The aim of the project Sami school history

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The aim of the project Sami school history

  • To document the Government's school politics towards the Sami, the Sami's experiences in school and the work to establish a Sami school.

  • – On the local-, national- and all-Sami - level

  • – Through all times

  • – The politically established curriculum, the carried out curriculum, the experienced curriculum

  • "Research should be for the benefit of the people being researched" – Make the basis to improve the education for Sami pupils and the information about the Sami

  • Part of school research and development for indigenous populations and minorities



Who are behind this?

  • The publishing house Davvi Girji

  • The editors (4)

  • Writers

  • Narrators

  • Translators

  • Proofreaders

  • Photographers

  • Other helpers

  • Alltogether several houndreds of people



Sources of Sami school history

  • Books, periodicals and newspapers

  • Public and private archives

  • Narrations of former pupils, teachers and parents

  • Photo

  • Film and sound recordings



Sami school history - 1 (2005)

  • Articles on norwegianization, the church and lost schooling

  • Pupils, teachers, employees in the boarding schools and parents tell

  • Throughout the Sami area in Norway: Tana, Kautokeino, Karasjok, Alta, Måsøy, Kvænangen, Kåfjord, Skånland and Hattfjelldal

  • Main focus on the primary school



Sami school history 2 (2007)

  • The reindeer husbandry school and Sami secondary schools

  • Stories from primary school in Tana, Sør-Varanger, Karasjok, Nordkapp, Loppa, Nordreisa, Kåfjord and Tysfjord

  • From Sami education council, director of schools and the ministry



Sami school history 3 (2009)

  • Kindergartens: Nesseby, Tana, Karasjok, Tromsø, Skånland, Tysfjord, Snåsa and Oslo

  • Primary school: Máze, Lebesby, Kvalsund, Hasvik, Lavangen

  • About the language situation



Sami school history 4 (2010)

  • Documents pro and contra norwegianization, 1750-1935

  • Primary school: Tana, Nesseby, Hammerfest, Måsøy, Beiarn, Gildeskål, Engerdal

  • Special needs education (Blind, deaf, disabled and "difficult" pupils)



Sami school history 5 (2011)

  • Curriculums and struggles about curriculums

  • Secondary schools: Karasjok, Kautokeino, Kirkenes, Nordreisa, Hamarøy

  • Primary school: Gamvik, Porsanger, Kautokeino, Skånland, Narvik, Ballangen, Grane, Hattfjelldal and Snåsa

  • War and reconstruction



Sami school history 6 (2013)



http://skuvla.info

  • Project presentation in 7 languages (Sá, No, Se, Fi, En, Ru, Pl)

  • All the text and photos from the books

  • 240 additional articles

  • 36 newspaper articles in 3 languages

  • Litterature list

  • List of teaching materials

  • Lectures

  • ++



The first education in Sami

  • The first schools for Sami were established in Sweden in the 17th century

  • From 1716 mission – Thomas v. Westen – missionaries and teachers taught in Sami language

  • From then on there have been struggles concerning the language of teaching. In some periods the school was supposed to be in Sami and text books in Sami language were made

  • 1826 – the first teacher's college – Sami language as a subject



The politics of norwegianization wins

  • In 1851 the Storting decided to gradually change the language of teaching from Sami to Norwegian.

  • “Finnefondet” (Lapp foundation)

  • “Transitional areas”

  • Language instructions

  • The teacher's college quit offering education in Sami language

  • 1902: Separate director of schools in Finnmark.



The boarding school era

  • Around 1900 the government decided to build boarding schools around Finnmark

  • The first governmental boarding schools in Sør-Varanger and Guovdageaidnu

  • 21 governmental boarding schools and 28 municipal boarding schools in Finnmark 1940

  • In Norwegian language and a Norwegian cultural environment



Resistance

  • Most people in the Norwegian society supported the politics of norwegianizing, but there were a few exceptions

  • Among the protesters were:

  • A few priests, Norwegian teachers, the Sami mission

  • A few Norwegian politicians

  • Sami teachers (Anders Larsen, Isak Saba, Henrik Kvandahl)

  • Sami parents

  • Sami newspapers and organizations



Times change

  • 1948: The coordination committee of the school system: The politics towards the Sami has been wrong

  • 1951: Bilingual ABC (still only an auxillary language)

  • 1959 education act: A principal change: Sami can be used as language of teaching

  • 1967: Sami langauge initial training

  • 1972: Sami as 2. language

  • 1985: Sami as the language of teaching throughout primary school



Sami school?

  • 1976: Sami education council

  • 1987, 1997, 2006: Sami curriculums

  • 1989: Sami university college

  • 2000: Sami education governed by the Sami parliament

  • More than 2000 pupils studied in Sami in Norway, the number is now decreasing



The missioning epoch

  • The main purpose of the teaching: Salvation

  • The most important subject in the school: Christianity

  • Separate schooling for Sami people 1715-1808

  • Teaching in Sami to a certain extent

  • Many Sami learned to read and write in the Sami language

  • Struggle between the mission and the church leadership









Results of the norwegianizing

  • Sami speakers more than 40-50 years old are not able to write in their mother tongue

  • Almost all Sami parents in South- and Lule Sami areas, in Troms and coastal-Finnmark spoke Norwegian to their children

  • Now about 75% of the Sami are not able to speak Sami

  • About 50% of those who speak Sami speak another language better

  • Many do not want to be Sami anymore



Shortages – Within the scope of the book project: Articles, memories and documents from school life in the Norwegian part of Sápmi

  • Insufficient are still some:

  • Districts

  • Kinds of schools

  • Course of studies and subjects

  • Perspectives (who narrates)

  • Epochs

  • Special themes



Shortages – Outside the scope of the book project

  • Similar documentation from other countries

  • History of teaching aids

  • Research

  • Chronological history

  • Archives, libraries and museums

  • Other media

  • The big world



Common-Sami

  • Sweden

  • Umeå university

  • The Swedish church

  • Editors: Some memories from school

  • Finland

  • Editors: Gathered ca. 15 research articles + a few memories from school

  • Russia

  • Sami teachers

  • Murmansk hum. university



History of teaching aids

  • Teaching aids in connection to the aims of the school and the curriculums.

  • A. Teaching aids for Sami pupils

  • – Sami (first-, second- or foreign language)

  • – in Sami or bilingual (all subjects)

  • – following the Sami curriculum (independent of language)

  • – official language for Sami pupils

  • B. Content about the Sami people on the national level. (UiT)



Research

  • 2005 Davvi Girji invited research institutions

  • 2009 Sámi University College: report on possible research.

  • 2011 Announcement of preliminary project for doctorate

  • 2012 Umeå university and UiT are planning research projects

  • A general research program does not exist.

  • There's a lack of cooperation



Other media

  • – Book for children and youth.

  • – Webpages in other languages.

  • – Articles in newspapers and periodicals

  • – Fiction based on the school history

  • – Film.

  • – Lectures in schools and other forums.

  • – ???



Chronological history

  • – The basis must be documentation and research. Need to see structure and general lines before one can begin writing.

  • – Should be common-Sami school history, which can compare the situation in 4 countries.

  • Long-term perspectives.



The big world – 1

  • Sami school history a part of the school history of indegenous peoples and minorities.

  • Contact:

  • – 1950-/60's teachers from Sápmi visiting American indigenous people and Frisland

  • – After 2000: Sami school- and language people visited Wales, Ireland, Scotland, Euskadi.

  • – Poland and Lithuania.

  • – WINHEC

  • – Minority students and school people visited Sami schools

  • – UiT: Indigenous Studies



The big world – 2

  • What can be done:

  • – Litterature list on minority education

  • – Internationalize our webpage

  • – Conference on indigenous peoples Nesw York.

  • – 2016 Donostia, Euskadi European cultural capital – gather European minorities.

  • – ???



How to continue the work?

  • Who will contribute?

  • Institutions

  • Researchers, students

  • Writers

  • Translators

  • How to organize?

  • National level

  • Common-Sami level

  • A separate institution or part of other institution(s)?

  • Who will pay?




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