General methodology 2 developing the tool and its functions 2



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USER GUIDE

contents


general methodology 2

developing the tool and its functions 2

Documents provided by the tool 2

PROCESS leading to PRODUCTION OF THE BUILDING WORKS FORM 3

CALCULATING METHODOLOGY 5

REGULATORY CALCULATIONS 5

OTHER CALCULATING AND ANALYSIS METHODS 7

ComparING DIFFERENT CALCULATING METHODS 8

1 2 3 REno BUILDING WORK PACKAGE CONSUMPTION TARGETS 9

BUILDING WORK PACKAGE FIGURES 9

List of abreviations 18

BibliographY 19

protocol partners 19

acknowledgements 20





general methodology


1 2 3 Reno is a support tool for renovating existing individual and collective housing.

The tool has been developed by a team of professionals who are all contractors in construction, maintainence and building renovation.




Engineering consultants:

Architecture firm:

Urban planning design firm:

SOL.A.I.R.
solair@solair-aix.fr

SKALA

Architecture, town planning
contact@atelier-skala.fr

HABITAT ET SOCIETE
habitat.societe@wanadoo.fr



developing the tool and its functions


The approach firstly consisted of characterising housing stock in Mediterranean and Alpine regions built up the 2000’s. 14 categories were subsequently defined; 8 categories of individual housing and 6 categories of collective housing.

Secondly, 14 buildings belonging to each of these categories were visited. These buildings formed the basis of the study.

Energy consumption calculations were conducted for each building (see paragraph on calculation method) and recommendations for improvements were tested. These recommendations, when combined, constitute the building work packages.

In parallel, a (non-exhaustive) list of renovation work was produced. This work is grouped into 8 themes. They represent the initial household “project” and form the gateway to the energy-efficiency renovation project. Some of this work can have an effect on the type of energy-efficiency renovation work.

The aim of the final tool is therefore to propose energy-efficiency building work packages linked to the renovation project in relation to the type of housing.

Documents provided by the tool


The modifiable documents provided by this tool are:

- a typology form: providing a description of each category of housing, when it was built, the composition of the walls, its architectural and technical characteristics, etc.

- an advice form: providing guidance on the capacity for development of this type of housing, the lifestyle and culture of the building as well as architectural and technical recommendations.

- a building works form: a summary sheet providing a recap of the initial situation, the features comprising the work package selected, its performances as well as further information to begin renovation work.

PROCESS leading to PRODUCTION OF THE BUILDING WORKS FORM


The user begins by selecting the renovation project corresponding to their situation.

Once the project has been selected, the user chooses the corresponding housing category. The typology and advice forms, which can be modified at this stage, provide additional information.

The “Building works packages” page gives the user the option of generating a package of building work using the “package generator”.

The geographic zone in which the project is located (Department) must be indicated as the energy consumption figure stated on the building works form is dependent on this.





The package generator

The 1 2 3 Reno generator is configured to the housing categories and the range of solutions proposed is based on this.

In the case where the initial project has an impact on energy-efficiency renovation work, certain types of building work will not be proposed. For example, repainting internal surfaces will be referred to energy-efficiency renovation projects in which the walls are insulated internally (the external insulation option being rejected).

Certain inputs to the project such as “reducing energy bills” or “improving internal air quality” give access to all the building work packages.

No building work item takes precedence over another in the simulator. The first entry can be “joinery” or even “heating equipment”. This enables the user to enter work that has already been undertaken on their housing so that they can see the remaining work required to meet Factor 4 performance levels. This function also makes it possible to firstly enter the “limiting” parameter for the project, e.g. heating energy and/or domestic hot water production available on the site.

Sometimes, only one technical solution might be proposed in a single building work package. If this is selected, no other building work items can be added and the package appears straight away.

As concerns the summer comfort measure, building work items cannot be selected individually. They must all be undertaken in accordance with the existing situation.

Once the building works package has been selected, the building works form containing all the information can be modified.


CALCULATING METHODOLOGY


Different calculating methods were used for the following purposes:

  • use of regulatory methods related to each category

  • brief comparison of results with each category

  • checking the consistency of the building work packages proposed

  • definition of target values to reduce energy consumption for each method

REGULATORY CALCULATIONS

The TH-C-E-ex MEthod

Software programme used: BBS Slama CLIMAWIN Version 4.19.1

Method: TH-C-E-ex in accordance with Decree of 13 June 2008 – existing overall TR

Purpose in the protocol: checking that the BBC-effinergie Rénovation® level has been reached

Most renovation projects on existing buildings are now subject to “thermal regulations for existing buildings element by element” (Decree of 3 May 2007). Thermal calculations are not mandatory for this regulation.

In order to measure the energy performance of renovation projects, it was therefore decided to use the “overall thermal regulations for existing buildings” which applies to major renovation projects.

This regulation is enforced and requires regulatory calculations to be made for energy-efficiency renovation projects on buildings with a surface area greater than 1,000 m² built after 1948, when the cost of building work exceeds 25% of the value of the building concerned.

Primary energy consumption (Cep) is expressed in kWhEP/m² net floor area/year and takes into account the following types of energy consumption:


The primary energy conversion coefficients are by convention equal to 2.58 for electricity, 0.6 for wood and 1 for other forms of consumption.

This calculation also assesses the conventional internal temperature (CIT) linked to summer comfort.

To obtain the BBC-effinergie Rénovation® certification, energy consumption must be less than the formula:



Cep < 80 x (a+b) kWhep/m²/yr

Coefficient “a” ranges between 0.8 and 1.3 based on the climate zone while the coefficient “b” is between 0 and 0.2 according to the altitude of the project.


THE 3CL Method used in the energy performance certificate

Software programme used: Perrenoud DPEV4 Version 4.0.8

Method: 3CL (conventional calculation of consumption in homes)

Purpose in the protocol: for checking the level B energy label has been reached 

The 3CL method, which is used in energy performance certificate scheme (EPC), is a simplified regulatory calculation method designed to assess a house or apartment building’s thermal and energy performance.

Primary energy consumption is expressed in kWhEP/m² net floor area/year and takes into account the following types of consumption:



  • heating

  • cooling

  • domestic hot water

The primary energy conversion coefficients are by convention taken to be equal to 2.58 for electricity and 1 for other forms of energy consumption.


The EPC enables energy consumption-related greenhouse gas emissions to be calculated. These are expressed in kgequivCO2/m²/year.

Hypotheses and adaptations


The buildings entered into the system correspond to the categories visited including the removal of those with initial energy-efficiency renovation work (replacement of windows, loft insulation, etc.). This was done to establish a common basis for 14 building types as a starting-point for an energy-efficiency renovation process.

The energy consumption results indicated in the “building work forms” are as follows:



  • Building work forms for individual houses: result from the EPC calculation

  • Building work forms for apartment buildings: results from the EPC and TH-C-E-ex calculations




  • Weather and altitude files

The weather files used to calculate TH-C-E-ex are those applying to the RT2012 thermal regulation.


Project Department

Corresponding climate zone

Site entered into the software programme

Altitude

Corresponding to the site

05

H1c

Embrun

876m

04 / 84

H2d

Carpentras

105m

06 / 13 / 83

H3

Marignane

32m

To calculate EPC, the weather files correspond to those used in the EPC method.




Project Department

Corresponding climate zone

Department entered

Altitude entered

05

H1c

05

800 m

04 / 84

H2d

84

200 m

06 / 13 / 83

H3

13

50 m

  • Taking account of wood and including thermodynamic water heaters

The following hypotheses have been used to harmonise the EPC and TH-C-E-ex calculations:

  • application of the primary energy conversion coefficient for wood (0.6) to calculate EPC

  • as the thermodynamic water heater (TDWH) does not figure in the regulatory calculation motor, energy consumption for hot water has been divided by 2 to include a global COP of 2 to calculate the TH-C-E-ex, (2 is the arbitrary value given based on bibliographic research of this technology and initial feedback).



OTHER CALCULATING AND ANALYSIS METHODS




DYNAMIC THERMAL Simulations (DTS)

Software programme used: Izuba Energies Pléiades+COMFIE Version 3.3.8.1

Use in the protocol: checking summer comfort is maintained or improved with building works packages.

This dynamic thermal calculating method measures the effect of the architectural and technical solutions employed in terms of heating requirements and the way the building behaves during the summer.

Calculations are made on hourly time intervals.

Changes in summer comfort (maximum temperature reached, percentage of discomfort, etc.) will vary with the following parameters:



  • protection against sunlight (shade)

  • the action of inertia depending on the climate zone

  • use of night-time ventilation

  • keeping internal heat gains under control



SIMPLIFIED METHOD USING UDD AND HEAT LOSSES

Formulae used: 


Purpose in the protocol: this method makes it possible to quickly visualise the order of magnitude of the building’s heating and domestic hot water consumption.

Calculation hypotheses:



  • Heat losses: heat losses through conduction and by renewing air, calculated using the Pléiades software programme

  • UDD: recording UDD from the nearest weather station, the period of data collection being based on the dates figuring in available energy bills

  • Delta T: difference between the preset temperature and the baseline external temperature (Base.exT - site dependent)

  • Intermittence, solar gains: values belonging to the buildings visited

  • The output of heating and domestic hot water systems: use of outputs defined by the Decree of 15 September 2006 concerning applicable methods and procedures for EPC

  • DHW volume: annual consumption based on 35 l of hot water at 55°C per day and per person


AnalysIS OF BILLS AND SUBSCRIPTIONS

Collection and analysis of energy bills from buildings visited

Number of years analysed: based on on-site availability
Use in the protocol: to compare actual consumption and bills with theoretical consumption

On the basis of site visits, we see:



  • a lack of these bills (the occupant no longer knows where they put them)

  • an orderly (or disorganised) record of bills in hard copy

  • a trend for paper-free bills (bills received by e-mail)

Energy supplier subscriptions and statement/billing methods differ from household to household.

The annual statement with monthly payments is the least useable way of analysing bills.  

Ad-hoc deliveries of wood, heating oil or propane gas are also difficult to exploit because there is no way of knowing the exact seasonal consumption dedicated to heating and domestic hot water.

In some cases, there is a higher rate of power supply than that actually needed for the household lifestyle and requirements.



ComparING DIFFERENT CALCULATING METHODS


It is observed that theoretical consumptions calculated using different calculating methods differ from actual consumption figures. This is already a known fact. As a reminder, theoretical regulatory calculations are used to assess the energy performance of buildings, to establish rules for construction and to make comparisons between different buildings, but they are not intended to estimate actual consumption between buildings. Too many uncontrollable parameters come into play (preset temperature inside each building, available solar heat gains, actual weather conditions, actual energy performance of each piece of equipment, etc.).

Using the cases studied, a number of similarities can be identified between the different calculating methods and actual consumption figures, but none of these methods completely mirrors the reality.

Overall, the results differ, but when the building work packages are applied, we see that reductions in consumption are of the same order of magnitude.

1 2 3 REno BUILDING WORK PACKAGE CONSUMPTION TARGETS


The 1 2 3 Reno tool has been developed as part of the national target to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption by a factor of 4 by 2050.

As a result, the building work packages aim to reach this goal.

In order to use the existing French thermal regulation benchmarks, the “Factor 4” performance is equated as being equivalent to the following results:


  • EPC Label B using the 3CL method for individual houses and apartment buildings

  • BBC-effinergie Rénovation® level using the TH-C-E-ex method for apartment buildings

The reduction in consumption indicated as a percentage on the building work form is based on the EPC calculation in climate zone H3 (French Departments 06, 13 and 83). This percentage reduction is often similar to that for other Departments and also close to the TH-C-E-ex calculation method.

BUILDING WORK PACKAGE FIGURES


The costs of work proposed in the “building work sheets” are estimates.

They are based on various projects undertaken by the software programme design team.



  • Basic principles for costings:

    • costs concern energy-efficiency renovation work and summer comfort improvements. Project management costs as well as technical control procedures and support are not included.

    • costs are in Euros excl. VAT per square metre of habitable floor area (€ exc. VAT / m² HFA)

    • costs take into account the concept of differences in scale between building work on an individual house and an apartment building.

    • costing the building work package takes account of the initial situation

for example, if the initial situation concerns an old gas-fired central heating system with radiators, the cost of the “gas condensing boiler central heating” package will only cover replacing the heat production system, i.e. the gas condensing boiler. Internal fittings (radiators) will be retained and therefore not costed. 


  • Technical clarifications for certain types of work:

    • all the building work packages in which the heating system is renovated include the installation of a regulator with a programmer and thermostatic valves.

    • the replacement of external shutters is not costed in the renovation work except when installing external wall insulation. This task requires significant work on the shutters (moving the hinges and adjusting for the window frames, etc.) and sometimes entails replacement shutters.

Table of unit prices used for costing:

Building – Wall insulation




Item

Unit

Unit cost

in € excl. VAT

R value

in m².K/W

Wall insulation - IH

Blown cavity wall insulation



€40

R = 1.5




Internal wall thermal insulation



€65

R = 2.3 or 2.8




Reinforced internal wall thermal insulation



€75

R = 3.7




External wall thermal insulation



€210

R = 2.8




Reinforced external wall thermal insulation



€250

R = 3.7 or 4.5

Wall insulation - AB

Blown cavity wall insulation



€30

R = 1.5




Internal wall thermal insulation



€60

R = 2.3 or 2.8




Reinforced internal wall thermal insulation



€70

R = 3.7




External wall thermal insulation



€130

R = 3.7




Reinforced external wall thermal insulation



€170

R = 4.5

Building – Roof insulation




Item

Unit

Unit cost

in € excl. VAT

R value

in m².K/W




Loft insulation



€30

R = 7.5




Reinforced loft insulation



€45

R = 10




Coombed ceiling insulation



€60

R = 7.5




Reinforced coombed ceiling insulation



€75

R = 10




Flat roof insulation



€130

R = 3.0




Reinforced flat roof insulation



€150

R = 4.5

Building – Floor insulation




Item

Unit

Unit cost

in € excl. VAT

R value

in m².K/W




Underfloor insulation



€55

R = 2.0




Reinforced underfloor insulation



€70

R = 3.0


Building - Joinery




Item

Unit

Unit cost

in € excl. VAT

R value

in m².K/W

Windows

Replacement of windows



€450- 520 excl. VAT according to window type

Uw<1.7




Installation of double-glazing



€380

Uw<2.6




Fitting external shutters



€450







Fitting internal shutters



€400




Doors

Landing door

u

€1,500







External door

u

€2,500




Double-door entrance

Installing a double-door entrance [small]

u

€2,500







Installing a double-door entrance [large]

u

€5,000




Equipment - Ventilation




Item

Unit

Unit cost

in € excl. VAT







Extractor fan system or hybrid humidity-sensitive type A - IH

set

€1,300







Extractor fan system or hybrid humidity-sensitive type B - IH

set

€1,600







Dual flow ventilation– Individual - IH

set

€4,400







Humidity-sensitive extractor fan A - AB

m² hab.

€48







Humidity-sensitive extractor fan B - AB

m² hab.

€53







Hybrid Humidity sensitive extractor fan A - AB

m² hab.

€37





Equipment - Heating




Item

Unit

Unit cost

in € excl. VAT







Electric convector radiators NF cat. C with programmer

u

€500







Electric convention heater in bathroom (in case of wood stove heating)

u

€250







Room thermostat with programmer

Depending on home

€500







Thermostatic valve

u

€60







H.water radiator incl. distribution

u

€600







Individual gas or oil-fired condenser boiler - IH

Depending on home

€3,800







Individual gas or oil-fired condenser boiler for IH (complete system)

Depending on home

Sum of various items







Wood-burning stove

Depending on home

€6,500







Wood pellet boiler - IH

Depending on home

€13,000







Wood pellet boiler - IH (complete system)

Depending on home

Sum of various items







Log boiler - IH

Depending on home

€8 000







Log boiler - IH (complete system)

Depending on home

Sum of various items







Central heating control (reduced at night) - AB

Depending on home

€1,200







Air-to-water heat pump - IH

Depending on home

€14 000







Air-to-air heat pumps - IH

Depending on home

€13 000







Ground source heat pump (complete system) - IH

Depending on home

€16 000







Collective gas central heating

Depending on home

Specific calculation







Collective wood-fired central heating

Depending on home

 Specific calculation







Collective renewable energy central heating network

Depending on home

 Specific calculation





Equipment Domestic hot water (DHW)




Item

Unit

Unit cost

in € excl. VAT







Individual solar water heating system

Depending on home

€6,000




1m²/home

€1250€/m²



Collective solar DHW system

Depending on apart. building

Calculation







Thermodynamic hot water system

u

€4,500







DHW heat-retaining circulation system

ml

€67





Summer comfort




Item

Unit

Unit cost

in € excl. VAT







Awning / pergola - IH

u

€1,500







Retractable awnings - AB

u

€800







Deciduous planting - IH

u

€2,000







fan

u

€200







Night time ventilation

natural: opening windows, tilt &

turn windows, etc. …

mechanical: insufflation and/or motorised air extraction



Not costed – dependent on project

 







reduction in internal sources of heat

Not costed – specific measures for each home

 







Maintaining thermal inertia

Included in building work solutions

 






List of abreviations


UDD = Unified day degrees; characterises climatic conditions

EPC = Energy Performance Certificate

DHW = Domestic hot water

AB= Apartment building

ITE = External thermal insulation

ITI = Internal thermal insulation

UP = Unheated premises

IH = Individual house

HP = Heat pump

Base.exT = Baseline external temperature; used to calculate heat losses from a building  


BibliographY


This study has been conducted with reference to the following websites, documents and publications:

Databases

  • Observatoire Régional de l’Energie Provence Alpes Côte d’Azur

  • INSEE data

  • Filocom data (collective housing data file)

Studies - Publications

  • “Potentiel d’économies d’énergie des bâtiments de la région Provence Alpes Côtes d’Azur” - Energies Demain

  • “Programme BATAN” – CNRS, CETE East and CETE West, Maisons Paysannes de France, INSA - Strasbourg

  • “Conception thermique de l’habitat: guide pour la région PACA” – Edition Edisud; DRE PACA; SOL.A.I.R.; ADEME; Conseil régional de PACA; Préfecture de la région PACA

  • “L’isolation phonique écologique” – Jean-Louis BEAUMIER – Edition Terre Vivante

  • Guide “Concilier efficacité énergétique et acoustique dans le bâtiment” – CSTB; MEEDDM

  • Cahiers techniques de l’Atelier Parisien d’Urbanisme (APUR) on “l’analyse de la performance thermique des logements parisiens, d’avant 1800 à 2000”

  • “Le guide ABC -  Amélioration Thermique des Bâtiments Collectifs, construits de 1850 à 1974” – Pouget Consultants – Edition Edipa 2011

  • The “Accès aux Economies d’Energie pour tous” campaign led by the Communauté du Pays d’Aix

protocol partners


The following partners were consulted during the development of this tool:

  • Agence Nationale pour l’Amélioration de l’Habitat

  • Association Bâtiments Durables Méditerranéens

  • Association Effinergie

  • Association Envirobat Méditerranée

  • Association GERES – Group for the Environment, Renewable Energy and Solidarity

  • CAPEB - Confédération de l'Artisanat et des Petites Entreprises du Bâtiment

  • CERC PACA – Cellule Economique Régionale de la Construction

  • Chambre Régionale des Métiers et de l’Artisanat Provence Alpes Côte d’Azur

  • Communauté du Pays d’Aix

  • DREAL PACA - Direction Régionale de l’Environnement, de l’Aménagement et du Logement

  • Espaces Info Energie ou Points Rénovation Info Services

  • Fédération Régionale du Bâtiment

  • Territoires partenaires « Agir et Rénover + » : Ville de Fréjus et Pays dignois

  • Région Languedoc Roussillon

  • Région Provence Alpes Côte d’Azur

  • Région Rhône-Alpes

acknowledgements


The project production team wishes to thank the owners and occupiers of the 14 buildings visited and studied as well as all persons and organisations having participated and given their opinions in the study and the creation of the tool.



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