Waste generation and resource recovery in Australia

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Waste generation and resource recovery in Australia

Reporting period 2010/11
Final report

prepared for

Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities

4 February 2014

Waste generation and resource recovery in Australia

Reporting period 2010/11



Final report version 2.6

P321

4 February 2014

Disclaimer

This report has been prepared for Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities in accordance with the terms and conditions of appointment dated 15 June 2012, and is based on the assumptions and exclusions set out in our scope of work. Information in this document is current as of May 2013. This report has been compiled based on secondary information and data provided by other parties; as such it relies on the accuracy of the provided material. Although the data has been reviewed, the information provided was assumed to be correct unless otherwise stated.

While all professional care has been undertaken in preparing this report, Blue Environment Pty Ltd cannot accept any responsibility for any use of or reliance on the contents of this report by any third party.

© DSEWPaC and Blue Environment Pty Ltd, 2013

Blue Environment prints on 100% recycled content paper

Authors

Paul Randell, Joe Pickin, Bill Grant

Reviewers

Christine Wardle, Joe Pickin


Blue Environment Pty Ltd

ABN 78 118 663 997

Suite 212B, 757 Bourke Street, Docklands Vic 3008

email: blue@blueenvironment.com.au

web: www.blueenvironment.com.au

Phone +61 3 8102 9372

+61 3 5426 3536

CONTENTS



Executive summary 6

1.Introduction 14

1.Introduction 14

a)Report structure 15

b)Data layout 15

2.Per capita and total tonnage data. This outlines how much waste the jurisdiction generated in per person and in total, and provides data on the management of the waste materials (i.e. was it recycled, recovered for energy or disposed). 15

3.Waste stream data. This summarises the sources of waste, i.e. the amount derived from MSW, C&I or C&D activities. 15

4.Material category data and analysis. This presents the amounts of the main materials (i.e. metal, plastic, organics, etc.) that make up the generated waste. 15

5.Waste reuse data (where available). Where waste reuse data has been provided by the jurisdiction, it is included as a total tonnage only (see section 30 for further discussion). 15

a)Data reliability 16

b)Other notes on the data 16

6.Waste data context 17

6.Waste data context 17

a)Population 17

b)Economic activity — gross state product 19

c)Average income per capita 20

d)Urbanisation 21

7.Australia 2010/11 22

7.Australia 2010/11 22

a)Australia 2010/11 total and per capita tonnage and resource recovery rate 22

b)Australia 2010/11 waste stream data 24

i)Australia 2010/11 waste stream data by jurisdiction 25

c)Australia 2010/11 data by material category 27

i)Masonry material 27

ii)Metals 27

iii)Organics 27

iv)Paper and cardboard 28

v)Plastics 28

vi)Glass 28

vii)Other 28

viii)Hazardous 28

ix)Fly ash 28

8.National trends, 2006/07 to 2010/11 29

8.National trends, 2006/07 to 2010/11 29

9.International data comparison 32

9.International data comparison 32

a)Waste generation 32

b)Municipal solid waste trends 34

i)Methods of MSW disposal 35

ii)Broad international comparison 36

10.Australian Capital Territory 40

10.Australian Capital Territory 40

a)ACT 2010/11 40

i)Per capita waste generation and resource recovery rate 40

ii)Total waste generated 40

iii)Material categories 40

iv)Waste streams 40

b)ACT trends 2006/07 to 2010/11 42

i)ACT waste reuse data 2006/07 to 2010/11 43

11.New South Wales 44

11.New South Wales 44

a)NSW 2010/11 44

i)Per capita waste generation and resource recovery rate 44

ii)Total waste generated 44

iii)Waste streams 44

iv)Material categories 44

b)NSW trends 2006/07 to 2010/11 46

12.Northern Territory 48

12.Northern Territory 48

a)NT 2010/11 48

i)Data reliability 48

ii)Per capita waste generation and resource recovery rate 48

iii)Total waste generated 48

iv)Waste streams 48

v)Material categories 48

b)NT trends 2006 – 10 48

13.Queensland 50

13.Queensland 50

a)Qld 2010/11 50

i)Per capita waste generation and resource recovery rate 50

ii)Total waste generated 50

iii)Waste streams 50

iv)Material categories 50

b)Qld trends 2008/09 to 2011/12 52

14.South Australia 54

14.South Australia 54

a)SA 2010/11 54

i)Per capita waste generation and resource recovery rate 54

ii)Total waste generated 54

iii)Waste streams 54

iv)Material categories 54

b)SA trends 2006/07 to 2010/11 56

15.Tasmania 58

15.Tasmania 58

a)Tas 2010/11 58

i)Per capita waste generation and resource recovery rate 58

ii)Total waste generated 58

iii)Waste streams 58

iv)Material categories 58

b)Tas trends 2006/07 to 2010/11 60

16.Victoria 62

16.Victoria 62

a)Vic 2010/11 62

i)Reconciliation with Vic reported data 62

ii)Per capita waste generation and resource recovery rate 62

iii)Total waste generated 62

iv)Waste streams 62

v)Material categories 62

b)Vic trends 2006/07 to 2010/11 64

17.Western Australia 66

17.Western Australia 66

a)WA 2010/11 66

i)Per capita waste generation and resource recovery rate 66

ii)Total waste generated 66

iii)Waste streams 66

iv)Material categories 66

b)WA trends 2006/07 to 2010/11 68

18.Data summary tables (2010/11) 71

18.Data summary tables (2010/11) 71

a)Data sources for jurisdictions’ data sections 10 – 18 82

19.Organic waste data analysis 84

19.Organic waste data analysis 84

a)National and jurisdictional recovery 85

b)Recovery trends 88

c)Trends by jurisdiction 89

d)Products and markets 90

20.Product-specific (product stewardship) data 94

20.Product-specific (product stewardship) data 94

a)TVs and computers recycling scheme 94

b)MobileMuster (mobile phones) 95

c)FluoroCycle (mercury-containing lamps) 96

d)Australian Packaging Covenant 96

e)Product stewardship for end-of-life tyres 97

21.Local government data 100

21.Local government data 100

22.Waste management frameworks (strategies, policies and targets) 102

22.Waste management frameworks (strategies, policies and targets) 102

23.Barriers to resource recovery 113

23.Barriers to resource recovery 113

24.The environmental impacts of waste management 116

24.The environmental impacts of waste management 116

a)The environmental impact of landfills 116

i)Landfills in Australia 116

ii)Landfill leachate and its management 117

iii)Landfill gas and its management 118

iv)Greenhouse gas emissions from landfill 118

b)The environmental impacts of other waste operations 120

c)Environmental impacts of waste electrical and electronic equipment 121

d)Dumping and littering 123

e)The environmental benefits of resource recovery 123

i)Embodied greenhouse gas in waste disposal to landfill 124

25.Waste data collation definitions 126

25.Waste data collation definitions 126

a)Materials consumption 126

1.primary production of raw materials (mining) and livestock (agriculture) 126

26.raw material processing 126

27.manufacturing of products and materials 126

28.consumer use (consumption) 127

29.waste generation. 127

a)Waste 127

i)All waste 127

ii)Solid waste 129

b)Waste avoidance 129

c)Reuse 130

d)Recycling 130

e)Energy recovery 131

f)Treatment 131

g)Disposal 131

h)Waste generation 132

i)Resource recovery 132

j)Resource recovery rate 133

30.Scope and method of data reporting 135

30.Scope and method of data reporting 135

31.Data sources and assumptions 138

31.Data sources and assumptions 138

References (from report & associated workbooks) 140



Appendices

NSW data quality declaration 147



Tables


Figures


Abbreviations

ABS

Australian Bureau of Statistics

ACOR

Australian Council of Recycling

ACT

Australian Capital Territory

ADAA

Ash Development Association of Australia

APC

Australian Packaging Covenant

AWT

advanced waste treatment

C&D

construction and demolition

C&I

commercial and industrial

CH4

methane

CO2

carbon dioxide

DCCEE

Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (predecessor of DIICCSRTE)

DIICCSRTE

Department of Industry, Innovation, Climate Change, Science, Research & Tertiary Education

DSEWPaC

Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities

EEE

electrical and electronic equipment

EfW

energy from waste

EPA

Environment(al) Protection Agency / Authority (names vary with jurisdiction)

EPHC

Environment Protection and Heritage Council

ERA

Extended Regulated Area (NSW)

EU

European Union

GSP

gross state product

GWP

global warming potential

HDPE

High-density polyethylene

kt

kilotonnes (thousands of tonnes)

LCD

liquid crystal display

LDPE

low-density polyethylene

MSW

municipal solid waste

Mt

megatonnes (millions of tonnes)

NEPC

National Environment Protection Council

NGERS

National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting System

NSW

New South Wales

NT

Northern Territory

NZ

New Zealand

OECD

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development

OEH

Office of Environment and Heritage

PACIA

Plastics and Chemicals Industry Association

PET

polyethylene terephthalate

PP

polypropylene

PS

polystyrene

PVC

polyvinyl chloride

Qld

Queensland

REC

Randell Environmental Consulting

RoE

recovery of energy

ROU

Recycled Organics Unit

RR

resource recovery

RRA

Regional Regulated Area (NSW)

SA

South Australia

SMA

Sydney Metropolitan Area (NSW)

t

tonnes

Tas

Tasmania

UK

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

UNEP

United Nations Environment Program

US

United States of America

Vic

Victoria

WA

Western Australia

WEEE

waste electrical and electronic equipment

WGRRA

Waste Generation and Recycling in Australia (this report and accompanying databooks)

WMAA

Waste Management Association of Australia

yr

year





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