Project catalogue



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University of Natal, CCMS

Principle Investigator, South Africa:



Teer-Tomaselli, Ruth

Financed by NRF:

2004: 135,000 2005: 121,000
Main objectives:

The prime research question is:

What are the contours of convergence and divergence that mark out the cultural and communication terrains within two comparable regions?

The regions in question are the Nordic countries and Southern Africa. The fields in question are information and communication technologies, content and cultural production. How does a comparative study between a developing media and cultural economy on the one hand, and a developed northern economy on the other, both of which include elements of First nation’s communities, advance an understanding of these processes?


Methodology:

The methodology used by each subproject will necessarily be specific to the particular project, and be of a multidisciplinary nature. In general, however, the theory and methods to be applied will be grown from that strand of cultural and media studies which admits political economy, and extend and refine those methods already developed by the contributing researchers to the ongoing partner subprojects. These range from methods of measuring political economy, reception analysis to ethnographic research. The general theoretical approaches will also draw on Mosco (1996), Garnham (1990), Castells, (1997, 1998, 2001) and so on, while Southern African work will apply the methods and approaches developed by various authors in Tomaselli and Dunn (2001) and Teer-Tomaselli (2001, 1998). The Norwegian approaches are already well developed (e.g. Storsul 2002).


Significance of proposed Research:

This is one the few major comparative projects which analyze North-South relations in the area of media, regulation and convergence, which moreover includes the experiences of First Peoples and indigenous minorities. It is the only project - in the area of media studies - to explicitly compare Southern African and Nordic experiences.


Mode of cooperation:

Mode of cooperation will continue as before;



  • Visits to each other's respective institutions by both staff and students.

  • Seminar in Durban, April 2004, under the auspices of the International Research Seminar on Political Economy of the Southern African Media.

  • Regular e-mail conferences.

  • The principle researchers will coordinate their periods of writing up the final book.

21 Capacity building in evidence-based dentistry and clinical practice guidelines, for a developing country.
Project no:

157980/V10

Grant Period:



1.1.2004-31.12.2005

Responsible University/Institution, Norway:



University of Oslo, Institute of Clinical Dentistry

Principle Investigator, Norway:



Jokstad, Asbjørn Professor

Financed by RCN:

2004: 8,100 2005: 8,910

Responsible University/Institution, South Africa:



University of the Witwatersrand, Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Oral Health Sciences

Principle Investigator, South Africa:



Owen, Peter Christopher

Financed by NRF:

2004: 38,000 2005: 45,000
Main objectives:


  • to undertake and at the same time research, a process of information dissemination and capacity building in evidence-based dentistry in South Africa

  • to build capacity by cascading out from a few individuals, to full institutional capacity throughout South Africa

  • to encourage, promote, and assist with specific research projects in EBD both intra- and inter-institutional

  • to establish inter-institutional working groups for the development of Clinical Practice Guidelines relevant to developing countries

  • to identify, as a result of the processes initiated, future and ongoing cooperative research and development arenas in oral health within South Africa and between South African and Norwegian institutions.


Methodology:

A series of workshops will be held to introduce selected faculty members from each of the 6 dental schools in the country to the concept of Evidence-based Dentistry (EBD) and Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs). The Norwegian partner will play a pivotal role in these initial workshops. Wherever possible, and depending on capacity and facilities, these workshops will combine personnel from the same regions, which will also help initiate inter-institutional links (which generally are poor in South Africa, for a variety of reasons, not least of which has been our political past). The emphasis will be on empowering the Historically Disadvantages campuses (3 out of the 6 institutions) and faculty, at least initially. These workshops will then be repeated, so that local personnel gain capacity to continue holding them, and new faculty members can be exposed to them. This cascade model of information dissemination will continue until there is sufficient capacity in each of the institutions. In addition, inter-institutional working groups will be established to develop CPGs suitable for a developing country, and intra-and inter-institutional EBD projects will be established. The whole process will be recorded and evaluated for applicability elsewhere.


Significance of proposed research:

The expected significance of the project is that it will provide a blue-print for the successful implementation of similar projects in other developing countries. In addition, the development, during the project, of cooperative research projects and clinical practice guidelines pertinent to developing country conditions, will provide a great service go oral health world-wide.


Mode of cooperation:

The mode of co-operation between the two teams has been alluded to in the description of the methodology and plan of work. There has been substantial co-operation and collaboration in the drawing up of this proposal and communication channels have been excellent.


22 Bycatch reduction on prawn trawlers in KwaZulu-Natal
Project no:

157986/V10

Grant Period:



1.1.2004-31.12.2005

Responsible University/Institution, Norway:



Institute of Marine Research, Centre for Marine Resources

Principle Investigator, Norway:



Isaksen, Bjørnar Researcher

Financed by RCN:

2004: 129,376 2005: 139,794

Responsible University/Institution, South Africa:



University of KwaZulu-Natal, School of Biological and Conservation Sciences

Principle Investigator, South Africa:



Fennessy, Sean Thomas

Financed by NRF:

2004: 190,000 2005: 157,000
Main objectives:

The main objective is to reduce the amount of bycatch being caught by Tugela Bank prawn trawler in KwaZulu-Natal, without reducing prawn catches.


Methodology:

The project leader is an acknowledged expert in gear technology for bycatch reduction, and will provide the skills to design and test two Bycatch Reduction Devices (BRDs) onboard a South African commercial prawn trawler. The South African researcher Sean Fennessy has knowledge of the composition of the bycatch from local prawn trawlers. Together they will test the BRDs and select the best rigging combination for their use during two sea trips on a commercial prawn trawler on the Tugela Bank. A commercial trawler with multiple nets will be part-chartered for this purpose, so the results will be directly applicable to conventional commercial operations. To assess the composition and size of organisms that are released by the BRDs, catch covers will be fitted over the escape openings in the experimental nets. Catch data and trawl information will be entered into a database onboard and at the Oceanographic Research Institute (ORI). The species composition data and the comparative catches from the experimental and control nets will analyzed by Dr. Fennessy at ORI. Dr. Fennessy and Mr. Isaksen will investigate gear selectivity at the Institute of Marine Research in Bergen.


Significance of proposed research:

The project will lead to recommendations for changes in legislation that will require South African prawn trawlers to install Bycatch Reduction Devices. The current lack of capacity in this field of gear technology in South Africa will also be remedied by the project. The wasteful exploitation of resources will be reduced, and the quality of the targeted prawns will be improved. Increased catches of prawns may result owing to improved functioning of the gear. The results will be of potential application to other East African countries, which have similar bycatch problems to South Africa. The project will also contribute to our knowledge of the long-term effects of trawling on the marine community, and will also increase our knowledge of marine biodiversity on soft marine sediments. The collection of specimens presents an opportunity for training of young marine scientists in taxonomic principles, and the project will produce one MSc graduate.


Mode of cooperation:

The project represents a collaborative effort using expertise from the Oceanographic Research Institute in South Africa and the Institute of Marine Research in Norway. The Norwegian institute will provide trawl gear expertise, while the South African institute will provide local knowledge of the fishery and the biology of the organisms being caught. The Norwegian expertise presents an opportunity to build expertise in the field of bycatch reduction in South Africa, while the South African expertise provides an opportunity for the Norwegian researcher to test the experimental gear under new conditions. Dr. Fennessy and Mr. Isaksen will plan the research protocol together and will modify it according to experience obtained at sea. All reports and publications that emanate from this work will be written up jointly.



23 Transfrontier conservation and local community development in Southern Africa
Project no:

157987/V10

Grant Period:



1.7.2004-31.12.2005

Responsible University/Institution, Norway:



Norwegian University of Sciences and Technology, Faculty of Social Science and Technology Management

Principle Investigator, Norway:



Lein, Haakon, Associate Professor

Financed by RCN:

2004: 36,410 2005: 36,410

Responsible University/Institution, South Africa:

University of Cape Town, Faculty of Research and Innovation

Principle Investigator, South Africa:



Ramutsindela, Maano F.

Financed by NRF:

2004: 49,000 2005: 60,000
Main Objectives:

The funds will be used to organize workshops between the involved researchers in South Africa and Norway in preparation for a wider research proposal. The proposed research is intended to investigate the establishment of trans-frontier parks, as one of the latest strategies for nature conservation in southern Africa.


Significance of proposed Research:

While the prime objective of these parks is to provide a holistic protection of biodiversity, it is anticipated that they will make substantial contribution towards the much-needed regional and local development through tourism and related job creation ventures. For these parks to be established, some local communities will have to be removed. The establishment of the Great Limpopo trans-frontier parks is already facing the challenge of removing some thousands local residents on the Mozambican side. Our concern is with number of local communities that will be affected by the establishment of six trans-frontier parks in the region, and the extent to which these communities would benefit from the said parks. To this end, the main aim of the proposed study is to analyze the spatial patterns of trans-frontier parks in southern Africa, with a particular focus on the impact of those patterns on local communities.



24 Cooperation in the development of an educational telemedicine program in ultrasound technology and fetal diagnosis for health personnel in S-A
Project no:

157996/V10

Grant Period:



1.1.2004-31.12.2005

Responsibel University/Institution, Norway:



St. Olavshospital HF, Laboratory Medicine, Children and Female Diseases

Principle Investigator, Norway:



Eik-Nes, Sturla H. Professor

Financed by RCN:

2004: 150,000 2005: 110,000

Responsible University/Institution, South Africa:



University of KwaZulu-Natal, Obstetrics and Gynecology

Principle Investigator, South Africa:



Moodley, Jack Dr

Financed by NRF:

2004: 188,000 2005: 150,000
Main Objectives:

The primary aim of this project is to improve the care of pregnant women in South Africa in general, and specifically in Kva-Zulu Natal, with regard to ultrasound and fetal diagnosis.

The first objective of the project is to strengthen the competence among health personnel regarding the use of ultrasound technology. The National Center for Fetal Medicine (NCFM), in Trondheim, Norway, represented by Professor Sturla Eik-Nes and The Nelson Mandela School of Medicine in Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa, represented by Professor Jack Moodley, have established cooperation and developed a strategy for training and education for health personnel in Kwa-Zulu Natal. This cooperation is the foundation for South Africa's education in fetal diagnosis by means of ultrasound.

The second objective is to establish a telemedicine solution that will ensure that communication and follow-up can take place regularly and continuously, in spite of great geographical distances. The development of such a program in telemedicine education is of significant importance in the long-term achievement of the aim of the project and is regarded to be extremely important for health personnel in all of South Africa. The major portion of the funding we seek in this application will therefore go toward the development of a program in education through telemedicine.


Methodology:

In participatory action research, the researcher has influence on both the object of the study and the context in which the research takes place. The researcher works in close cooperation with the participants, for example the teachers, the students and the developers of the technological solutions. A basic goal for action research is improvement through change. Dewey's pedagogical theory of "learning by doing" illustrates this mode of thought (Miettinen 2000). Participatory action research will be the core methodological approach in the project.

A major emphasis will be put on the evaluation of the project. The project will be evaluated regularly to assure that all aspects, including ethical, technological, communicative, medical and economic aspects, hold a high quality and are considered relevant to the users according to their needs and preferences.
Significance of proposed Research:

The expected significance of the research collaboration between the NCFM and the NMSM is that it will lead to assurance of quality regarding ultrasound and fetal diagnosis in the care of pregnant women and their fetuses. Raising the level of competence of health personnel in South Africa will improve the quality of fetal diagnosis by means of ultrasound. The project is also of great interest from a research point of view. South Africa is faced with many challenges regarding HIV and Aids in perinatal (e.g. gynecology, fetal diagnosis, infancy) care. Strengthening the competence of health personnel in fetal medicine will provide a valuable contribution to medical research in the development of knowledge about HIV and AIDS. Furthermore, the project will have significant relevance regarding the development of strategies for this type of collaborative project. This is an interdisciplinary project that includes the fields of medicine, technology and applied linguistics.


Mode of cooperation:

The project will be a meeting point for researchers and experts from several disciplines and cultures. South African experts will go to the Norwegian institution to exchange knowledge with the Norwegian experts and vice versa. Each of the participants represents great resources for the project; the strength of the project lies in the fact that the project will be carried out through collaboration between these various environments.



25 Radiation hardness of different wide band gap materials used for UV detectors
Project no:

157998/V10:

Grant Period:



1.1.2004-31.12.2005

Responsible University/Institution, Norway:



University of Oslo, Department of Physics

Principle Investigator, Norway:



Svensson, Bengt Gunnar Professor

Financed by RCN:

2004: 191,500 2005: 191,500

Responsible University/Institution, South Africa:



University of Pretoria, Department of Physics

Principle Investigator, South Africa:



Auret, Danie F, Professor

Financed by NRF:

2004: 184,000 2005: 143,000
Main Objectives:

The main objectives are:



  • to determine the radiation hardness of the several wide band gap materials: (Al)GaN, ZnO and SiC, to low- hand high-energy particles that they, as well as the Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) fabricated on them, will experience during typical SBD metallization procedures as well as during exposure to radiation in space (e.g. in satellites and spacecrafts)

  • To establish a technology for fabricating high quality SBDs based detectors with optimal response to specific ultra-violet (UV) wavelengths on these materials. The second objective can be realized by understanding how low energy particle induced defects influence the materials and SBD properties.

  • The radiation-induced defects in these materials will be analyzed, and their introduction and removal kinetics will be determined.

  • This information will be used to model the influence of particle irradiation on UV detector characteristics

  • To design radiation-hardening processes for these materials, using strategies to those currently employed for Si detectors.


Methodology:

Radiation induced defects are usually unintentionally introduced during several processes, including metallization during SBD fabrication and detector operation in radiation environments, e.g. in space. In this study the effect of radiation induced defects introduced during different metallization processes will be investigated and the metallization conditions will be optimised to yield high quality SBD UV detectors.

Subsequently, these devices will be subjected to irradiation by different low- and high-energy particle types, whereas their removal rates will be determined during conventional and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) experiments in vacuum and in an Ar ambient.The effect of these defects on the UV detector characteristics will be determined by I-V, C-V and spectral response measurements, and these results will be compared with those obtained by modelling (using the defects' electronic properties).
Significance of proposed research:

Knowledge of the radiation hardness of wide gap materials will facilitate the best choice of a material for the fabrication of UV detectors for specific applications, including health care, and communication and information technology. Globally, the use of these materials for UV detectors will result in more sensitive and robust imagers in missions such as the Solar Probe of NASA or the Solar Orbiter of ESA, where spacecrafts are exposed to tremendously high heat and radiation fluxes.

In South Africa, with its harsh sunlight and high incidence of skin cancer, UV sensor technology can profoundly influence health care by facilitating novel design and fabrication of sensors for specific applications, e.g. personalized monitoring of UV levels of people exposed to the sun for prolonged periods of time, like open shaft mine workers. Perhaps most important, this project will expand the scientific expertise of personnel and students in both teams, including two historically black universities (HBUs) in S.A., by exposing them to complimentary research facilities, and further, ensuring a high level of post-graduate student education.
Mode of cooperation:

The success of this project will depend strongly on the utilization of complimentary fabrication methods, irradiation sources and analytical techniques. For example, SBDs will be fabricated by different metallization methods at University of Pretoria (UP) and University of Oslo (UoO), respectively, on AlGaN and ZnO form UP and SiC from UoO. Particle irradiation at various temperatures, T (low T at UP (radionuclides in the DLTS cryostat as well at a DLTS system coupled to a van de Graaff accelerator), high T at UoO) will be carried out at both institutes to provide a wide range of particles with energies form keV to MeV. keV noble gas ions, 5.4 MeV alpha-particle and in-line MeV proton irradiation/DLTS in a van de Graaff accelerator will be done at UP, while UoO will perform MeV electron and MeV heavy ion irradiation. The radiation-induced defects and the SBD detectors will be characterized by complimentary techniques (including high temperature DLTS at UoO and high-resolution DLTS at UP) while modelling will be done at UP/MEDUNSA. The objectives of this project will be realized via regular exchange of personnel and students in order to gain access to complimentary facilities not locally available.



26 Mathematical Modelling of Financial Assets
Project no:

158006/V10

Grant Period:



1.1.2004-31.12.2005

Responsible University/Institution, Norway:



Norwegian School and Economics and Business Administration, Department of Finance and Management

Principle Investigator, Norway:



Aase, Knut K. Professor

Financed by RCN:

2004: 88,000 2005: 88,000

Responsible University/Institution, South Africa:



University of Natal, School of Mathematics, Stats & IT

Principle Investigator, South Africa:



Ng, Siu-Ah Dr

Financed by NRF:

2004: 132,000 2005: 132,000
Main objectives:


  • To contribute to economic growth through improvement of efficiency of the economy via better mathematical modeling techniques

  • Understanding of a spectrum of financial assets.


Methodology:

Use mathematical methods from stochastic analysis, white noise analysis and non-standard analysis to investigate and model financial assets which are particularly relevant to the economy of Southern Africa; calibrate results using real data from markets of Southern Africa, popularize the benefit of mathematical finance to students and academics as well as practitioners in the market.


Significance of proposed research:

A good understanding of various financial assets is crucial for policy makers in the government and practitioners in the financial market to:

- improve economic efficiency and productivity

- design fair and rational regulations of the market

- help greater participation in the global economy.



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