The meteorological data on a global scale are so important for initialization purposes in Numerical Weather Prediction. Particularly over data-sparse areas like Indian Ocean

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The meteorological data on a global scale are so important for initialization purposes in Numerical Weather Prediction. Particularly over data-sparse areas like Indian Ocean, can be met only through derivation of products indirectly from satellite data.

  • The meteorological data on a global scale are so important for initialization purposes in Numerical Weather Prediction. Particularly over data-sparse areas like Indian Ocean, can be met only through derivation of products indirectly from satellite data.

  • Since 1984, India Meteorological Department (IMD) routinely provides the processed imagery and derived quantitative products from various INSAT satellites to the user community



INSAT Series





At present the following two Geostationary satellites are in operation

  • At present the following two Geostationary satellites are in operation

  • Kalpana –1 launched in Sept. 2002 is located at 74.0°E

  • INSAT-3A launched in April, 2003 is located at 93.5°E











INSAT products availability

  • OLR,QPE, CMV,SST are available from 1990 onwards.

  • Water vapour imageries and related products were introduced from 1999 onwards.

  • UTH & NDVI are available from 2010 onwards.







NSDC has been commissioned in the SatMet Division w.e.f. 26.10.2005.

  • NSDC has been commissioned in the SatMet Division w.e.f. 26.10.2005.

  • The Center provides the following key capabilities:

  • Archival of processed imagery data (HDF-5 format ) of all available channels and all data of derived quantitative products from a number of operational satellites (INSAT-1D,2E,3A and KALPANA-1) is available online.

  • Data can also be transferred to the user in JPEG and ASCII format as well.

  • The system is also maintaining on-line storage of current data and products for last 2-3 months.

  • NSDC has its own weblink on IMD website to facilitate data availability and request for retrieval. Data can be disseminated to the user via:

    • ftp link;
    • CD or DVD;
    • Portable media
















A network of 353 CWDS (252 analog and 101 Digital) stations is operational along the east and west coast of India for warning the coastal regions in their local language in case of a cyclone approaching those areas.

  • A network of 353 CWDS (252 analog and 101 Digital) stations is operational along the east and west coast of India for warning the coastal regions in their local language in case of a cyclone approaching those areas.

  • This network is also going to be replaced by 500 nos. DTH modified type CWDS stations within a years time.











Oceansat-II Winds



Installation of data reception / processing systems from NOAA/Metop/MODIS polar orbiting satellites at New Delhi, Chennai and Guawahati is completed.

  • Installation of data reception / processing systems from NOAA/Metop/MODIS polar orbiting satellites at New Delhi, Chennai and Guawahati is completed.

  • The images and products from these systems are also displayed on IMD website for use in weather forecasting.



3.1. Cloud detection

  • 3.1. Cloud detection

  • 3.2. Cloud-top pressure (AVHRR)

  • 3.3. Cloud-top height (AVHRR)

  • 3.4. Cloud-top temperature (AVHRR)

  • 3.5. Cloud type (AVHRR)

  • 3.6. Cloud amount (AVHRR)

  • 3.7. Sea-surface temperature (AVHRR)

  • 3.8. Land-surface temperature (AVHRR)

  • 3.9. Fog

  • 3.10. Normalised Difference Vegetation Index

  • 3.11. Temperature profile (ATOVS)

  • 3.12. Moisture profile (ATOVS)

  • 3.13. Total ozone (ATOVS)

  • 3.14. Surface emissivity (ATOVS)

  • 3.15. Total column precipitable water (ATOVS)

  • 3.16. Precipitation index (ATOVS)

  • 3.17. Surface pressure (ATOVS)

  • 3.18. Cloud fraction (ATOVS)

  • 3.19. Surface temperature (ATOVS)



  • 4.1. MODIS true colour

  • 4.2. Aerosol optical depth

  • 4.3. Total totals index

  • 4.4. Lifted index

  • 4.5. K index

  • 4.6. Surface temperature

  • 4.7. Surface pressure

  • 4.8. Water vapour /Precipitable water amount

  • 4.9. Temperature profile /Moisture Profile

  • 4.10. Cloud top pressure

  • 4.11. Cloud top height

  • 4.12. Cloud top temperature

  • 4.13. Cloud fraction

  • 4.14. Cloud effective particle radius

  • 4.15. Cloud optical thickness

  • 4.16. Cloud effective emissivity

  • 4.17. Cloud mask

  • 4.18. Cloud phase

  • 4.19 Cirrus reflectance

  • 4.20. Tropopause height

  • 4.21. Brightness temperature

  • 4.22. Sea-surface temperature

  • 4.23. Vegetation index

  • 4.24. Thermal anomalies

  • 4.25. Fog



Application of Satellite Products



Synoptic bulletins providing descriptions of the cloud organisation and coverage are also sent as advisory to forecasting offices every synoptic hour.

  • Synoptic bulletins providing descriptions of the cloud organisation and coverage are also sent as advisory to forecasting offices every synoptic hour.

  • Whenever cyclones are detected in satellite imagery, these bulletins are sent every hour. Such advisories are also transmitted to the neighbouring countries. 







Severe weather Forecast Demonstration Project (FDP)

  • At present four sub-projects are there under this programme:

    • FDP on landfalling tropical cyclones over the Bay of Bengal
    • Severe Thunderstorm Observations and Regional Modeling (STORM ).
    • FOG


FDP on landfalling tropical cyclones over the Bay of Bengal

  • In addition to present services provided to all countries in our RSMC region some special products will be added like

      • Special satellite bulletins
      • Special satellite images for all vortices in the region
  • These products will also be sent to the other neighboring countries : Thailand, Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia.











FDP on Severe Thunderstorm Observations and Regional Modeling (STORM )

  • This project taken up during pre-monsoon season from 2006 onwards.

  • Neighboring countries; Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh are also participating in this project.

  • Hourly satellite based bulletins are issued and concerned region is also informed by phone.















Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) activity



Data Assimilation



Medium Range Forecast

  • Medium Range Forecast

  • > GFS T-574/L64 with GDAS ( 00 & 12 UTC)

  • > MME based District Level Forecasts

  • Short Range Forecast

  • > WRF (ARW) VAR at 27 km and 9 km

  • > WRF (NMM) at 9 km for TC 4 times a day

  • > HWRF

  • > MME based cyclone track prediction

  • > Polar WRF for Antarctica

  • Nowcast and Very Short Range Forecast

  • > Hourly venue specific forecast- WRF (3 km)

  • > ARPS with assimilation of DWR

  • > Nowcast System with assimilation of DWR









Data Requirement

  • SEVIRI

  • WINDSAT ( Coriolis satellite )

  • CMA (along with decoder in case of GTS)

  • COMS (along with decoder in case of GTS)



Future Aspects





Instruments Available and planned for MT _validation



Proposed Megha Tropiques Data Utilization at IMD





Megha-Tropique sample products







Establishments of the “COE” for training and education in satellite Meteorology at Satellite Division, Satellite Building, Lodi Road, New Delhi-110003.

  • Establishments of the “COE” for training and education in satellite Meteorology at Satellite Division, Satellite Building, Lodi Road, New Delhi-110003.

  • To run international level training events.

  • Develop and run regular weather discussions.



IMETCAST

  • DMDD will be replaced by IMETCAST in future.

  • Transmission of all satellite (INSAT-3D & polar orbiting) products.

  • Speed of transmission will be at least four times better than DMDD (128kbps).



Upgradation of data centre

  • IMD is going to upgrade the existing data centre to meet the requirements of the users






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