Cyber Security Update



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Cyber Security Update

    • Denise Heagerty
    • CERN Computer Security Officer
    • HEPiX Meeting, CERN, 5-9 May 2008

Acknowledgements

  • Thanks to the following people for their contributions and suggestions for this presentation:

    • Lionel Cons, CERN
    • Bob Cowles, SLAC
    • Sebastien Dellabella
    • Jan Iven, CERN
    • David Jackson, STFC
    • Stefan Lueders, CERN
    • Djilali Mamouzi
    • David Myers, CERN
    • Romain Wartel, CERN


Overview

  • These slides cover a selection of security highlights

  • during the past few months for:

  • Web Security

  • Windows Security

  • Linux Security

  • Mac security

  • Controls Security

  • Miscellaneous

  • This presentation complements information in ‘Operational security for a Grid environment’ by Romain Wartel



Web Security Update



Web (in)security update

  • IFRAME injection attacks continue

    • Inserts IFRAME HTML tags into web pages
    • Loads malware from another site into this IFRAME
    • Relies on finding vulnerable web servers
      • Unfortunately they are not difficult to find!
    • Targets vulnerabilities in Web browsers and plug-ins
      • E.g. vulnerabilities in media players are common
  • Insufficient file protections are targets

    • Including AFS file space – check if your ACLs are too open!
    • Used for hosting inappropriate content (malware, SPAM, …)
    • Automated tools post to open forums, blogs, wikis, guestbooks, etc...
      • http://pandalabs.pandasecurity.com/archive/XRumer.aspx


Any insecure web site is likely to be attacked



Web developers need to check their code !



Malware Distribution Networks

  • Report by Google on drive-by-download attacks:

    • http://research.google.com/archive/provos-2008a.pdf
    • avoiding the dark corners of the Internet does not limit exposure to malware
    • state-of-the-art anti-virus engines are lacking in their ability to protect against drive-by downloads
    • users may be lured into the malware distribution networks by content served through online Ads
      • e.g. http://www.theregister.co.uk/2008/04/28/yahoo_serves_rogue_ads/
    • 1.3% of the incoming search queries to Google's search engine return at least one link to a malicious site


Web security advice

  • Require secure coding practices

    • Especially (but not only) for custom built web applications
    • http://cern.ch/security/webapps/
  • Educate users that web surfing has risks

    • Advertising, photos and videos can and do regularly contain malware
    • Be cautious of links in IM, Blogs and Online forums (e.g. social networking). Attackers have matured beyond using SPAM
    • Rich content and plug-ins increase chances of attacks
    • Even reputable sites can serve 3rd party content, e.g. advertising
  • Consider blockers for JavaScript and advertising

    • e.g. NoScript and AdBlock for Firefox
    • Disadvantages are that frequent updates are required and users need to understand what is being blocked and why


Windows Security Update



Windows Security Update

  • Windows computers remain a key target for attackers

    • Trojan Web links in SPAM Email, Instant Messaging and Online Forums
    • Trojans targeting vulnerable applications: e.g. Adobe PDF, Word, Quicktime, VLC, Mplayer, Winamp
    • Applications are often an easier target than the OS – keep them secure
    • Users are the weakest link and vulnerabilities are a fact of life
  • Srizbi Trojan: SPAM relay using rootkit technology

    • A more advanced form of the Storm botnet
    • Difficult to detect until it becomes a SPAMbot
    • http://www.news.com/8301-10789_3-9933683-57.html?tag=bl


Advice on securing Windows computers

  • Centrally managing computers can help:

  • Ensure patching for applications as well as the operating system

  • Ensure anti-virus runs correctly and pattern files kept updated

  • Configure secure defaults, especially for web browsers

  • Only use privileges for actions that require them

  • 90% of compromised Windows computers at CERN in 2007 were privately managed

    • e.g. laptops owned privately or by outside institutes
    • => Centrally managed computers were more secure


Linux Security Update



Linux Security (1)

  • Linux x86_64 insta-root (CVE-2007-4573)‏

    • (at least) 1 machine compromised at CERN
      • via a compromised user account
    • Delay between (public) announce and public exploit: 2 days (and 2 more for updates to appear)‏
    • Vendor assessments:
      • SECUNIA: “less critical”
      • Red Hat: “important”…


Linux Security (2)

  • Vendor assessments (ex: RHEL4)‏

    • Marc Cox, Red Hat did some analysis: http://www.redhatmagazine.com/2008/02/26/risk-report-three-years-of-red-hat-enterprise-linux-4/
    • CERN analysis since Oct 2007 (ad-hoc):
      • 93 security errata for RHEL4+extras
      • 25 “critical”: 12 Mozilla&friends, 4 Java, 2 flash-plugin, acroread, …
      • 27 “Important”: kernel, PDF, …
    • But nobody (seems?) to be exploiting Firefox et.al. on Linux?
    • Lessons:
      • User-assisted (browser|mail) things get overrated by industry
        • Who would use a browser as root? Oh, wait…
      • Traditional “local root exploits” get underrated by industry


Linux Security (3)

  • Linux security tools – stagnation?

    • Red Hat has added lots of nifty things in 2005/6 – 1 minor addition in 2007…
      • Are they used/useful? (SELinux → “off” is standing recommendation by Google… 90k hits)‏
      • Red Hat: could downgrade 1 advisory in 2004 (double-free caught by glibc) only
    • chkrootkit/rkhunter – no update = no new Linux rootkits?
    • StJude/Zeppoo: RIP.


Mac Security Update



Safari zero-day exploit nets $10,000 prize

  • Apple fell first in CanSecWest “pwn-2-own” contest

  • Vista fell next

  • with a few hours of tweaking exploit will also work on OS X and Linux

    • according to the contest winner


First Rogue Cleaning Tool for Mac

  • Macsweeper:

  • always finds something to fix (a trick to make you buy it)

  • similar to Cleanator for Windows



QuickTime Security Update

  • Technical Cyber Security Alert TA08-094A

    • Original release date: April 3, 2008 - Source: US-CERT
    • Apple Mac OS X running versions of QuickTime prior to 7.4.5
    • Microsoft Windows running versions of QuickTime prior to 7.4.5
  • Overview

    • Apple QuickTime contains multiple vulnerabilities as described in the Apple Knowledgebase article HT1241. Exploitation of these vulnerabilities could allow a remote attacker to execute arbitrary code or cause a denial-of-service condition
  • Special alert for Windows: non-US language versions

    • SWITCH-CERT have reported that auto-updates of Quicktime fail on non-US language versions of Windows - s/w re-installation required


Controls Security Update

  • Slides contributed by

  • Stefan Lueders, CERN



Heart Device is vulnerable to attack









EuroSCSIE

  • “European Information Exchange on SCADA and Control System Security”

    • “…of members from European based government, industry and research institutions depending upon and/or whose responsibility it is to improve the security of SCADA and Control Systems…”
  • Users and governments from 10 European countries

  • Chaired in 2007 by CERN (S. Lueders)

    • 4 meetings were held


Control System Cyber Security in HEP

  • First workshop held during ICALEPCS2007

    • Located in Knoxville, Tennessee, on 15 Oct 2007
  • Participants from several sites

    • KEK, FNAL, SLAC, STFC, ...
  • Useful discussion and information exchange

  • Defence in depth is a common approach

  • Summary paper and talk linked from

    • http://indico.cern.ch/conferenceDisplay.py?confId=13367


Miscellaneous



Miscellaneous Updates

  • Top security risks and trends compiled by SANS:

    • http://www.sans.org/top20
    • http://www.sans.org/resources/10_security_trends.pdf
  • ecsirt incident classification scheme:

    • http://www.ecsirt.net/cec/service/documents/wp4-clearinghouse-policy-v12.html#HEAD6
  • Federated Model for Cyber Security (Argonne)

    • www.anl.gov/it/federated


ISSeG Project Web Site – Final Release

  • ISSeG: Integrated Site Security for Grids

    • Site Security tools and advice targeted for Grid sites
  • Final version of web site includes:

  • For full information, visit:

  • http://www.isseg.eu



Some conclusions…

  • The Internet world is not becoming a safer place

  • Attacks are becoming more targeted

    • Driven by money and criminal activity
    • e.g. compromised computers, accounts and data can be sold
    • Phishing targets passwords, personal data, credit card details, …
  • Secure coding practices are essential

  • Privately managed computers/applications can increase risks

    • Applications, plug-ins etc need to be patched (not just the OS)
    • Centralised management makes it easier to keep computers secure
  • Users need to be alert for malware

    • Via links in IM, Blogs, Online forums (e.g. social networking), …
    • In photos, videos, advertising, documents, …
    • Relying solely on anti-virus software is not sufficient


Discussion




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