This plan is intended for public use. The Government of South Australia and Department of Environment and Natural Resources are pleased to allow material from the plan to be reproduced in whole or in part, provided the meaning is unchanged and its source, publisher and authorship are acknowledged.
This recovery plan sets out the actions necessary to stop the decline, and support the recovery, of the listed threatened species or ecological community. The Australian Government is committed to acting in accordance with the plan and to implementing the plan as it applies to Commonwealth areas.
The plan has been developed with the involvement and cooperation of a broad range of stakeholders, but the making or adoption of this plan does not necessarily indicate the commitment of individual stakeholders to undertaking any specific actions. The attainment of objectives and the provision of funds may be subject to budgetary and other constraints affecting the parties involved. Proposed actions may be subject to modification over the life of the plan due to changes in knowledge.
Turner, J. (2012). National Recovery Plan for the Iron-grass Natural Temperate Grassland of South Australia ecological community 2012. Department of Environment and Natural Resources, South Australia.
Cover photograph: Iron-grass Natural Temperate Grassland at Mokota Conservation Park, November 2007 (photograph by Jean Turner)
Many individuals, stakeholder groups and organisations have contributed to the development of this Recovery Plan. Their input and support is greatly appreciated and acknowledged.
Particular thanks to:
Members of the Recovery Planning Steering Committee, who generously shared their knowledge, ideas and time throughout the recovery planning process: Anne Brown (Greening Australia SA), Tim Jury (Threatened Plant Action Group), Bill New (Nature Conservation Society SA), Millie Nicholls (Grazier/Mid North Grasslands Working Group), Penny Paton (Ornithologist/Nature Conservation Society SA), Jodie Reseigh (Rural Solutions SA), Vicki-Jo Russell (formerly Conservation Council of SA and Threatened Species Network SA), Jo Spencer (Greening Australia SA), Sarah Lance (SA Murray Darling Basin NRM Board), Ann Prescott (Botanical Consultant; and formerly Department for Environment Heritage), Meg Robertson (Botanical Consultant; and Department of Environment and Natural Resources), and Angela Duffy, Peter Copley, Randall Johnson, Greg Guerin and Wendy Stubbs (all Department of Environment and Natural Resources).
Sonia Croft, Meg Robertson, Roman Urban and Steve Triplett (all Department of Environment and Natural Resources), who provided mapping and GIS support.
The following individuals who provided valuable comments on the draft plan: Ellen Bennett and Bob Myers (both Native Grass Resources Group), Alex Coombe (Trees for Life), Mick Durant (Greening Australia SA), Andrew Philpott (Light Regional Council), Andrew West (Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges NRM Board), Michael Wurst and Mary-Anne Young (both Rural Solutions SA), Nick Neagle (Department of Environment and Natural Resources), Kyle Flannery (Airservices Australia); Andrew Chalklen and other staff of the Australian Government Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities.
The Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities, for funding support.
The Department of Environment and Natural Resources replaced the Department for Environment and Heritage on 1 July 2010.
Part A Introduction 1
Affected Interests 2
Role and Interests of Aboriginal People 2
Social and Economic Benefits and Impacts 3
Benefits to Species and other Ecological Communities 4
International Obligations 5
Part B Description and Status of the Ecological Community 6
Definition of the Listed Community 6
Condition Classes and Assessment 9
Distribution of the Ecological Community 10
Current Distribution 10
Past Distribution 12
Historical Factors Influencing Current Distribution 13
Structure and Species Composition 13
Characteristic Flora 14
Threatened Flora 14
Threatened Fauna 14
Regionally Threatened Species 14
Other Communities Resembling the Listed Ecological Community 14
Derived Grasslands 14
Other Ecological Communities 15
Part C Conservation Status, Protection, and Recovery Opportunities 17
Protected Areas 18
Conservation Parks 18
Heritage Agreements 18
Recovery Opportunities 19
Habitat Critical to Survival 19
Part D Land Use History and Management 20
Current Land Use and Management 20
Best Practice Management 21
Recovery Action to Date 22
Environmental Stewardship Program 23
Part E Known and Potential Threats 24
Key Areas Affected by Threats 25
Part F Planning for Recovery 31
Recovery Objectives 31
Recovery Strategies 31
Part G Communication and Participation 41
Personal Communications 46
List of Tables
Table 1: Condition Classes defined under the EPBC Act listing for Iron-grass Natural Temperate Grassland of South Australia. 10
Table 2: Estimated areas of Iron-grass Natural Temperate Grassland under different land tenure and protection. 13
Table 3: Threatened species occurring in, or associated with, Iron-grass Natural Temperate Grassland of South Australia. 18
Table 4: Summary of threatening processes, associated issues and activities, risk to the ecological community and priority recovery actions to address issues and risks. 29
Table 5: Recovery actions and performance criteria to meet the recovery plan objectives. 35
Table 6: Estimated costs of implementing the recovery plan over 10 years. 41
Table 7: Current and potential stakeholders in the management and recovery of Iron-grass Natural Temperate Grassland of South Australia. 45
List of Figures
Figure 1: Areas where Iron-grass Natural Temperate Grassland of South Australia may occur. 8
Figure 2: Lomandra multiflora subsp. dura Tussock Grassland, Mokota Conservation Park, November 2003. 9
Figure 3: Lomandra effusa Tussock Grassland, eastern Mount Lofty Ranges near Cambrai, August 2008. 9
Appendix 1: South Australian Government legislation relevant to the conservation, protection and management of Iron-grass Natural Temperate Grassland of South Australia 51
Appendix 2: Principles under Schedule 1 of the Native Vegetation Act 1991 that protect Iron-grass Natural Temperate Grassland remnants in South Australia 53
Appendix 3: State and Regional Plans relevant to the recovery of the Iron-grass Natural Temperate Grassland of South Australia ecological community 54
Appendix 4: Locations of Condition Class reference sites for Iron-grass Natural Temperate Grassland on public land 56
Appendix 5: Grassland structure and floristic composition of Iron-grass Natural Temperate Grassland 57
Appendix 6: Native plant species commonly recorded in the Iron-grass Natural Temperate Grassland of South Australia ecological community 60
Appendix 7: Native fauna of Iron-grass Natural Temperate Grassland of South Australia 63
Appendix 8: Weed species affecting the Iron-grass Natural Temperate Grassland of South Australia ecological community 66