Key organizations in shipping and the corresponding abbreviations.



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  1. Key organizations in shipping and the corresponding abbreviations. (IMO org.chart and structure)

ISF - International Shipping Federation

ILO-International Labours Organization

ITF-International Transport Workers Federation(Controls ПО)

IACS- International Association of ClassificationSocieties

EMA- Estonian Maritime Administration

UN –United Nations

WTO-World Trade Organ

BIMCO - The Baltic and International Maritime Council

ENMB – Estonian National Maritime Board

IALA – International Association of Lighthouse Authorities


IMO

International Maritime Organization (IMO) is the specialised agency of the United Nations with responsibility for safety and security at sea and the prevention of marine pollution from ships. Established by means of a Convention adopted in 1948, IMO first met in 1959 and is the only United Nations agency with its headquarters in London. Over the years IMO has adopted some 40 Conventions and Protocols and numerous Codes and recommendations relating to safety, pollution prevention, security measures, liability and compensation issues and facilitation of international maritime traffic.



IMO: Safe, secure and efficient shipping on clean oceans

Secretariat

Budget

Regional Co-ordination


Structure

The Organization consists of an Assembly, a Council and five main Committees: the Maritime Safety Committee; the Marine Environment Protection Committee; the Legal Committee; the Technical Co-operation Committee and the Facilitation Committee and a number of Sub-Committees support the work of the main technical committees.



  1. Key conventions in shipping and some of the Codes that have been issued under them.

Conventions:

SOLAS 74 – International Convention for the Safety of Life at sea

LSA Code – Life Saving Appliances Code (Chapter III)

ISM Code – International Safety Management Code (Chapter IX)

ISPS Code – International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (Chapter XI)

IMDG Code - International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code

International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (IBC Code)

COLREG 72 – International Regulations for preventing Collisions at sea, 1972

STCW 95– International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and

Wachkeeping for seafarers.

MARPOL 73/78 – International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships

SAR - International Convention on Maritime Search and Rescue, 1979

SUA - Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Maritime Navigation- 88

Load Lines - International Convention on Load Lines, 1966


International Code of Signals

International Safety NET Convention



  1. SOLAS – history.

The first version having been adopted at a conference held in London in 1914. The Convention was to enter into force July 1914

- annual loss from British ships 700-800 people;

- Titanic April 1912 more than 1500 died;

- SOLAS Conference 13 countries;

- international requirements for all merchant ships;

- watertight, fire-resistants, fire prevention, fire fighting appliances and lifesaving appliances for passenger ships;

- radiotelegraph equipment


  • The second was adopted in 1929 and entered into force in 1933;

  • The third was adopted in 1948 and entered into force in 1952;

- establishing IMO (IMCO);

- new matters as watertight subdivison in passenger ships, stability standards, services in emergencies, structural fire protection, carrige of grain and dangerous goods, developments in radio equipment;

- safety equipment certificate for ships above 500;


  • The fourth was adopted (under the auspices of IMO) in 1960 and entered into force in 1965;

- chapter V, requirements for navigational equipment;

- delegates from 71 countries;

- two years for (or fixed time) adoption - 2/3 - 50% GT;

- Exemption Certificate;

- Port State&Flag State control;

- important changes in chapter II-1,II-2;

- Colreg was separated from SOLAS;


History from Wikipedia

The first version of the treaty was passed in 1914 in response to the sinking of the RMS Titanic. It prescribed numbers of lifeboats and other emergency equipment along with safety procedures, including continuous radio watches.

Newer versions were adopted in 1929, 1948, 1960, and 1974.

The intention had been to keep the convention up to date by periodic amendments, but the procedure to incorporate the amendments proved to be very slow: it could take several years for the amendments to be put into action since countries had to give notice of acceptance to IMO and there was a minimum threshold of countries and tonnage.

As a result, a complete new convention was adopted in 1974 which includes all the agreements and acceptant procedures. Even the Convention was updated and amended on numerous times, the Convention in force today is sometimes referred as SOLAS, 1974.


  1. What is STCW? Why was the original convention (STCW78) revised.

STCW – Standards of Training Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (adopted by IMO 1978, entered in force 1984).

The 1978 STCW Convention was the first to establish basic requirements on training, certification and watchkeeping for seafarers on an international level. Previously the standards of training, certification and watchkeeping of officers and ratings were established by individual governments, usually without reference to practices in other countries. As a result standards and procedures varied widely, even though shipping is the most international of all industries.

The Convention prescribes minimum standards relating to training, certification and watchkeeping for seafarers which countries are obliged to meet or exceed.

Revised Convention is known as STCW95.

Adopted by IMO – 1978.

Entered into force – 1984,

Ratified by most governments ( Flags) — 1992,

Revised Convention signed -1995,

entered into force on 1ST Feb.1997.

Revised: Casualties/ Human factor, Lack of competence, Changes in crew supply, Varying education, and training systems. Good principles but not specific, Insufficient backing for the authorities implementation and control.

White list – contains flag states where education and training is in compliance with STCW 95 requirements. EST – dec. 2000


  1. Instructions for OOW.

The Officer of the watch is the Master’s representative, and his primary responsibility at all times is the safe navigation, he must comply with the 1972 International regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREG-72). The Officer of the watch should keep his watch on the bridge which he should never leave until properly relived. He shall at all times ensure effective navigational watch and also efficient lookout. The relieving Officer should ensure that members of his watch are fully capable of carrying out their duties effectively in particular that they are adjusted to night vision. When restricted visibility is suspected, the officer should at first inform the captain about the situation. Than post lookouts, exhibit navigational lights, operate and use radar equipment if fitted and operational, sound fog signals.

The captain must be always notified if: visibility is reducing, if the manoeuvres of other vessels are causing concern, if difficulty is experienced in maintaining course, if there is possibility of weather damage, in any other situation in which he is in any doubt.

Proper records of the manoeuvres and activities of other vessels shall be kept during the watch.Also ship’s log book shall be kept update in regular intervals; course, speed, distance made by log, wind force and direction and current if any, variation and deviation.

(Look also the paper Instructions for OOW!)



  1. Key points for compliance with STCW95.

Ensuring compliance with the Convention

Parties to the Convention are required to provide detailed information to IMO concerning administrative measures taken to ensure compliance with the Convention. This represented the first time that IMO had been called upon to act in relation to compliance and implementation - generally, implementation is down to the flag States, while port State control also acts to ensure compliance. Under Chapter I, regulation I/7 of the revised Convention, Parties are required to provide detailed information to IMO concerning administrative measures taken to ensure compliance with the Convention, education and training courses, certification procedures and other factors relevant to implementation.


1)Appropriate certificates: the national cert.of competence,an endorcement that the cert. meets STCW-95 standards; individual flag state endorsements

2)Manning: in compliance with the safe manning document or equivalent,which the SOLAS requires 3)Record keeping: documentation relating to seafarers’experience, training,etc.is accessible

4)Shipboard familiarisation: new personnel shall become aquainted with the ship, operating equipment and other arrangements

5)Crew coordination: the crew’s ability to coordinate activities and communicate effectively

6) Minimum rest periods: a minimum of 10 hrs rest in a 24 hour period( two periods, one of which must be at least six hrs in length.
The Convention prescribes minimum standards relating to training, certification and watchkeeping for seafarers which countries are obliged to meet or exceed.

Qualification Requirements:



  • What to be learnt and the expected performance

  • How to demonstrate the performance ability

  • Criteria for evolution

Certification Requirements:

  • How to verify and document competence

  • How to deal with validation and updating of competence

  • Levels of responsibility(STCW95).

Management Level – Master, Chief Officer, Chief Engineer , 2nd Engineer

Operational Level – Navigating Officers, Engineering watch Officer, bosun, Radio watch Officer

Support Level – ratings, motormen, cook, steward.

Masters responsibility: Power, the agent, commander of men and resources, decision maker about the events that may be unpredictable.




  1. Objective(eesmärk) of the ISM Code; definitions (ISMC).

ISMC – International Safety Management Code. The objectives of the Code are to ensure safety at sea, prevention of human injury or loss of life, and avoidance of damage to the environment, in particular to the marine environment and to property.

Safety management objectives of the Company should:

1. provide for safe practices in ship operation and a safe working environment;

2. establish safeguards against all identified risks;

3. continuously improve safety management skills of personnel ashore and aboard ships, including preparing for emergencies related both to safety and environmental protection.

Definitions. "International Safety Management (ISM) Code" means the International Management Code for the Safe Operation of Ships and for Pollution Prevention as adopted by the Assembly, as may be amended by the Organization. "Company" means the owner of the ship (also the bareboat charterer). "Administration" means the Government of the State whose flag the ship is entitled to fly. "Safety management system" means a structured and documented system enabling Company personnel to implement effectively the Company safety and environmental protection policy. "Document of Compliance" means a document issued to a Company which complies with the requirements of this Code. "Safety Management Certificate" means a document issued to a ship which signifies that the Company and its shipboard management operate in accordance with the approved safety management system. "Objective evidence" means quantitative or qualitative information, records or statements of fact pertaining to safety or to the existence and implementation of a safety management system element, which is based on observation, measurement or test and which can be verified. "Observation" means a statement of fact made during a safety management audit and substantiated by objective evidence. "Non-conformity" means an observed situation where objective evidence indicates the non-fulfilment of a specified requirement. "Major non-conformity" means an identifiable deviation that poses a serious threat to the safety of personnel or the ship or a serious risk to the environment that requires immediate corrective action and includes the lack of effective and systematic implementation of a requirement of this Code. “Convention" means the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974, as amended.


  1. Explain the following abbreviations: ISMC, SMS, SMC, DOC.

ISMC – International Safety Management Code

SMS – Safety Management System

SMC – Safety Management Certificate

DOC – Document Of Compliance



ISMC - International Management Code for the Safe Operation of Ships and for Pollution Prevention (ISM Code) The Code establishes safety-management objectives and requires a safety management system to be established by "the Company". The procedures required by the Code should be documented and compiled in a Safety Management Manual, a copy of which should be kept on board. In 1998, the ISM Code became mandatory.

SMS - Safety Management System means a structured and documented system enabling Company personnel to implement effectively the Company safety and environmental protection policy. The safety management system should ensure: compliance with mandatory rules and regulations and that applicable codes, guidelines and standards recommended by the Organization, Administrations, classification societies and maritime industry organizations are taken into account.

SMC - Safety Management Certificate means a document issued to a ship which signifies that the Company and its shipboard management operate in accordance with the approved safety management system. The Safety Management Certificate is issued to every ship by the Administration or a recognized organization.

DOC - Document of Compliance means a document issued to a Company which complies with the requirements of ISM Code. Document of Compliance is issued by the Administration (flag State), by an organization recognized by the Administration, or by another Contracting Government to SOLAS at the request of the Administration.



  1. Explain the following terms: working language, official language, common language and english language requirements(STCW95).

Working language – (SOLAS) language that is understood by all persons involved

Official language – the language of the flag state

Common language – (STCW) conversational language

English language – (STCW)



  • Is sufficient to use charts and other nautical publications

  • To apply and understand meteorological information

  • To send and receive messages concerning safety and operation of the ship

  • Is able to communicate and work with multilingual crew

  • communications are clear and understandable

  1. How are the IMO conventions enforced? Explain the following abbreviations: MOU, FSC, PSC.

IMO conventions are enforced by Flag State and Port State Control.

  • Formally in force 1 February 1997

  • Maritime education 1 August 1998

  • Full implementation 1 February 2002

MOU – Memorandum of Understanding

The Paris MOU on Port State Control is the official document in which the 27 participating Maritime Authorities agree to implement a harmonized system of Port State Control.

The MOU consists of a the main body in which the Authorities agree on

— their commitments and the relevant international conventions

— the inspection procedures and the investigation of operational procedures

— the exchange of information

— the structure of the organization and amendment procedures

Advantage of MoUs over more formal instruments is that, because obligations under international law may be avoided, they can be put into effect in most countries without requiring parliamentary approval.

FSC – Flag State Control - The Administrating Countries as they are called, have their vessels inspected from time to time at regular intervals and verify that the vessels conform with the Maritime Laws of that country and with the safety standards of that country. This type of an inspection is called FLAG STATE CONTROL.

PSC – Port State Control - is the inspection of foreign ships in national ports to verify that the condition of the ship and its equipment comply with the requirements of international regulations and that the ship is manned and operated in compliance with these rules. Many of IMO's most important technical conventions contain provisions for ships to be inspected when they visit foreign ports to ensure that they meet IMO requirements.


  1. Security Levels (ISPS Code).

An important part of the Code is the way risk is treated: because each ship and each port facility is different, the Contracting Government shall determine and set the appropriate security level:
Security Level 1: Normal; the level at which ships and port facilities normally operate. Security level 1 means the level for which minimum appropriate protective security measures shall be maintained at all times.(ISPS Code 2.1.9)

Security Level 2: Heightened; the level applying for as long as there is a heightened risk of security incident.

Security Level 3: Exceptional; the level applying for the period of time when there is a probable or imminent risk of a security incedent.
The security levels create a link between the ship and the port facility since it triggers the implementation of appropriate security measures for the ship and the port facility.

  1. SMCP (glossory1) as revised in 2001.

The GLOSSARY also includes a limited number of technical terms which do not appear in the text of the SMCP but might be useful in case the content of a given standard Phrase requires modification.

1 General terms



Abandon vessel To evacuate crew and passengers from a vessel following a distress

Accommodation ladder Ladder attached to platform at vessel's side with flat steps and handrails enabling persons to embark / disembark from water or shore

Adrift Floating, not controlled, without a clearly determinable direction

Air draft The height from the waterline to the highest point of the vessel

Assembly station Place on deck, in mess rooms, etc., assigned to crew and passengers where they have to meet according to the muster list when the corresponding alarm is released or announcement made

Backing (of wind) Shift of wind direction in an anticlockwise manner, in time (opposite of veering)

Beach (to) To run a vessel up on a beach to prevent its sinking in deep water

Berth 1: A sea room to be kept for safety around a vessel, rock, platform, etc.. 2: The place assigned to a vessel when anchored or lying alongside a pier, etc.

Blast A sound signal made with the whistle of the vessel

Blind sectors Areas which cannot be scanned by the radar of the vessel because they are shielded by parts of its superstructure, masts, etc, or shore obstructions.

Boarding arrangements All equipment, such as pilot ladder, accommodation ladder, hoist, etc., necessary for a safe transfer of the pilot

Boarding speed The speed of a vessel adjusted to that of a pilot boat at which the pilot can safely embark / disembark

Bob-cat A mini-caterpillar with push-blade used for the careful distribution of loose goods in cargo holds of bulk carriers

BriefingConcise explanatory information to crew and/or passengers

Cable 1:Chain, wire or rope connecting a vessel to her anchor(s) 2: (measurement),185.2 metres, i.e. one tenth of a nautical mile

Capsizing Turning of a vessel upside down while on water

Cardinal buoy A seamark, i.e. a buoy, indicating the North, East, South or West, i.e. the cardinal/half cardinal points from a fixed point. such as a wreck, shallow water, banks, etc.

Cardinal points The four main points of the compass, i.e. North, East, South and West; for the purpose of the SMCP the intercardinal points, i.e. Northeast, Southeast, etc., are also included

Casualty: Case of death in an accident or shipping disaster

Check (to) 1: To make sure that equipment etc. is in proper condition or that everything is correct and safe 2: To regulate motion of a cable, rope or wire when it is running out too fast

Close-coupled towing A method of towing vessels through polar ice by means of icebreaking tugs with a special stern notch suited to receive and hold the bow of the vessel to be towed

Close up (to) To decrease the distance to the vessel ahead by increasing one`s own speed

Compatibility(of goods) states whether different goods can be stowed together in one hold

Convoy A group of vessels which sail together, e.g. through a canal or ice

Course The intended direction of movement of a vessel through the water

Course made good That course which a vessel makes good over ground, after allowing for the effect of currents, tidal streams, and leeway caused by wind and sea

COW Crude Oil Washing: A system of cleaning the cargo tanks by washing them with the cargo of crude oil during discharged

CPA/TCPA Closest Point of Approach /Time to Closest Point of Approach limit as defined by the observer to give warning when a tracked target or targets will close to within these limits

Crash-stop An emergency reversal operation of the main engine(s) to avoid a collision

Damage control team A group of crew members trained for fighting flooding in the vessel

Datum1. The most probable position of a search target at a given time 2. The plane of reference to which all data as to the depth on charts are referenced.

Derelict Goods or any other commodity, specifically a vessel abandoned at sea

Destination Port which a vessel is bound for

Disabled A vessel damaged or impaired in such a manner as to be incapable of proceeding on its voyage

Disembark (to) To go from a vessel

Distress alert (GMDSS) A radio signal from a distressed vessel automatically directed to an MRCC giving position, identification, course and speed of the vessel as well as the nature of distress

Distress/ Urgency traffic here: The verbal exchange of information on radio from ship to shore Urgency traffic and/or ship to ship/ air craft about a distress / urgency situation as defined in the relevant ITU Radio Regulations

Draft The depth of water which a vessel draws

Dragging (of anchor) Moving of an anchor over the sea bottom involuntarily because it is no longer preventing the movement of the vessel

Dredging (of anchor) Moving of an anchor over the sea bottom to control the movement of the vessel

Drifting Floating, caused by winds and current with a determinable direction

Drop back (to) To increase the distance to the vessel ahead by reducing one's own speed

DSC Digital Selective Calling (in the GMDSS system)

Embark (to) To go aboard a vessel

EPIRB Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon

Escape route A clearly marked way in the vessel which has to be followed in case of an emergency

Escort Attending a vessel, to be available in case of need, e.g. ice-breaker, tug, etc..

ETA Estimated Time of Arrival

ETDEstimated Time of Departure

Fire patrol A crew member of the watch going around the vessel at certain intervals so that an outbreak of fire may be promptly detected; mandatory in vessels carrying more than 36 passengers

Flooding Major flow of seawater into the vessel

Fire monitor Fixed foam/powder/water cannon shooting fire extinguishing agents on tank deck, manifold etc.

Foul (of anchor) Anchor has its own cable twisted around it or has fouled an obstruction

Foul (of propeller) A line, wire, net, etc., is wound round the propeller

Full speed Highest possible speed of a vessel

Fume Often harmful gas produced by fires, chemicals, fuel, etc.

General emergency alarm A sound signal of seven short blasts and one prolonged blast given with the vessel´s sound system

GMDSS Global Maritime Distress and Safety System

(D)GPS (Differential)Global (satellite) Positioning System

Hampered vessel A vessel restricted by her ability to manoeuvre by the nature of her work or her deep draft

Hatchrails Ropes supported by stanchions around an open hatch to prevent persons from falling into a hold

Heading The horizontal direction the vessel's bows at a given moment measured in degrees clockwise from north

Hoist here: A cable used by helicopters for lifting or lowering persons in a pick-up operation

Icing Coating of ice on an object, e.g. the mast or superstructure of a vessel

IMO-Class Group of dangerous or hazardous goods, harmful substances or marine pollutants in sea transport as classified in the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG Code)

Inert (to) To reduce the oxygen in an oil tank by inert gas to avoid an explosive atmosphere

Initial course Course directed by the OSC or other authorized person to be steered at the beginning of a search

Inoperative Not functioning

Jettison (to) (of cargo) Throwing overboard of goods in order to lighten the vessel or improve its stability in case of an emergency

Launch (to) To lower, e.g. lifeboats to the water

LeakingEscape of liquids such as water, oil, etc., out of pipes, boilers, tanks, etc., or a minor inflow of seawater into the vessel due to damage to the hull

Leeward The general direction to which the wind blows; opposite of windward

Leeway The angular effect on the vessel's course caused by the prevailing wind

Let go (to) To set free, let loose, or cast off (of anchors, lines, etc.)

Lifeboat station Place assigned to crew and passengers where they must gather before being ordered into the lifeboats

List here: Inclination of the vessel to port side or starboard side

Located In navigational warnings: Position of object confirmed

Make water (to)Seawater flowing into the vessel due to hull damage, or hatches awash and not properly closed

MMSI Maritime Mobile Service Identity number

Moor (to) To secure a vessel in a particular place by means of wires or ropes made fast to the shore, to anchors, or to anchored mooring buoys, or to ride with both anchors down

MRCC Maritime Rescue Co-ordination Centre: Land-based authority responsible for promoting efficient organization of maritime search and rescue and for co-ordinating the conduct of search and rescue operations within a search and rescue region

Muster (to) To assemble crew, passengers or both in a special place for purposes of checking

Muster list List of crew, passengers and all on board and their functions in a distress or drill

Not under command (abbr. NUC) A vessel which through exceptional circumstances is unable to manoeuvre as required by the COLREGs

Obstruction An object such as a wreck, net, etc., which blocks a fairway, route, etc.

Off air When the transmissions of a radio station etc., have broken down, been switched off or suspended

Off station (of buoys) Not in charted position

Oil clearance Oil skimming from the surface of the water

Operational Ready for immediate use

Ordnance exercise Naval firing practice

OSC On-Scene Co-ordinator: A person designed to co-ordinate search and rescue operations within a specified area

Overflow Accidental escape of oil from a tank which is full because pumping was not stopped in time

Polluter A vessel emitting harmful substances into the air or spilling oil into the sea

Preventers Ropes or wires attached to derricks to prevent them from swinging during cargo handling operations

Proceed (to) To sail or head for a certain position or to continue with the voyage

PA-system Public address system: Loudspeakers in the vessel's cabins, mess rooms, etc., and on deck through which important information can be broadcast from a central point, mostly from the navigation bridge

Recover (to) Here: To pick up shipwrecked persons

Refloat (to) To pull a vessel off after grounding; to set afloat again

Rendez-vous An appointment between vessels normally made on radio to meet in a certain area or position

Reportedin navigational warnings: Position of object unconfirmed

Restricted area A deck, space, area, etc., in vessels, where for safety reasons, entry is only permitted for authorized crew members

Resume (to) here: To re-start a voyage, service or search

Retreat signal Sound, visual or other signal to a team ordering it to return to its base

Rig move The movement of an oil rig, drilling platform, etc., from one position to another

Roll call The act of checking who of the passengers and crew members are present, e.g. at assembly stations, by reading aloud a list of their names

Safe speed That speed of a vessel allowing the maximum possible time for effective action to be taken to avoid a collision and to be stopped within an appropriate distance

Safety load The maximum permissible load of a deck, etc.

Safe working pressure The maximum permissible pressure in cargo hoses

SAR Search and Rescue

Scene The area or location where the event, e.g. an accident has happened

Search pattern A pattern according to which vessels and/or aircraft may conduct a co-ordinated search (the IMOSAR offers seven search patterns)

Search speed The speed of searching vessels directed by the OSC

Seemark An elevated object on land or sea serving as a guide …..

Segregation(of goods) Separation of goods which for different reasons must not be stowed together

Shackle Standard length (15 fathoms) of an anchor cable

Shifting cargo Transverse movement of cargo, especially bulk, caused by rolling or a heavy list

Slings Ropes, nets, and any other means for handling general cargoes

Speed of advance The speed at which a storm centre moves

Spill (to) The accidental escape of oil, etc., from a vessel, container, etc., into the sea

Spill control gear Special equipment for fighting accidental oil spills at early stages

Spreader here:Step of a pilot ladder which prevents the ladder from twisting

Stand by (to)To be in readiness or prepared to execute an order; to be readily available

Stand clear (to) here: To keep a boat away from the vessel

Standing orders Orders of the Master to the officer of the watch which s/he must comply with

Stand on (to) To maintain course and speed

Station The allotted place or the duties of each person on board

StrippingDraining tanks of the remaining cargo, water, etc.

Survivor A person who continues to live in spite of being in an extremely dangerous situation, e.g. a shipping disaster.

Take off (to) A helicopter lifts off from a vessel's deck

Target The echo generated e.g. by a vessel on a radar screen

Tension winch A winch which applies tension to mooring lines to keep them tight

TEU Twenty Foot Equivalent Unit (standard container dimension)

TrackThe path followed, or to be followed, between one position and another

Transit here: The passage of a vessel through a canal, fairway, etc.

Transit speed Speed of a vessel required for the passage through a canal, fairway, etc.

Transshipment (of cargo) here: The transfer of goods from one vessel to another outside harbours

UnderwayA vessel which is not at anchor, or made fast to the shore, or aground

Union purchase A common method of cargo handling by combining two derricks, one of which is fixed over the quay, the other over the hatchway

Unlit When the light characteristics of a buoy or a lighthouse are inoperative

UTC Universal Time Co-ordinated (ex GMT)

Variable (of winds) When a wind is permanently changing the direction from which it blows

Veering (of winds)Shifting of wind direction in a manner, in time; opposite of backing

Veer out (to)(of anchors) To let out a greater length of cable

VHF Very High Frequency (30 - 300 MHz)

Walk out (to) (of anchors) To reverse the action of a windlass so as to ease the cable

Way point A position a vessel has to pass or at which she has to alter course according to her voyage plan

Windward The general direction from which the wind blows; opposite of leeward

Wreck A vessel which has been destroyed or sunk or abandoned at sea

2. VTS special terms

Fairway Navigable part of a waterway

Fairway speed Mandatory speed in a fairway

ITZ Inshore Traffic Zone (of a TSS): A routing measure comprising a designated area between the landward boundary of a TSS and the adjacent coast

Manoeuvring speed A vessel's reduced rate of speed in restricted waters such as fairways or harbours

Receiving point A mark or place at which a vessel comes under obligatory entry, transit, or escort procedure

Reference line A fictive line displayed on the radar screens in VTS Centres and/or electronic sea-charts separating the fairway for inbound and outbound vessels so that they can safely pass each other

Reporting point A mark or position at which a vessel is required to report to the local VTS-Station to establish her position

Separation zone / line A zone or line separating the traffic lanes in which vessels are proceeding in opposite or nearly opposite directions; or separating a traffic lane from the adjacent sea area; or separating traffic lanes designated for particular classes of vessels proceeding in the same direction

Traffic clearance VTS authorization for a vessel to proceed under conditions specified Traffic lane An area within defined limits in which one-way traffic is established

TSS Traffic Separation Scheme: A routing measure aimed at the separation of opposing streams of traffic by appropriate means and by the establishment of traffic lanes

VTS Vessel Traffic Services: Services, designed to improve safety and efficiency of vessel traffic and to protect the environment

VTS-area Area controlled by a VTS-Centre or VTS-Station

  1. VTS and GOFREP.

A vessel traffic service (VTS) is a marine traffic monitoring system established by harbor or port authorities, similar to air traffic control for aircraft. Typical VTS systems use radar, closed-circuit television (CCTV), VHF radiotelephony and automatic identification system to keep track of vessel movements and provide navigational safety in a limited geographical area.

A service implemented by a competent authority, VTS is designed to improve the safety and efficiency of navigation, safety of life at sea and the protection of the marine environment. VTS is governed by SOLAS Chapter V Regulation 12 together with the Guidelines for Vessel Traffic Services [IMO Resolution A.857(20)] adopted by the International Maritime Organization on 27 November 1997.

The VTS traffic image is compiled and collected by means of advanced sensors such as radar, AIS, direction finding, CCTV and VHF or other co-operative systems and services. A modern VTS integrates all of the information in to a single operator working environment for ease of use and in order to allow for effective traffic organization and communication.

GOFREP is a Mandatory Ship Reporting System under SOLAS Regulation V/11. Shore-based facilities at TALLINN TRAFFIC, HELSINKI TRAFFIC and St. PETERSBURG TRAFFIC are able to monitor shipping movements and provide advice and information about navigational hazards and weather conditions.

Estonia, Finland and Russia believe that safe navigation in the Gulf of Finland is enhanced by the GOFREP system. The aims of GOFREP are:

to contribute to the safety of navigation through and across the GOFREP area;

to increase the protection of the marine environment;

to monitor compliance with the International regulations for preventing collisions at sea (COLREGS).
The GOFREP area covers the international waters in the Gulf of Finland east of the Western Reporting Line. In addition, Estonia and Finland have implemented mandatory ship reporting systems in their territorial waters outside their VTS areas. These reporting systems provide the same services and impose the same requirements on shipping as the system operating in the international waters. The mandatory ship reporting system in the international waters of the Gulf of Finland and the Estonian and Finnish national mandatory ship reporting systems are jointly referred to as GOFREP and their area of coverage as the GOFREP area.


  1. Explain the following abbreviations: ISPS, SSO, CSO, SSP, RSO.

ISPS – The International Ship and Port Facility Security (Code)

SSO – Ship Security Officer

CSO – Comapny Security Officer

SSP – Ship Security Plan

RSO - Recognized Security Organization


    • Approve Ship Security Plans

    • Perform Security audits of ships

    • Issue the International Ship Security Certificates (ISSC)

  1. Maritime communication: verbal, non-verbal communication.

Verbal: clear and concise messages, pitch and tone which send out a message of authority, of confidence, of competence and trust.

  • Don’t use the word sinking

  • don’t use the word panic

  • don’t use the word emergency, only emergency services

  • don’t show nervousness or panic in your voice

  • don’t rush out the sentences




  • Collect your thoughts before making an announcement

  • introduce yourself positively followed by the topic

  • speak clearly and slowly

  • give indication of the future stages of development

Non-verbal:

Body language consists of many things and they all present a picture to another person



  • posture

  • proximity-distance-height

  • eyes: “The window of our soul”

  • facial gestures

  • body gestures

These are generally things over which we have no control

  • sweating

  • blushing

  • hyperventilation

  • use body language to assist in instructions to reinforce your verbal messages



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