italicised portion in the passage quoted in  above clearly shows this.
72 Ceramic Industries, above n 68, at 699 and 701-2.
73 Id at 702.
74 Poswa v Member of the Executive Council Responsible for Economic Affairs Environment and Tourism, Eastern Cape 2001 (3) SA 582 (SCA).
75 Id at para 9.
76 In  above, quoting para 66 of the First Certification case.
77 See above n 33.
78 Above n 38 at paras 21, 24 and 27.
79 Early Bird Farm (Pty) Ltd v Food and Allied Workers Union and Others (2004) 25 ILJ 2135 (LAC) (Early Bird Farm) at para 48.
80 County Fair Foods(A Division of Astral Operations Ltd) v Hotel Liquor Catering Commercial and Allied Workers Union and Others (2006) 27 ILJ 348 (LC).
81 Tiger Wheels Babelegi (Pty) Ltd t/a TSW International v National Union of Metalworkers of SAand Others (1999) 20 ILJ 677 (LC) and Public Servants Association of SA v Minister of Justice and Constitutional Development and Others (2001) 22 ILJ 2303 (LC).
82 Transportation Motor Spares v National Union of Metalworkers of SA and Others (1999) 20 ILJ 690 (LC) (Transportation).
83 SA Clothing and Textile Workers Union v Stuttafords Department Stores Ltd (1999) 20 ILJ 2692 (LC).
84 Compare Afrox Limited v SA Chemical Workers Union and Others (1) (1997) 18 ILJ 399 (LC) and Transportation above n 83.
85 Grogan Collective Labour Law (Juta, 2010) at 169-71.
86 The requirement has been extended beyond the time provision in the Labour Court by relying on the same wrong application of Ceramic Industries above n 68: see Transnet Ltd v SA Transport & Allied Workers Union (2011) 32 ILJ 2269 (LC).