Bkz: www.moj.gov.af/en/page/1672 (7 Ocak 2013’te erişim sağlanmıştır). ‘Hukuk’ sisteminin 14. Yüzyıla dayandığı iddia edilmektedir. Kısa bir süre önce bu sistem yasalara derc edilmiştir. Bkz. Hak Elde Etmek için Hukuk Kanunları, Resmi Gazete Sayı. 786, 1999/08/05
23 Üniversiteler öğrencilerin istihdam edilebiliriğinin farkındalar ve klinikler de gerekli bilgi ve becerilerin kazanılmasında önemli bir katkı sunuyor. Her hangi bir üniversitenin ‘klinik bölümünün’ web sitesini ziyaret ederek bunu görebilirsiniz.
24 Benim York Law School’daki tecrübelerim bu görüşü destekliyor. Bk. Hukuk Kliniği Yıllık: www.york.ac.uk/law/clinic (30 Aralık 2012’de erişim sağlanmıştır)
25 Bkz: http://www.dqg.org.af/pages.php?pid=338 (4 Ocak 2013’te erişim sağlanmıştır)
26 Tüzük Sayı. 111, 25/11/2007 (2009’a kadar yürürlüğe girmeiştir)
27 Afganistan Barosu hukuk klinikleri gibi girişimleri aktif olarak desteleme yetkisine sahiptir. Bkz. Tüzük md.2 (4), (6) ve (10)
28 Örneğin, dünya çapında bir hukuk firması olan DLA Piper Tiflis ofisini açmıştır.
29 Gürcistan’la ilgili raporlara ulaşmak için: www.hrw.org/europecentral-asia/georgia (6 Ocak 2013’te erişim sağlanmıştır)
30 Kuruluşa ilişkin ayrıntılı bilgi için bkz.: www.babseacle.org (Erişim tarihi: 7 Ocak 2013)
31 Adli yardıma ilişkin yeni düzenlemeler garip belki de ironik olarak 2012 tarihli Adli Yardım ve Faillerin Cezalandırılması Yasası’nda [Legal Aid and Punishment of Offenders Act 2012] yer almaktadır. Söz konusu değişikliklere ilişkin olarak kıdemli bir yargıcın etkileyici konuşması için bkz. Hale (2011)
32 Kâr amacı gütmeyen LawWorks (bkz. www.lawworks.org.uk) grubu hukuk fakültelerindeki pro bono faaliyetlerine ilişkin düzenli araştırmalar gerçekleştirmektedir. Son çalışmalar Birleşik Kurallık’taki hukuk fakültelerinin %75’inin bu tarz çalışmaları yaptığını göstermektedir.
33 13-14 Haziran 2013 tarihinde Anadolu Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi tarafından düzenlenen Hukuk Öğretiminde Yeni Yaklaşımlar: Hukuk Klinikleri sempozyumunda sunulmuştur.
34 Doç.Dr., Anadolu Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi
35 Presentation, June 13, 2013 Anadolu University, Eskisehir, Turkey
36 Washington D.C.
37 President of the Polish Legal Clinics Foundation, President of the Global Alliance for Justice Education
46 This paper was originally entitled: Accessing justice: the role of law school legal clinics in conflict-affected societies. It looks at the transferability of different types of legal clinic from one jurisdiction where their operation has been proven to be of educational and professional worth. It looks in particular at countries where there has been or still is conflict and civil strife and asks the question of what role the law school clinic can play in that context in improving access to justice and if so whether there is a clinic model that transcends borders. It will be used as a basis for discussion following a presentation that will adopt the key arguments in this paper but place them ina wider international context. The original version of this paper has been submitted for publication.
48 The impetus for this paper originated in discussions I held and work I carried out for a variety of state and non-state organisations and with donor agencies supporting in-country programmes, in jurisdictions with recent histories of conflict, My visits in Afghanistan were to Kabul and Herat and took place in October 2009 and in May, September and December 2010. I was in Georgia working in Tbilisi, Batumi and Kutaisi at various points in April, May, July and September 2012. Reference to relevant meetings, programmes and organisations will be made as appropriate in the text or footnotes.
49 Taken from the term pro bono publico – or ‘for the public good’. In this context this is assumed to mean the provision of legal services without charge by either private practitioners or not for profit organisations. It is to be differentiated from legal services provided through public funding – otherwise known as Legal Aid. The latter is a system either of state subsidy for meeting legal costs or state provision of a lawyer.
50 In earlier years and still in many Islamic states the ‘expert’ may have been, or still is, a religious figure or spiritual leader
51 Interestingly law clinics have been relatively slow to establish themselves in the civil law systems of continental Western Europe whereas they have flourished in the countries of the former Soviet Bloc. In the past 2 years however clinics have been founded in France. Italy and Spain. Under the common law, the US clinic tradition dates back over many years – at least to the 1960’s and the civil rights movement - some say longer. Clinical legal education in the UK is of more recent origin. For a history of clinics worldwide and for an analysis of clinics and the social justice agenda see: Bloch (2010)
52 UN (2008) pages 12 and 19-20
53 UN (2009) para 65
54 Ibid, para 76
55 Ref to AdviceNow
56 The term Street Law originated at Georgetown University, Washington DC. A not for profit organisation, Street Law Inc., now promotes and co-ordinates much of the legal literacy work in the USA and internationally. See: www.streetlaw.org (accessed on 3 January 2013)
57 See: www.moj.gov.af/en/page/1672 (accessed 7 January 2013). The Hoqooq system is said to date back to the 14th Century. It has been relatively recently been codified see: Hoqooq Law on the Procedure for Obtaining Rights (Hoqooq), Official Gazette No. 786, 1999/08/05
58 Universities are quick to realise and market the employability of students and clinics are seen as a major contributor to the relevant skills and attribute acquisition. Visit the ‘clinic page’ of any relevant university website to see,
59 My experience at the York Law School reinforces this – see the Law Clinic Annual Report available at: www.york.ac.uk/law/clinic (accessed on 30 December 2012)
60 See: http://www.dqg.org.af/pages.php?pid=338 (accessed on 4 January 2013)
61 Statute No. 111, 25/11/2007 (but not effective until 2009)
62 The AIBA has the power to actively support developments such as legal clinics – see Article 2 (4), (6) and (10) of the By-Laws
63 The global law firm DLA Piper for example now has a Tbilisi office
64 The reports on Georgia can be found at: www.hrw.org/europecentral-asia/georgia (accessed 6 January 2013)
65 For information on the extensive work of the organisation see: www.babseacle.org (accessed 7 January 2013)
66 The provisions changing Legal Aid entitlement are to be found, in the oddly and perhaps ironically named, Legal Aid and Punishment of Offenders Act 2012. For a fascinating address delivered by a senior judge on the nature of the (then) proposed changes see: Hale (2011)
67 The not for profit group LawWorks (see www.lawworks.org.uk) conducts a regular survey of law school pro bono clinic initiatives. Their most recent research shows that around 75% of UK law schools engage in this type of work.