Adaptive design of urban malaria control programs



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ADAPTIVE DESIGN OF URBAN MALARIA CONTROL PROGRAMS


Environmental management is the central focus, with several interventions/surveillance methods acting simultaneously.

  • Environmental management is the central focus, with several interventions/surveillance methods acting simultaneously.

  • Tuning the package of interventions to minimize the number of malaria cases per year is an adaptive process involving ongoing performance evaluation of each of the tools and the outcome measure (interventions are adjusted over time in response to these evaluations).



3-5 years were required before a given package of interventions exhibited high level performance.

  • 3-5 years were required before a given package of interventions exhibited high level performance.

  • Diagnosis of malaria cases, anti-malarial drugs, bed-nets, and the use of chemical insecticides (following the discovery of DDT) were necessary but not sufficient (for success) components of the program.

  • Program staff contained people knowledgeable about entomology, hydrology, epidemiology/ecology, and clinical aspects of malaria.

  • The implementation strategy, including the mix of tools employed, was highly idiosyncratic to the particular locality.



a) Roan Mine



A.Gambie and A.Funestus larval habitats

  • A.Gambie

    • Open and un-shaded natural or man-made pools of standing water, near rivers and tributaries
    • Open water tanks and nature wells loosely overgrown with grass
  • A. Funestus

    • Shaded banks of rivers and tributaries
    • Swamps and flooded areas with partial shade


Biting pattern



Reduction of Average Monthly Malaria Rate and Total Malaria Cases after the Implementation of Malaria Control Program - (1930-1933)



Average Monthly Malaria Incidence Rate and Annual Malaria Cases at the Roan Antelope Mine between 1944 and 1949



b) Nkana Kitwe Mine



Reduction of Malaria Incidence at Nkana-Kitwe Mine between 1935-1943



Reduction of Malaria Incidence at Nkana Mine between 1944-1950



Malaria, Rainfall, and Anopheles Statistics at the Roan Antelope Mine between 1944-1949



Urban Malaria: Dar es Salaam, Tanzania



Dar es Salaam



Urbanization in Dar es Salaam



- Land Use - Vegetable Production



History of Malaria Control in Dar es Salaam 1902 - 1961

  • 1902-1912 – German Colonial Government Drainage, soil modification, bednets

  • 1912-1918 – German ordinances for controlling breeding sites; proscribed urban agriculture (potatoes and other ridge-and-furrow type cultivation

  • 1918-1961 – British Protectorate Continued drainage works, stronger legal measures

    • 1920 – Sanitation Branch established East Africa Malaria Unit established
    • 1951 – Tanganyika Malaria Service


History of Malaria Control in Dar es Salaam Post colonial period

  • 1961+ – Urban mosquito control integrated into general health services

  • 1971 – Integrated malaria control experiment Dar es Salaam City Council & WHO East Africa Aedes Research Unit

  • 1980 – Reduction in size of central malaria control unit – Consequential to adverse economic conditions (1970s high inflation)

  • 1988-1996 – JICA – Malaria control initiative Japan-Tanzania bilateral project



- Breeding Sites - Aerial Observation



Breeding Sites - Aerial Observation



- Breeding Sites - Aerial Observation



Breeding Sites Malaria Risk Mapping



Breeding Sites Malaria Risk Mapping



Breeding Sites Malaria Risk Mapping



Breeding Sites Malaria Risk Mapping



Breeding Sites Malaria Risk Mapping



Interventions Strategy Indoor Residual House Spraying (IRHS) and Larvicide



Effect of Interventions - IRHS



Effect of Interventions - Larvicide



Effect of Interventions Both IRHS and larvicide X no intervention



Total Length of Drain Cleaned (cumulative - meters)



- Program Implementation - Based on successful programs in the past

  • Environmental management is the central focus, with several interventions/surveillance methods acting simultaneously.

  • Tuning the package of interventions to minimize the number of malaria cases per year is an adaptive process involving ongoing performance evaluation of each of the tools and the outcome measure (interventions are adjusted over time in response to these evaluations).



3-5 years were required before a given package of interventions exhibited high level performance.

  • 3-5 years were required before a given package of interventions exhibited high level performance.

  • Diagnosis of malaria cases, anti-malarial drugs, bed-nets, and the use of chemical insecticides (following the discovery of DDT) were necessary but not sufficient (for success) components of the program.

  • Program staff contained people knowledgeable about entomology, hydrology, epidemiology/ecology, and clinical aspects of malaria.

  • The implementation strategy, including the mix of tools employed, was highly idiosyncratic to the particular locality.




Yüklə 487 b.

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