Draft non-regulated risk analysis report for table grapes from the Republic of Korea

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Draft non-regulated risk analysis report for table grapes from the Republic of Korea

April 2011

© Commonwealth of Australia 2011

This work is copyright. You may download, display, print and reproduce this material in unaltered form only (retaining this notice) for your personal, non-commercial use, or use within your organisation. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, all other rights are reserved. Requests concerning reproduction and re-use should be addressed to copyright@daff.gov.au or Communication Branch, Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, GPO Box 858, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia.

Cite this report as: Biosecurity Australia (2011) Draft non-regulated import risk analysis report for table grapes from the Republic of Korea. Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Canberra.


The Australian Government acting through Biosecurity Australia has exercised due care and skill in preparing and compiling the information in this publication. Notwithstanding, Biosecurity Australia, its employees and advisers disclaim all liability to the maximum extent permitted by law, including liability for negligence, for any loss, damage, injury, expense or cost incurred by any person as a result of accessing, using or relying upon any of the information in this publication.

Cover image: Campbell Early grape cultivar (Courtesy: NPQS 2011)


This draft non-regulated import risk analysis report has been issued to give all interested parties an opportunity to comment and draw attention to any scientific, technical, or other gaps in the data, misinterpretations and errors. Any comments should be submitted to Biosecurity Australia within the comment period stated in the related Biosecurity Australia Advice on the Biosecurity Australia website. The draft risk analysis report will then be revised as necessary to take account of the comments received and a final risk analysis report will be released at a later date.

Comments on the draft risk analysis report should be submitted to:

Office of the Chief Executive

Biosecurity Australia
GPO Box 858

Telephone: +61 2 6272 5094

Facsimile: +61 2 6272 4333
Email: plant@biosecurity.gov.au
Internet: www.biosecurityaustralia.gov.au


Acronyms and abbreviations xiii

Abbreviations of units xiv

Summary xv

Introduction 1

1.1Australia’s biosecurity policy framework 1

1.2This non-regulated import risk analysis 1

Method for pest risk analysis 5

1.3Stage 1: Initiation 5

1.4Stage 2: Pest risk assessment 6

1.5Stage 3: Pest risk management 13

Korea’s commercial production practices for table grapes 15

1.6Assumptions used in estimating unrestricted risk 15

1.7Climate in production areas 15

1.8Pre-harvest 18

1.9Harvesting and handling procedures 30

1.10Post-harvest 31

1.11Export capability 34

Pest risk assessments for quarantine pests 39

1.12Kanzawa spider mite 41

1.13Harlequin ladybird 45

1.14Scarab beetles 49

1.15Spotted wing drosophila 53

1.16Grape phylloxera 56

1.17Soft scale 61

1.18Mealybugs 65

1.19Leafrollers 69

1.20Grape plume moth 74

1.21Apple heliodinid 78

1.22Thrips 82

1.23Grape cluster black rot 86

1.24Grapevine leaf rust 90

1.25Phomopsis cane and leaf spot 94

1.26Tomato ringspot virus 97

1.27Pest risk assessment conclusions 101

Pest risk management 104

1.28Pest risk management measures and phytosanitary procedures 104

1.29Responsibility of competent authority 122

1.30Review of processes 122

1.31Uncategorised pests 123

Appendix A Initiation and categorisation for quarantine pests of table grapes from the Republic of Korea1 125

1This pest categorisation table does not represent a comprehensive list of all the pests associated with the entire plant of an imported commodity. Reference to soilborne nematodes, soilborne pathogens, wood borer pests, root pests or pathogens, and secondary pests have not been listed or have been deleted from the table, as they are not directly related to the export pathway of table grapes and would be addressed by Australia’s current approach to contaminating pests. 125

Table A1 Quarantine pests of table grapes from the Republic of Korea 125

Appendix B Additional quarantine pest data 165

Appendix C Biosecurity framework 173

Glossary 179

Reference List 181



Figure 1 Map of Australia x

Figure 2 A guide to Australia’s bio-climate zones xi

Figure 3 Structure of grape bunch xii

Figure 3.1 Map of the Republic of Korea showing the main grape-producing provinces and regions (NPQS 2011) 16

Figure 3.2 Mean maximum (—t—) and minimum (—n—) temperatures and mean relative humidity
(—▲—) in table grape-producing provinces of Gimcheon, Yoongcheon, Hwaseong, Yongwol, Okcheon, Yeongdong, Sangju, Yeonju and Cheonan in Korea. 18

Figure 3.3 Campbell Early cultivar (NPQS 2011) 21

Figure 3.4 Kyoho cultivar (NPQS 2011) 21

Figure 3.5 Delaware cultivar (NPQS 2011) 21

Figure 3.9 Wakeman’s training system diagram (left) and use in field (right) (NPQS 2011). 24


Figure 3.10 T-type Wakeman’s training system diagram (left) and use in field (right) (NPQS 2011). 25

Figure 3.12 Pyeongdeok type training system (NPQS 2011). 26

Figure 3.13 Mutated Pyeongdeok type training system, demonstrating a height of 150 cm from ground to first wire (NPQS 2011). 26

Figure 3.14 Neutral parallel type training system (NPQS 2011). 27

Figure 3.15 Grape bagging process (left), large bags used (middle) and a bagged orchard (right) (NPQS 2011). 27

Figure 3.17 Training sessions carried out by NPQS for farmers and packing house officials (NPQS 2011). 30

Figure 3.18 Plastic harvest boxes (left) and fruit piling method (right) (NPQS 2011). 31

Figure 3.19 Grape sorting process in packing house (left and right), sorting by quality and size of berries and removing unsuitable fruits (NPQS 2011). 32

Figure 3.20 Grape packing for export (left). Packaging consists of corrugated cardboard box with paper inner packaging (right) (NPQS 2011). 32

Figure 3.21 Summary of vineyard and post-harvest packing house, storage and distribution steps for table grapes grown in Korea for export (NPQS 2011). 33


Figure 3.23 Map of the Republic of Korea showing the ratio (%) of grape production by region. Chungch’ong region produces 9%, Kyonggi-do region produces 15%, Ch’ungch’ong bukto region produces 16% and the Kyongsang-bukto region produces 44% (NPQS 2011). 36


Table 2.1 Nomenclature for qualitative likelihoods 9

Table 2.2 Matrix of rules for combining qualitative likelihoods  9

Table 2.3 Decision rules for determining the consequence impact score based on the magnitude of consequences at four geographic scales 12

Table 2.4 Decision rules for determining the overall consequence rating for each pest 12

Table 2.5 Risk estimation matrix 13

Table 3.1 Amount of land used (ha) for each grape cultivar in proportion to others (%) in Korea across 2002, 2007 and 2009 (NPQS 2011) 20

Table 3.2 Guidelines for pest control in Korean grape orchards. Table details which chemicals are used on particular pests, their magnification and timing of application (NPQS 2011). 29

Table 3.3 Sugar ratio and maturation period harvest index (NPQS 2011). 30

Table 3.4 Production statistics for grapes in Korea detailing changes in growing area (ha) and production and export volumes (t) from 2004 to 2008 (NPQS 2011). 35

Table 3.5 Main export markets for table grapes from Korea (NPQS 2011). 37

Table 4.1 Quarantine pests for table grapes from Korea 39

Table 4.2 Summary of unrestricted risk estimates for quarantine pests associated with table grapes from Korea 102

Table 5.1 Phytosanitary and sanitary measures proposed for quarantine pests for table grapes from Korea 106

Figure 1 Map of Australia

Figure 2 A guide to Australia’s bio-climate zones

Figure 3 Structure of grape bunch

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