Babylonian captivity in which pope urban, and pope Gregory made two capitals of the church, one in Rome and one in Avignon. The Papal States in Italy lacked stability and a good government. Left Rome poverty struck. Babylonian Captivity badly damaged papal prestige.
Pluralism: Urban VI want to abolish holding more than one office at the same time
Split of the church, Conciliarist believed that reform of the church could only be achieved through periodic assemblies, or general councils
Channel in between England a France, helped during 100 years war and serves as a military barrier at this time.
Capital of France
Henry IV: king of England who spent most of his life trying not to get killed.
Gregory VII: despute with Henry the VI played a key role in the investure controversy
Charlemagne: first holy roman emperor. King of the franks. United much of western Europe since the fall of the HRE. Spurred Carolingian Renaissance which was the period of cultural and intellectual activity within the church.
Plato: laid reference for western philosophy and science.
Cicero: influenced latin language and philosophy
Magna Carta: a charter of liberties to which the English barons forced King John to give his assent
Crusades: a medieval military expedition, one of a series made by Europeans to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries.
Lay investiture: Lay investiture was the appointment of bishops, abbots and other church officials by feudal lords and vassals. The secular ruler usually invested the elect/appointee with the insignia of his ecclesiastic office, while the Pope crowned the Holy Roman Emperor (elected by the German Electoral Princes).
Philosopher kings: rulers of Plato's Utopian Kallipolis. If his ideal city-state is to ever come into being, "philosophers [must] become kings…or those now called kings [must]…genuinely and adequately philosophize" (The Republic, 5.473d).
Empire: an extensive group of states or countries under a single supreme authority, formerly especially an emperor or empress.
Republic: a state in which supreme power is held by the people and their elected representatives, and which has an elected or nominated president rather than a monarch.
Causes: Treaty of paris= English king decided to become vassal to the French crown for the duchy of aquitane. Because English thought that aquitane was ancient lands. Economic factors included wool trade and control of Flemish towns where English and French economies greatly intertwined.
During the war: in the beginning England had the lead (crecy). Joan of arc arrived at Orleans and brought everyone hope. However, because she won the war everyone tried her for witchcraft and she was executed.
Consequences of the war: left French economy and farm land in shambles. Britain to pay for the war had rise taxes on wool trade. Italy and Flemish towns couldn’t afford. Hurting british economy as well. Politically in Britain it caused development of English parliament. Promoted nationalism in both countries.
Life of the people:
Marriage: children were economically important so many people had children before marriage to make sure of fertility. Divorce did not exsit in the middle ages.