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REPUBLIC OF TURKEY

THE COUNCIL OF HIGHER EDUCATION

HIGHER EDUCATION STRATEGY FOR

TURKEY

(DRAFT REPORT)

ANKARA – JUNE 2006

TABLE OF CONTENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 6

PRESENTATION 29

INTRODUCTION 33

EXPECTATIONS FROM HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEMS: NEW TRENDS IN THE WORLD AND IN TURKEY 34

1. NEW TRENDS IN HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM IN THE WORLD AND CHANGES IN EXPECTATIONS 34

Massification in Higher Education 35

Internationalization of Higher Education 36

Financing of Higher Education 38

Privatization in Higher Education 40

Autonomy and Accountability of University 42

Quality Assurance and Accreditation in Higher Education 43

Management/Governance in Higher Education 45

Enabling a Small Number of Research Universities to Stand Out in Governance Approaches related to University System 48

2. FORMATION OF EUROPEAN HIGHER EDUCATION AREA AND THE BOLOGNA PROCESS 48

Formation of European Higher Education Area 48

Bologna Process (Bologna, Prague, Berlin, Bergen Declarations) 49

Evaluation of Bologna Process 50

3. HOW DO THE EXPECTATIONS OF TURKEY FROM HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM DEVELOP 54

Changes in Demographic Transition Process and Opportunities Brought by this Process 54

Development Gap in Turkey and Expectations Related to Closing this Gap 58

Demand for Non-Instrumental Higher Education 60

CHAPTER I 62

CURRENT STRUCTURE AND PERFORMANCE OF HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM IN TURKEY 62

CURRENT STRUCTURE AND PERFORMANCE OF HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM IN TURKEY 63

1. STRUCTURES, STRUCTURAL DIFFERENTIATIONS AND DISTRIBUTIONS OF INSTITUTIONS 63

Historical Development 63

Introduction of Current Structure 64

Problems Experienced during the Functioning of the Existing Structure 70

2. FINANCING OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN TURKEY 74

Legal Framework for Financial Trends of Higher Education System in Turkey 74

About the Qualitative Sufficiency of Financing of the Higher Education 79

3. SUPPLY OF SECONDARY EDUCATION SYSTEM IN TURKEY AND STUDENT SELECTION AND PLACEMENT EXAMINATIONS 85

Schooling Rates at Secondary Education and Quality and Quantity Assessment of Supply 85

Justification of Student Selection Examination and Its Evolution 90

What Does Student Selection Examination (ÖSS) Measure? What Does It Aim to Achieve To What Extent? 92

What Student Selection and Placement System (ÖSYS) Fails to Do 92

Application and Placement to Universities 93

Side Effects Caused By Transition from Secondary Education to Higher Education by a Selection Examination 98

4. PERFORMANCE OF HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM IN TURKEY 102

Performance of Higher Education System in Turkey With Respect To Education Function 103

Existing Situation and New Developments in Quality Assurance in Higher Education in Turkey 120

Approaches to the training of academic staff 124

The Performance of Higher Education System in Turkey Regarding its Research Function 126

The Performance of Higher Education System in Turkey with regards to the Confidence It Provided in Public and the Public Service it offers 134

Internal Evaluation of the Higher Education System in Turkey 135

The Sensitivity of the Higher Education System in Turkey to Create Equality of Opportunity 137

INTRODUCTION TO STRATEGY 141

POINTS TO BE CONSIDERED WHILE DEVELOPING TURKEY’S HIGHER EDUCATION STRATEGY 142

1. FIELDS OF PROBLEM WITH STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE ON WHICH THE HIGHER EDUCATION STRATEGY WILL FOCUS 142

2. FOUR DIFFERENT LOGICS WHICH MUST BE KEPT IN MIND DURING THE DETERMINATION OF THE STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES OF THE HIGHER EDUCATION 145

3. TOOLS AND APPROACHES WHICH CAN BE USED FOR DESIGNING THE STRATEGY 148

CHAPTER II 151

HIGHER EDUCATION STRATEGY FOR TURKEY 151

1. THE HIGHER EDUCATION VISION FOR TURKEY 152

Education Vision 152

Production of Knowledge and Vision Regarding the Research Function 154

Suggestion for a Vision for Higher Education for the Production of Public Service 155

2. THE STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES OF THE HIGHER EDUCATION IN TURKEY 157

3. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE PASSAGE PERIOD FROM SECONDARY EDUCATION TO HIGHER EDUCATION 162

Search for solution regarding the arrangements to be applied to the whole educational system 163

Recommendation for a new Examination and Placement in the Passage to University 165

4. STRATEGIC SELECTIONS REGARDING THE ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE OF THE HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM 167

5. STRATEGIC CHOICES ABOUT IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF THE VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOLS 173

6. BASIC CHOICES ON ETHICAL VALUES IN UNIVERSITY 176

7. STRATEGIC CHOICES AT UNIVERSITIES ON LIFE AND MANAGEMENT CULTURE 179

8. STRATEGIC SELECTIONS ABOUT QUALITY ASSURANCE IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM 182

9. ORGANIZATIONS IN HIGHER EDUCATION ABOUT RESPONSIBILITY, SUPERVISION AND DISCIPLINE LAW 182

10. THE STRATEGIC SELECTIONS ABOUT EQUIPPING THE UNIVERSITY STUDENTS WITH FOREIGN LANGUAGE KNOWLEDGE 184

11. THE STRATEGIES OF MAKING USE OF THE NEW APPROACHES AND TECHNOLOGIES IN EDUCATION 185

12. STRATEGIC SELECTIONS IN ORDER TO QUICKLY INCREASE THE LABOR FORCE HAVING THE DOCTORATE AND POST DOCTORATE EDUCATION IN TURKEY’S HUMAN RESOURCES 186

13. THE STRATEGIES WHICH SHOULD BE FOLLOWED IN THE APPOINTMENT AND PROMOTION OF ACADEMIC PERSONNEL AND THEIR SELF IMPROVEMENTS 189

14. STRATEGIC CHOICES TO RAISE THE LIFE STANDARDS OF THE MEMBERS OF THE FACULTY AND DEVELOP THE EMPLOYEE RIGHTS 191

15. THE STRATEGY OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE IMPROVEMENT OF PERSONNEL EXCEPT FOR ACADEMIC STAFF 193

16. STRATEGIC CHOICES ON THE FINANCING OF HIGHER EDUCATION 194

IN CONCLUSION 198

ANNEXES 199

ANNEX 1. SCENARIOS RELATED TO THE CONTRIBUTION OF INCREASING SCHOOLING RATES ON THE HUMAN CAPITAL IN TURKEY 200

ANNEX 2. INFORMATION ON THE 15 UNIVERSITIES FOUNDED WITH THE LAW NO. 5467 203

ANNEX 3. NUMBER OF STUDENTS IN UNIVERSITIES IN 2004-2005 ACADEMIC YEAR 204

ANNEX 4. STATUSES OF TECHNOPARK INITIATIVES OF THE UNIVERSITIES IN TURKEY 207

ANNEX 5. COMPARISON OF CURRENT EXPENSES PER STUDENT AND TUITION FEES PAID BY STUDENTS BY EDUCATION FIELDS IN FORMAL EDUCATION ACCORDING TO THE FINAL ACCOUNT FOR THE YEAR 2004 209

ANNEX 6. SCHOOLING RATES BY EDUCATION YEAR AND SCHOOL GROUP 211

ANNEX 7. NUMBER OF STUDENTS IN SECONDARY EDUCATION LEVEL BY YEARS 212

ANNEX 8. NUMBER OF GRADUATES BY SCHOOL TYPES IN 2003-2004 ACADEMIC YEAR 213

ANNEX 9. INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS RELATED TO EDUCATION QUALITY IN TURKEY 214

ANNEX 10. NUMBER OF CANDIDATES WHO APPLY TO AND PLACED IN HIGHER EDUCATION 216

ANNEX 11. NUMBER OF APPLICATIONS TO THE STUDENT SELECTION AND PLACEMENT EXAMINATION IN 2005 217

ANNEX 12. INFORMATION ON PLACEMENT OF GENERAL HIGH SCHOOL AND VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE STUDENT SELECTION AND PLACEMENT EXAMINATION IN 2005 218

ANNEX 13. PLACEMENT RATES ACCORDING TO APPLICATION STATUSES IN THE STUDENT SELECTION AND PLACEMENT EXAMINATION IN 2005 219

ANNEX 14. NUMBER OF PRIVATE EDUCATION CENTRES PROVIDING COURSES FOR UNIVERSITY ENTRANCE EXAMINATION AND THEIR STUDENTS BY YEARS 220

ANNEX 15. DISTRIBUTION OF STUDENTS BY LOCATION AT THE END OF 2005 (EXCLUDING PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES AND FACULTY OF OPEN EDUCATION) 221

ANNEX 16. INTERNATIONAL COMPARISON ON SHARE OF DISTANCE EDUCATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION 222

ANNEX 17. NUMBER OF STUDENTS AND GRADUATES IN OPEN EDUCATION 223

ANNEX 18. GRADE AVERAGES IN THE EXAMINATION FOR SPECIALIZATION IN MEDICINE IN APRIL 2005 AND THEIR DISTRIBUTION BY FACULTY/DEPARTMENT 224

ANNEX 19. DISTRIBUTION OF THE CANDIDATES PLACED IN BACHELOR’S DEGREE PROGRAMS IN THE STUDENT SELECTION AND PLACEMENT EXAMINATION IN 2005 BY UNIVERSITIES AND THEIR PREFERENCES 226

ANNEX 20. NUMBER OF TURKISH ORIGIN SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS AND CITATIONS TO THESE PUBLICATIONS 229

ANNEX 21. CHANGE IN SALARIES OF THE ACADEMIC STAFF IN HIGHER EDUCATION IN TIME 234

ANNEX 22. UNIVERSITY ENTRANCE SYSTEMS APPLIED BY DIFFERENT COUNTRIES 237






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