Papal states/ hre

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Papal states/ HRE:

Babylonian captivity in which pope urban, and pope Gregory made two capitals of the church, one in Rome and one in Avignon. The Papal States in Italy lacked stability and a good government. Left Rome poverty struck. Babylonian Captivity badly damaged papal prestige.

  • Pluralism: Urban VI want to abolish holding more than one office at the same time

Great schism:

Split of the church, Conciliarist believed that reform of the church could only be achieved through periodic assemblies, or general councils

English Channel:

Channel in between England a France, helped during 100 years war and serves as a military barrier at this time.


Capital of France


Henry IV: king of England who spent most of his life trying not to get killed.

Gregory VII: despute with Henry the VI played a key role in the investure controversy

Charlemagne: first holy roman emperor. King of the franks. United much of western Europe since the fall of the HRE. Spurred Carolingian Renaissance which was the period of cultural and intellectual activity within the church.

Plato: laid reference for western philosophy and science.

Cicero: influenced latin language and philosophy

Magna Carta: a charter of liberties to which the English barons forced King John to give his assent

Crusades: a medieval military expedition, one of a series made by Europeans to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries.

Lay investiture: Lay investiture was the appointment of bishops, abbots and other church officials by feudal lords and vassals. The secular ruler usually invested the elect/appointee with the insignia of his ecclesiastic office, while the Pope crowned the Holy Roman Emperor (elected by the German Electoral Princes).

Philosopher kings: rulers of Plato's Utopian Kallipolis. If his ideal city-state is to ever come into being, "philosophers [must] become kings…or those now called kings [must]…genuinely and adequately philosophize" (The Republic, 5.473d).

Empire: an extensive group of states or countries under a single supreme authority, formerly especially an emperor or empress.

Republic: a state in which supreme power is held by the people and their elected representatives, and which has an elected or nominated president rather than a monarch.


  • Causes: Treaty of paris= English king decided to become vassal to the French crown for the duchy of aquitane. Because English thought that aquitane was ancient lands. Economic factors included wool trade and control of Flemish towns where English and French economies greatly intertwined.

  • During the war: in the beginning England had the lead (crecy). Joan of arc arrived at Orleans and brought everyone hope. However, because she won the war everyone tried her for witchcraft and she was executed.

  • Consequences of the war: left French economy and farm land in shambles. Britain to pay for the war had rise taxes on wool trade. Italy and Flemish towns couldn’t afford. Hurting british economy as well. Politically in Britain it caused development of English parliament. Promoted nationalism in both countries.

Life of the people:

  • Marriage: children were economically important so many people had children before marriage to make sure of fertility. Divorce did not exsit in the middle ages.

  • Prostitution: made good incoms but disease limited amount of women



  • Vienna=

  • Florence= Italian city where the renaissance started, a city compared to rural Europe, Medici Family. Gov’t was republican

  • Rome= focused of recovering manuscripts, statues, and monuments

  • Netherlands=


  • Leonardo Davinci: study the human body and painted stuff

  • Michaelangelo; sculptor

  • Raphael: school of Athens

  • Macheavelli: wrote the prince based off cesar Borgia attempt to unify northern papal states

  • Lerenzo de’ medici; (aka Lorenzo the magnifagant), built churches, finances librarys and art, part of the large banking family, renaissance was at peak

  • Francesco Petrach: humanist who believed in the rebirth of Rome and Greek culture (aka out of dark ages)

  • Donetello: sculptor who used realism sowing self awareness. Great variety in human nature

  • Charles V: HRE during Habsburg-Valois War


  • Imperial diet= highest representative assembly in the HRE

  • Secularism = focused on the material world as opposed to spiritual world. More liessure time (not praying), church started to lend money

    • Individualism: potential for the individual to achieve, focused on unique personality

    • Humanism: interest in Greek and Roman culture, culture needed by everyone. Emphasize human achievement

  • Parochial = restricted to the church limits

  • Unification of Spain = 1492, forced everyone to become Christian (inquisition), had some civil issues and then end with the treaty of Tordesillas. Phillip II joined Portugal with spain

  • Trade = mainly to the east, wool, allowed city states to grow

  • City-states= separate states with own governmental laws

  • Communes= association of free men seeking complete political and economic independent from nobles

    • Regulated trade, raise taxes, kept civil order

  • Urban nobility= marriages between nobels and merchants (new class)

    • Popolo wanted power too (excluded)

  • Reniassance ambassador= greatest achievement of renaissance

    • Balance of power


  • Fresco: technique of painting, “fresh”, type of mural painting and u paint it in wet plaster

  • Mural: big painting on the wall

  • Romanesque: round arches and colums

  • Baroque : style that exaggerated motion and clear attention to detail

  • Mona lisa: da vinci painting of women with no eyebrows. (not fleek)

  • David: michaelangelo, life like sculptor that was of a Hebrew hero

  • Last supper: da vinci, stressed tensions between Christ and disciples

  • Gothic: pointed arches, ribbed vaults, flying buttresses, came from romanesque

  • Sistine chapel: Michaelangelo, painted ceiling


  • Commercial and financial development

    • Increased trade with the east

  • Growth of self governing cities

  • Population explosion


  • Emphasives educational reforms and new intellectual pursuits

  • New monarchs

    • Isabbella in spain: exploration

    • Louis XI: expanded france, concordat of bologna

      • Church > states. But ruler gets to chose bishops

    • Henry VII (tudors) (court of star chambers)

      • War of the Roses: chose monarch family in England. B/t Lancaster and Tudors. Tudors won.

  • Class division

  • New art styles

  • Less church control (secular)



  • Worms: where diet of worms created

  • Wittenburg: university were Luther taught, 95 these posted

  • Calvinist areas: Geneva

  • Luthern areas: northern and central Germany

  • Geneva: HQ for Calvinism

  • Greek orthodox area:


  • John Huss: insisted that church authority rested on scripture, conscience, and tradition

  • John Wycliffe: lloylards

  • Martin Luther: German friar who created the 95 thesis and protestantism; didn’t want to create a new religion just reforms to Catholicism

    • 95 theses were a list of complaints against catholic church

  • Tetzel: sold indulgences

  • Thomas More: advisor to Henry VIII didn’t like Protestantism, wrote Utopia

  • Henry VIII: brought aglicanism to England (etc) (supremacy act)

  • John Calvin: created Calvinism,

  • Ignatius Loyola: society of jesus aka jesuits

  • Gutenburg: printing press, help spreading protestanism

  • John Knox: created Presbyterian; book of common order; Calvinist in scotland


  • Diet at Worms: called by Charles V to make Luther recant, exiled him when luther didn’t take it back

  • Council of Trent: reinforced their doctrine, but made subtle changes to practices not beliefs to keep followers

  • Indulgences: buying a ticket to heaven from priests and forgiving sins of loved ones who passed

  • Inquisition: spain wanted to combat heiriecy in England

  • Peace of Augsburg: german princes can chose religion; north (p) south ( c) divide

  • Huguenots: French Calvinist

  • Anabaptists: baptized again

  • Predestination: god already had chosen people

  • Salvation by faith: Luthernism= salvation by faith alone, bible is absolute authority, church= entire community of believers, consubstantiation

  • Society of Jesus: created a lot of catholic school, through monestarys & mission trips


  • Corruption in the church (indulgences, pluralism, priest weren’t holy)

  • Resentment of clerical privileges

  • Poor quality of sermons


  • Peasants revolts

    • Crop failures and bad economy

    • 12 articles (complaints against lords taking over land)

  • increase literacy (translated to vernacular language)

    • nationalism

  • women better treatment (all ppl equal in faith)


  • 95 these

  • Protestantism comes to being

    • Calvinism (Huguenots), Anabaptism (quaker), Presbyterianism (calvinism), Anglicanism,

  • English stuff happens

    • Henry 8 - wives

    • Edward

    • Mary (catholic)

    • Elizabeth – inquisition



Henry the Navigator


  • set up schools to study geography

  • sent exploration to W Africa

  • reached Guinnea and under king John II portugese established trading forts

Diaz (Portugal)

  • rounded Cape of Good Hope

  • storms made him turn back

Da Gama (Portugal)

  • reached india by sea route

  • had to fight with muslins to set up sea routes

Pizarro (Spain)

  • counquered Incas in SA

  • established Spanish viceroyalty of Peru w/ center at Lima

Elizabeth I

  • daughter of Henry VIII

  • politique,


  • goal= a direct sea route to Asia to help spains trade

  • **laid foundation for spanish imperial admisistration

  • enlaved natives, wanted to spread Christianity

Magellan (HRE)

  • took a west route to try and get to Asia

  • discovered that the Earth is round *** and that the earth is a lot bigger than columbus expected

J. Cabot (GB)

- discovered Newfoundland (new England )

Cervantes* (spain)

  • Wrote Don Quixote: about 17th century of Spanish society

  • Quixote means “idealistic but impractical”

Shakespeare *

  • wrote about classical stuff, individualism, and humanism

  • Hamlet, Henry IV, Othello

El Greco* (spain)

  • Spanish painter

Cortez (Spain)

  • conquered Aztecs in Mexico

  • founded Mexico city as the capital of New Spain

Places/ Terms

Line of Demarcation

Divided NA and SA; spain gets west of line and Portugal gets east


- skinny country between mexico and South America


  • Took the lead in exploration, but then was surpassed by spain

  • Got lands

English Colonies

  • new England in America,

  • parts of Canada

Spanish Colonies

  • mexico

  • western South America

Spanish Armada 1558

  • phillip II (spain) wanted to re impose catholocism in northern Europe but Netherlands were preotestant

  • england (mary Queen of scotts) wanted to assassinate Elizabeth and phillip supported Mary (bc he wanted England to be catholic) but then Mary was beheaded

  • England was supporting the Netherlands

  • so in order to control the dutc, Phillip needed to cut off their English supply

  • Spanish LOSE (England had more supplies and better ships)


  • 1609 phillip II recognizes the indepence of the united provinces

Dutch East India Company

based on joint stock, cut into portugeese taiding with asia

Joint Stock

Investors received % of the profits based on the amount she put in


Spanish thing where a native would work on the farm for the Spanish colonist

Revolt in the Netherlands (before Spanish Armada)

  • dutch want independence from Spain (Charles V)

  • Charles V united 17 provinces of the nethrlands

  • When Charles V abdicated, Feridnand got Austria/ HRE and Phillip II gets spain and low countries

  • Calvinitst ideas in the Netherlands encouraged opposition to leagal civil authorites

  • Phillip II created “the council of blood” – simular to the inquisition

  • 17 provinces were united by William of Orange (William the silent)

  • divide between protestant north (united provinces) and catholic south (union of Utrecht- becomes Belgium)

  • Elizabeth I forced to help northern provinces bc she feared spanish invasion of england

Politics and Economics 17th Century:


  • Nantes: where edict of nantes took place

  • Cadiz: spain base for exploration and trade

  • Westphalia: where treaty of Westphalia took place

  • Flanders: in Netherlands

  • NW passage: sea route through atlantic

  • The Hague: seat of govt in the netherlands

  • Blatic: sea enclosed by netherlands

  • Miss. River: in ‘MURICA

  • North sea: located between great Britain and netherlands


  • Cardinal Richelieu: chief minister of King Louis XIII, wanted to weakened hapsburg power

  • Cossacks: army that maintain independence beyond csars reach

  • Gustavus Aldophus: Lutheran who intervened in 30y war to save protestants

  • Louis XIII: subsidized swedes hoping to stop Hapsburg power

  • Louis XIV: divine right absolute ruler, determined in foreign policy, built versaille palace, hired Colbert, revoked edict of nantes, war of Spanish succession

  • William of Orange: united 17 providences


  • Edicts of nantes: issued by H4 of france, created religious toleration for French protestants, two religions could co exsist

  • Peace of Westphalia: ended 30y war, Calvinism legal faith, soverign authority over german states

  • Long Parliament: took power away from king

  • 4 phases of 30 years war:

    • causes: religious division (protestant union), political division (AH wanted to reverse protestant gains), International interference (france opposed a strong Germany)

    • phases

      • bohemian

        • began as civil war (catholics won)

      • Danish

        • Catholics won

      • Swedish

        • Protestants won with help from gustavus adolphus, prevented unity of german states

      • French

        • France intervene after gustavus death

        • Destroyed german commerce

    • Effects

      • Devastated german economy

      • Delayed german unification

      • France emerged as the strongest power

Absolutism and Constitution:


- nobles, artistocrats, clergy who were loyal to KING


  • townspeople , MC liked PARLAIMENT


War of the Spanish Succesion

  • Louis XIV wanted his grandson to be the next Spanish king

  • BoP upset – grand allaiance made against Louis

  • Ends With Peace of Utrecht (limited French expansion)

Test Act

- No catholics in power in England



  • Wanted to purify the English church

  • Members of the church would have a greater voice in running the church


  • re established the monarchy in England under Charles II

  • parliament also restored after Cromwell

Glorious Revolution

  • bloodless overthrow of James II

  • William and Mary Come to power


  • Henry IV (Navarre)

    • Road to absolutism

    • Issued the Edict of Nante, Lowered peasant taxes, never called the estates general

    • SULLY = revived trade

  • Louis XIII

    • Wanted to end protestanism (state with in a state)

    • RICHELIEU = FOUNDATION FOR ABSOLUTIOSM, 32 generalites increased power of the centralized states

  • Louis VIV

    • Revocation of the edict of nantes, never calls estates general, huge debt bc wars (Spanish succession) and versaillse



  • Phillip II

    • Spanish armada, revolt in the Netherlands, counsil of blood

  • Charles II

    • Last Hapsburg in spain

  • Philip of Anjou (Louis XIV grandson)

    • Became king after the war of the Spanish succession


  • Henry VIII

    • Away from the catholic church, Anglican Rel

  • Mary

    • Catholic, killed all the protestants

  • Elizabeth I (politique)

    • Combined prot and Catholicism

  • James I

    • DIVINE RIGHT OF KINGS, lectured parliament, base for absolutism

  • Charles I

    • Also divine right, tried to rule with out parliament

    • Long parliament – tried to limit kings power

    • Killed in English civil war = 1st attempt to check royal absolutism

    • Petition of right = tax change had to be approved by parliament, checked royal power

  • Cromwell (Roundhead)

    • Military dictator

    • Navigation acts

  • Charles II

    • Tried to dissolve parliament after they wanted to make a law saying no catholic monarchs , but had good relations

    • Secret agreement with Louis XIV (france would give England money of they relaxed laws against caotholics )

    • CABAL = first cabinet system

  • James II

    • Violated the test acts, granted religious freedom

    • Glorious revolution

  • William and Mary

    • Parliament has power, Bill of Rights 1689

Austria (Hapsburgs) – never fully absolute, nobility has privledges

  • Ferdiand III

    • Centralized government in german speaking provinces

  • Charles VI

    • Pragmatic sanction (Frederick the great violates this when he invades Silesia)

  • Maria Theresa

Prussia (holonzolers)

  • Frederick William the Great Elector

    • Tax with out consent, reduced power of junkers

    • Steps towards absolutism

  • Frederick the Great (I/III/ the ostentanious)

  • Frederick William (the soloder king)


    • Military society, but almost always at peace

Russia (Romanov)

  • Ivan III

    • Started the service nobility

  • Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible)

    • FIRST RUSSIAN TZAR, people were servants to the tzar

  • Peter the Great

    • Weternizing reforms in Russia (army, schools, towns)

    • Exploited the serfs



  • Kepler: three laws of planetary motion elliptical orbit, 2 planets, proved with math sun in center

  • Copernicus: revolution of heavenly spheres heliocentric theory, explain gods work

  • Decartes: deductive reasoning, doubted everything, geometry, Cartesian dualism

  • Newton: principia law of universal gravitation, synthesized everyones stuff

  • Voltaire: philosophical dictionary absolutism – ppl cant gov, Freedom of thought, loved L14, deism,

  • Rousseau: social contract

  • Diderot: encyclopedia

  • Hobbes: life Is nasty and short , absolute monarchy

  • Locke: blank slate theory, people born good, corrupted by society, govt protect natural rights

  • Galileo: law of inertia, obj at rest stays at rest

  • Smith: govt stay out of business, invisible hand

  • Montesquieu: separation of power

  • Fredrick the great (II): religious toleration, reform legal system, made Prussia major power

  • Catherine the great: goals 1) westernized 2) domestic reform- wanted new law code


  • Astronomy: branch of government dealing with space

  • Spirit of laws: book written by Montesquieu about his ideas

  • Salons: partys to share cultural ideas on the time amoung elite

  • Laissez faire: capitalism

  • Peace of Utrecht: peace to war of Spanish succession

  • Political science: analysis of govt

  • Historiography: study of historical writting


  • Rembrant: dutch painte, biblical and self portraits

  • Baroque: domes, light and shade, exaggerated motion

  • Handel: composer british, wrote operas

  • Mozart: composer

  • Brahms: composer

  • Romanticism: artistic movement focusing on extreme emotion


  • Romanticism: saw growth of modern industry as ugly, brutal on nature and human behavior

Old Regime and French Rev:


  • Empires pre/post Congress of Vienna:

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  • Waterloo: Napoleons last battle where he finally fell

  • Elba: Napoleon banished the first time

  • Corisica:


  • Catherine the Great: Russian enlighten monarch who after French rev had harsher rule due to uprising in Russia.

  • Fredrick the great: Prussian leader who said he was the servant of the state

  • Louis XVI: leader of france before the French rev. was taking to paris as a hostage and killed because of excessive spending

  • Marat: radical journalist in French who sided with the san-culotte

  • Marie Antoinette: hated by the people of franch, excessive spending, married to L16

  • Danton: president of the committee of public safety

  • Robespierre: reign of terror, republic of virtue, leader of the national convention, jacobin

  • Fleury: finance guy kept French out of war

  • Walpole: first prime minister of England, not raise taxes

  • Louis XVIII: came after napoleon and he accepted a constitution

  • Matternich: Austria foreign minister and chancellor

  • Napoleon: emperor, took over power in france, tried taking over Europe, fell cause of Britain and Russia

  • Maria Theresa: Austrian queen after pragmatic sanction; mother to marie antoinette


  • Tories: commoners

  • Whigs: Lords

  • War of Austrian Succession: Fredrick the great invades selisia violating the pragmatic sanction, ends with treaty of aix-la chapple; Prussia great power (german dualism)

  • Estates General: representative body that did not fair representation of all the estates.

  • Declaration of Right of Man and citizen: first constitution after American rev

  • Code Napoleon: combinded laws into a single law code; took away womens rights

  • Old regime: absolute monarchy

  • Tennis court oath: they had to make a constitution before leaving the tennis courts

  • National Assembly: third estate after declaring their own assembly

  • Jacobins: radical political party,

  • Bourgeoisie: middle class

  • Bastille: placed they stormed thinking they had weapons but didn’t. started French rev

  • Trafalgar: battle napoleon lost

  • Govt:

  • Absolute monarchy = old regime

  • Constitutional monarchy = declaration of romc

  • Representative republic = national convention

  • Authoritarian republic = committee of public safety

  • Bourgeoisies = directory

  • Dictatorship = napoleon

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