The other side of the coin: the growing opposition in turkey against to the european union accession



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TÜRK-İŞ community supports the social values of EU and believes that the idea of “Social Europe” is the only alternative against the wild–capitalism. 65% of the participants think that EU membership will affect the work life in Turkey in a positive way.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2. Do you think that the requests of EU are fair and rightful?

 

 

 

TÜRK-İŞ community supports the EU membership because of its social values. Although it is claimed that Turkey has fulfilled its’ obligations about Copenhagen Criteria, the requests of EU from Turkish Government regarding political issues are still continuing. TÜRK-İŞ Community thinks that EU should give the priority to the social rights, especially to the full trade union rights. The 81% of the participants think that the requests of EU from Turkey are not fair and rightful.




 




 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3. Should Turkey fulfill all the current requests of the EU to be a member?

 

 

 

 

 

 

TÜRK-İŞ Community thinks that Turkey doesn’t have any obligation to provide satisfaction to each of the EU countries fulfilling the country based requests. There is a consensus that Turkey must be a full member after a rational period and under the same conditions with the other candidate countries. 82% of the participants say “No” to the current requests of EU.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4. Do you think that EU is Cheating Turkey?

 

 

 

TÜRK-İŞ Community thinks that EU is not fair and not ready concerning the accession of Turkey to EU. 88% of the participants say “Yes EU is cheating Turkey”.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5. Do you that EU will accept Turkey to the EU membership?

 

 

 

TÜRK-İŞ Community considers that EU is carrying the responsibility of the period starting with The Ankara Agreement. Although the 65% of the participants support EU membership, 74% of them have concerns about the final decisions of the EU member countries.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Confederation of Turkish Trade Unions, EU Relations. “TÜRK-İŞ Community Supports the EU Membership, but…” (The data for the publication date is not available. The original text was taken from the website of TÜRK-İŞ, nothing deleted or added.) http://www.turkis.org.tr/source.cms.docs/turkis.org.tr.ce/docs/file/POLL.pdf

Furthermore, the Chairman of Turkish Exporters Assembly (Türkiye İhracatçılar Meclisi - TIM) Mehmet Büyükekşi states the main problem as Turkey became a member of the Customs Union without becoming a member country of the EU.167 The unique status of Turkey compare to member countries of the EU causes difficulties on agreements which are related with the CU, especially the Free Trade Area Agreements (Serbest Ticaret Alanı Anlaşması –STA) which the EU signs with non-member countries. Unlike the member states of the EU, Turkey has to accept without any negotiation processes and causes an unfair atmosphere between the EU and Turkey. At the end STAs always result in favor of the EU and affect the level of exports as well as the external trade and economy of Turkey.


On the other hand, Hayati Yazıcı points out that CU has also positive impacts; but its negative impacts cause the economical problems. He also determines the disappointments of Turkey about the EU’s unfulfilled obligations related to the Customs Union168 which took place in Ankara Agreement and Additional Protocols.
The unfulfilled obligations of the EU can be listed as:

  • Free Movement of Labour

  • Systemic Control of Country of Origin for Colour Televisions and Anti-Dumping Investigation

  • Financial Support

  • Non-inclusion of Turkey to the EU’s Free Trade Agreements (FTA) vis-à-vis the Third Parties

  • Non-inclusion of Agricultural Products to the Customs Union

  • Transport Quotas

  • Schengen Visa Requirements for Turkish Nationals and the Issue of Freedom of Provision of Services

Yazıcı concludes his article by representing his disappointments about the EU and demands on the CU. “Despite Turkey’s close cooperation with the EU, some issues have led to an increased frustration on the former’s side. Turkey is still conducting accession negotiations with the EU which have been further complicated by the unresolved Cyprus problem. Turkish frustration has been also caused by the EU’s insufficient support for Turkey’s battle against domestic terrorism (e.g. PKK). Since the establishment of a Customs Union between the EU and Turkey in 1996, the latter went through radical changes in its Customs legislation and administration in order to meet the EU standards. Turkish economy improved, however its trade deficit with the EU and third parties has increased. Additionally, the EU has failed -thus far- to fulfill certain important obligations which were envisioned in the CU Agreement concerning, among others, the free movement of Turkish citizens in the EU and the removal of trade barriers.”169


In this context, the article presents the fact that the problems between the EU and Turkey are not based on only the CU; but the EU, its demands from Turkey and its slow motion steps with respect to EU accession process of Turkey. In fact the disappointment of Turkey about the EU can be found in every statement of the Turkish officials. Continues economic growth of Turkey gives it a chance to make demands from the EU and raise its voice against to the EU. In fact, economic growth and strengths of Turkey started to change the relations between Turkey and the EU that also affects the interest level of Turkey to the EU accession.

VII. CONCLUSION
The end of the never ending story between the EU and Turkey is one of the issues in international policies that everybody would like to know. By wondering to know if Turkey will be an EU member state one day or not, it became an issue of 54 years. With regard to this issue, there has been made numerous researches and written a series of articles by various academicians. However, it seems that more will be written for a long time because “analysts predict that at best, Turkish membership in the EU is at least another decade away”.170
Growing opposition in Turkey against to the EU accession is not an old topic, even though a considerable opposition has always been existed since the begging of the dialogues. Nevertheless, they were not mentioned enough and Turkey was always in a position as a country which wants to become an EU member state by giving an important priority to the EU membership in its politics that otherwise cannot be thought. When Turkey started to rise in international politics with its strengths, in parallel, the opposition against to the EU also increased. Accordingly, the highest level officials from Turkish government began to make such statements to show that EU is not the only option for Turkey by mentioning the international organisations like ASEAN and SCO was presented on the statement of Turkish Prime Minister, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, in earlier chapter.
Furthermore, the indicators of national power of Turkey are decisive reasons to create other options than the EU. There is a fundamental approach from the people who do not support the accession process to the EU that can be simply described as “the big and strong country Turkey does not need the EU”. The accuracy of this approach can be questioned and discussed. However, this kind of approach leads and brings out two different options for Turkey. First option is that Turkey should be able to say “NO” to the EU171 by getting stronger and developing its-self in every respect such as in economy, technology, democracy, education etc. Second option is that Turkey should consider the Eurasia option172 and take a side next to the strong eastern countries. Nevertheless, in the case of second option, NATO membership of Turkey should be taking into consideration because of having strong militarily, as well as economically, ties between the EU and Turkey. In both scenarios the main aim is to find alternatives to the EU which affects the declining interest in Turkey to the EU accession. Notwithstanding, achievability of their aim is a big and open debate.
To achieve the aim of the thesis, the interest level of Turkey to the EU membership was analysed. By emphasizing the growing opposition against to the EU, same or very similar arguments of the people were presented to explain the reasons why there is such a belief that the EU membership is against to the sovereignty and integrity of Turkey. The stressed issues were the most sensitive ones from those people’s point of view because they mainly believe that “whoever asserts that the EU membership will produce good results for Turkey, intentionally or without knowingly, they serve the aim of imperialist countries to realize the Treaty of Sèvres”.173 As it was mentioned earlier, the main reason why they stress this treaty is the minorities issue in Turkey where is considered as “the heaven of minorities”.174 One last time, it is necessary to indicate that the presented arguments do not belong to entire Turkey or to whole people who do not support the EU membership. On the contrary, AKP government in Turkey made lots of changes step by step to handle with the issues, especially with the Kurdish question, even though the opposition arguments exist and effective. In accordance of this fact, more researches on opposition in Turkey should be made and deeply analysed to understand the issues as whole from the both sides. One of the famous expressions of Sigmund Freud, the founding father of psychoanalysis, underlines that “Opposition is not necessarily enmity; it is merely misused and made an occasion for enmity”.

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1 HARRISON, Lisa. (2001) Political Research: An Introduction. London, England: Routledge, 1st edition. pp. 5


2 Ibid.


3 HARRISON, 2001: 74


4 Ibid.


5 Ortaylı, İlber. 2011. “Avrupa ve Biz” İstanbul, Turkey: Türkiye İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları. 8th edition. p.39.


6 Ibid. p.144.


7 Milletvekili Genel Seçimleri 1923-2011 (the General Election of Representatives 1923-2011). Ankara: Turkish Statistical Institute, June 2012. Explanation Chapter, pp. X – XI.



8 Bonnie G. Smith, The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History: 4 Volume Set (Oxford University Press, Vol.1, 2008). p. 171.


9 United Nations members: http://www.un.org/en/members/


10 North Atlantic Treaty Organization member countries: http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/topics_52044.htm


11 Membership of Republic of Turkey to the Council of Europe: http://www.coe.int/en/web/portal/turkey


12 Member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development: http://www.oecd.org/general/listofoecdmembercountries-ratificationoftheconventionontheoecd.htm


13 Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (2007). History of Turkey – EU Relations, the Ankara Agreement. Retrieved from Republic of Turkey Ministry For EU Affairs official website: http://www.ab.gov.tr/index.php?p=111&l=2


14 “Article 28: As soon as the operation of this Agreement has advanced far enough to justify envisaging full acceptance by Turkey of the obligations arising out of the Treaty establishing the Community, the Contracting Parties shall examine the possibility of the accession of Turkey.”

Information and notices. (1973). Official Journal of the European Communities, (Vol.: 16, No: C 113), p. 25. Official website. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/turkey/association_agreement_1964_en.pdf




15 ÖYMEN, Onur. 2003. Türkiye`nin Gücü: 21.Yüzyılda Türkiye, Avrupa ve Dünya. Istanbul, Turkey: Remzi Kitapevi, 5th edition. p.273.


16 In accordance with Republic of Turkey, Ministry for European Union Affairs records, 92% of Turkey's agricultural exports benefited by abolishing customs duties and quantity restrictions through the Additional Protocol. Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (2007). History of Turkey – EU Relations, the Additional Protocol .


17 Prof. ÖZBUDUN, Ergun. Türk Siyasal Hayatı (Turkish Political Life). Eskişehir, TURKEY:Publication of Anadolu University, 7th edition, 2010. p. 28.


18 Republic of Turkey, Ministry for the EU Affairs. Chronology of Turkey – European Union Relations between the years 1959 and 2009, (22 January 1982), http://www.ab.gov.tr/index.php?p=112&l=2


19 Müftüler-Baç, Meltem. Türkiye ve Avrupa Birliği; Soğuk Savaş sonrası İlişkiler, Istanbul, Turkey: Alfa yayınları. 2001. pp. 37.


20 Republic of Turkey, Ministry for the EU Affairs. Chronology of Turkey – European Union Relations between the years 1959 and 2009 (18 December 1989).


21 Müftüler-Baç, Meltem. (1998) “The never-ending story: Turkey and the European Union” in Middle Eastern Studies, vol.34, no.4, p.241.


22 Regular Report from the Commission on Turkey’s Progress towards Accession (1998). p.5.


23 Müftüler-Baç, Meltem. (1998) “The never-ending story: Turkey and the European Union” in Middle Eastern Studies, vol.34, no.4, pp. 241. http://myweb.sabanciuniv.edu/muftuler/files/2008/10/muftulerbacmiddleeasternstudies1998.pdf


24 Republic of Turkey, Ministry for the EU Affairs. History f Turkey - EU Relation. http://www.abgs.gov.tr/index.php?p=111&l=2


25 Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Turkey – EU Relations. http://www.abgs.gov.tr/index.php?p=111&l=2


26 Republic of Turkey, Ministry for the EU Affairs. History f Turkey - EU Relation. http://www.abgs.gov.tr/index.php?p=111&l=2


27 Dikbaș, Yılmaz. Avrupa Birliği: Tabuta Çakılan Son Çivi (İstanbul, Turkey: Asya Șafak Yayınları, 2007), 6th edition. p. 32.


28 Regular Report from the Commission on Turkey’s Progress towards Accession (1998). p.7.


29 European External Action Service. Delegation of the European Union to Turkey, Financial Assistance Between 1999 – 2006. http://www.avrupa.info.tr/en/eu-funding-in-turkey/2007-onwards/before-2007/financial-assistance-between-1999-2006.html


30 Republic of Turkey, Ministry for the EU Affairs. Chronology of Turkey – European Union Relations between the years 1959 and 2009. http://www.abgs.gov.tr/index.php?p=112&l=2


31 Republic of Turkey, Ministry for the EU Affairs. History f Turkey - EU Relation.


32 Republic of Turkey, Ministry for the EU Affairs. Chronology of Turkey – European Union Relations between the years 1959 and 2009


33 Council of the European Union, The Presidency Conclusions of the European Council meeting in Brussels on 16-17 December 2004. Article 22, p.6.


34 Republic of Turkey, Ministry for the EU Affairs. Chronology of Turkey – European Union Relations between the years 1959 and 2009, (20 January 2006).


35 Ibid. (8 November 2006).


36 Ibid. (11 December 2006).


37 Öymen, Onur. 2003. “Türkiye`nin Gücü: 21.Yüzyılda Türkiye, Avrupa ve Dünya”. Istanbul, Turkey: Remzi Kitapevi. 5th edition. p. 51.


38 In accordance with the Address Based Population Registration System’s results in 2012, the population of Istanbul is 13.854.740 persons that constitute 18.3% of Turkey's population in total.


39 The proportions of the age groups are based on the results of the Address Based Population Registration System in 2012. http://www.turkstat.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=13425


40 The notion of “youth” determines the age group of 15-24 whilst the concept of “Adult” points out the age group of 25-64. Youth in Statistics 2011. http://www.turkstat.gov.tr/Kitap.do?metod=KitapDetay&KT_ID=5&KITAP_ID=251



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