Additional protocol to the Agreement between the Republic of Austria, the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Repu



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{0>Especially designed or prepared pumps may include elaborate sealed or multisealed systems to prevent leakage of primary coolant, canned-driven pumps, and pumps with inertial mass systems.<}0{>Il-pompi mfassla jew preparati b’mod speċjali jistgħu jinkludu sistemi ta’ siġill elaborati jew multi-siġilli biex jipprevjenu t-tqattir ta’ l-element primarju li jkessaħ, pompi mmexxija mill-bottijiet, u l-pompi bis-sistemi tal-massa bla saħħa.<0} {0>This definition encompasses pumps certified to NC-1 or equivalent standards.<}0{>Din id-definizjoni tinkludi l-pompi attestati għal NC-1 jew il-livelli ekwivalenti.<0}

2. {0>NON-NUCLEAR MATERIALS FOR REACTORS <}0{>IL-MATERJALI LI M’HUMIEX NUKLEARI GĦAR-REATTURI <0}

2.1. {0>Deuterium and heavy water <}0{>Dewterju u l-ilma tqil <0}

{0>Deuterium, heavy water (deuterium oxide) and any other deuterium compound in which the ratio of deuterium to hydrogen atoms exceeds 1:5000 for use in a nuclear reactor as defined in paragraph 1.1 in quantities exceeding 200 kg of deuterium atoms for any one recipient country in any period of 12 months.<}0{>Dewterju, l-ilma tqil (dewterju ossidu) u kull kompost ta’ dewterju ieħor li l-iskala tad-dewterju għal atomi tal-idroġenu jaqbeż 1:5000 għall-użu fir-reattur nukleari msemmi fil-paragrafu 1.1 fi kwantitajiet li jaqbżu l-200 kg ta’ l-atomi tad-dewterju għal kull wieħed mill-pajjiż tar-reċipjenti f’kull perjodu ta’ 12-il xahar.<0}

2.2. {0>Nuclear grade graphite <}0{>Grafit bi grad nukleari <0}



{0>Graphite having a purity level better than 5 parts per million boron equivalent and with a density greater than 1,50 g/cm3 for use in a nuclear reactor as defined in paragraph 1.1 in quantities exceeding 3 x 104 kg (30 tonnes) for any one recipient country in any period of 12 months.<}0{>Grafit li għandu il-livell tal-purità aħjar minn 5 partijiet għal miljun boron ekwivalenti għad-densità akbar minn 1,50 g/cm3 għall-użu fir-reattur nukleari msemmi fil-paragrafu 1.1 fil-kwantitajiet li jaqbżu 3 x 104 kg (30 tunnellata) għal kwalunkwe pajjiż li jirċievi f’kull perjodu għal 12-il xahar.<0}

{0>Note <}100{>Nota<0}

{0>For the purpose of reporting, the government will determine whether or not the exports of graphite meeting the above specifications are for nuclear reactor use.<}0{>Għall-għan ta’ l-irrapportar, il-gvern għandu jiddetermina jew l-esportazzjoni kien jew ma kienetx tiltaqgħa ma’ l-ispeċifikazzjonijiet ta’ fuq għall-użu tar-reattur nukleari.<0}

3. {0>PLANTS FOR THE REPROCESSING OF IRRADIATED FUEL ELEMENTS, AND EQUIPMENT ESPECIALLY DESIGNED OR PREPARED THEREFOR <}0{>L-IMPJANTI GĦALL-IPPROĊESSAR MILL-ĠDID TA’ L-ELEMENTI TAL-KARBURANTI LI M’HUMIEX RADJATI, U TAGĦMIR IMFASSAL JEW PREPARATI B’MOD SPEĊJALI GĦALHEKK <0}



{0>Introductory note <}0{>In-nota ta’ introduzzjoni <0}

{0>Reprocessing irradiated nuclear fuel separates plutonium and uranium from intensely radioactive fission products and other transuranic elements.<}0{>L-ipproċessar mill-ġdid tal-karburanti nukleari rradjati li jisseparaw il-plutonju mill-uranju mill-prodotti tal-fissjoni intensament radjoattiva u l-elementi l-oħra transuraniċi.<0} {0>Different technical processes can accomplish this separation.<}0{>Il-proċessi differenti tat-teknika jistgħu jwettqu din is-separazzjoni.<0} {0>However, over the years purex has become the most commonly used and accepted process.<}0{>Madankollu, tul is-snin purex sar l-aktar proċess komuni użat u aċċettat.<0} {0>Purex involves the dissolution of irradiated nuclear fuel in nitric acid, followed by separation of the uranium, plutonium, and fission products by solvent extraction using a mixture of tributyl phosphate in an organic diluent.<}0{>Purex jinvolvi li jiddewwbu l-karburanti nukleari rradjati fl-aċidu nitrat, segwit bis-separazzjoni ta’ l-uranju, plutonju, u l-fissjoni prodott mill-ħruġ tas-solventi bl-użu tat-taħlita tributyl phosphate f’dilwent organiku.<0}

{0>Purex facilities have process functions similar to each other, including:<}0{>Faċilitajiet tal-purex għandhom funzjonijiet tal-proċess simili għal xulxin, inkluż:<0} {0>irradiated fuel element chopping, fuel dissolution, solvent extraction, and process liquor storage.<}0{>il-qtugħ ta’ l-elementi tal-karburanti, li jiddewwbu l-karburanti, il-ħruġ tas-solventi, l-immaggazzinar tal-likuri tal-proċess.<0} {0>There may also be equipment for thermal denitration of uranium nitrate, conversion of plutonium nitrate to oxide or metal, and treatment of fission product waste liquor to a form suitable for long term storage or disposal.<}0{>Jista’ jkun hemm ukoll tagħmir għad-denitrizzjoni termali tan-nitrat ta’ l-uranju, konversjoni tan-nitrat tal-plutonju għall-ossidu jew metall, u trattament tal-fissjoni l-prodott ta’ l-iskart likuri għal forma tajba għall-immaggazzinar fi żmien twil jew għar-rimi..<0} {0>However, the specific type and configuration of the equipment performing these functions may differ between purex facilities for several reasons, including the type and quantity of irradiated nuclear fuel to be reprocessed and the intended disposition of the recovered materials, and the safety and maintenance philosophy incorporated into the design of the facility.<}0{>Madankollu, it-tip speċifikat u l-konfigurazzjoni ta’ tagħmir li jagħmel dawn il-funzjonijiet tista’ tvarja bejn il-faċilitajiet purex għal ħafna raġunijiet, inkluż it-tip u l-kwantità tal-karburanti nukleari rradjati biex ikun proċessat mill-ġdid u d-disposizzjoni maħsuba tal-materjal rikoverat, u l-filosofija bla periklu u tal-manutenzjoni nkorporata fit-tfassil tal-faċilità.<0}

{0>A 'plant for the reprocessing of irradiated fuel elements' included the equipment and components which normally come in direct contact with and directly control the irradiated fuel and the major nuclear material and fission product processing streams.<}0{>'Impjant għal ipproċessar mill-ġdid ta’ l-elementi li tal-karburanti li m’humiex irradjati’ inkluż it-tagħmir u l-komponenti li normalment jiġu f’kuntatt dirett ma’ u l-kontoll dirett tal-karburanti li m’humiex irradjati u l-materjal nukleari maġġuri u l-kurrent ta’ l-ipproċessar tal-prodott fissjoni.<0}

{0>These processes, including the complete systems for plutonium conversion and plutonium metal production, may be identified by the measures taken to avoid criticality (e.g. by geometry), radiation exposure (e.g. by shielding), and toxicity hazards (e.g. by containment).<}0{>Dawn il-proċessi, inkluż is-sistema kompleta għall-konversjoni tal-plutonju u l-produzzjoni tal-metall tal-plutonju, jistgħu jkunu identifikati bil-miżuri meħuda biex jevitaw il-kritika (eż. bil-ġjometrija), l-esposizzjoni tar-radjazzjoni (eż billi tiddefendi), u l-perikli ta’ tossiċità (eż. billi jinżammu).<0}

{0>Items of equipment that are considered to fall within the meaning of the phrase 'and equipment especially designed or prepared' for the reprocessing of irradiated fuel elements include:<}0{>L-oġġetti tat-tagħmir li huma kkunsidrati li jaqgħu fit-tifsira tal-frażi 'u t-tagħmir mfassal jew preparat b’mod speċjali' għall-ipproċessar mill-ġdid ta’ l-elementi tal-karburanti li m’humiex irradjati inkluż:<0}

3.1. {0>Irradiated fuel element chopping machines <}0{>Il-magni tal-qtugħ ta’ l-elementi tal-karburanti li m’humiex irradjati <0}



{0>Introductory note <}100{>Nota ta’ introduzzjoni <0}

{0>This equipment breaches the cladding of the fuel to expose the irradiated nuclear material to dissolution.<}0{>Dan it-tagħmir jikser l-ilbies tal-karburanti għall-esposizzjoni biex jiddewwbu l-materjali nukleari li m’humiex irradjati.<0} {0>Especially designed metal cutting shears are the most commonly employed, although advanced equipment, such as lasers, may be used.<}0{>Għodda tal-metall biex iġiżżu mfassla b’mod speċjali huma l-aktar użati, għalkemm it-tagħmir avvanzat, bħal lasers, jistgħu jintużaw.<0}

{0>Remotely operated equipment especially designed or prepared for use in a reprocessing plant as identified above and intended to cut, chop or shear irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies, bundles or rods.<}0{>Tagħmir operat b’mod remot imfassal jew preparat b’mod speċjali għall-użu fl-ipproċessar mill-ġdid ta’ l-impjant kif identifikat hawn fuq u maħsub biex jaqta’, ilaqqax u jġiżż it-taqgħid tal-karburanti nukleari, mazez jew vireg.<0}

3.2. {0>Dissolvers <}0{>Affarijiet li jdewbu <0}



{0>Introductory note <}100{>Nota ta’ introduzzjoni <0}

{0>Dissolvers normally receive the chopped-up spent fuel.<}0{>L-affarijiet li jdewwbu normalment jirċievu l-karburant imqatta’ użat.<0} {0>In these critically safe vessels, the irradiated nuclear material is dissolved in nitric acid and the remaining hulls removed from the process stream.<}0{>F’dawn ir-reċipjenti kritikament bla periklu, il-materjal nukleari li mhux irradjat huwa mdewweb fl-aċidu nitrat u l-fdal tal-hulls mill-proċess tal-kurrent.<0}

{0>Critically safe tanks (e.g. small diameter, annular or slab tanks) especially designed or prepared for use in a reprocessing plant as identified above, intended for dissolution of irradiated nuclear fuel and which are capable of withstanding hot, highly corrosive liquid, and which can be remotely loaded and maintained.<}0{>Tankijiet kritikament bla periklu (eż. dijametru żgħir, tankijiet annulari jew bi slab) imfassla jew preparati b’mod speċjali għall-użu fl-impjant ta’ l-ipproċessar mill-ġdid kif identifikat hawn fuq, maħsub biex jiddewwbu l-karburanti nukleari li m’humiex irradjati u li huma kapaċi li jissaportu s-sħana, likwidu li jikkorodja ħafna, u li jistgħu jitgħabbew u mantenuti b’mod remot.<0}

3.3. {0>Solvent extractors and solvent extraction equipment <}0{>L-estrazzjoni ta’ dawk li jdewwbu u t-tagħmir għall-estrazzjoni tagħhom <0}



{0>Introductory note <}100{>Nota ta’ introduzzjoni <0}

{0>Solvent extractors both receive the solution of irradiated fuel from the dissolvers and the organic solution which separates the uranium, plutonium, and fission products.<}0{>Dawk li joħorġu l-affarijiet li jdewwbu jirċievu s-soluzzjoni tal-karburenti li ma jkunx irradjat minn dawk li jdewwbu u soluzzjoni organika li tissepara l-uranju, il-plutonju, u l-prodotti ta’ fissjoni.<0} {0>Solvent extraction equipment is normally designed to meet strict operating parameters, such as long operating lifetimes with no maintenance requirements or adaptability to easy replacement, simplicity of operation and control, and flexibility for variations in process conditions.<}0{>It-tagħmir li joħroġ l-affarijiet li jdewwbu huwa normalment imfassal biex jilħaq il-parametri stretti ta’ l-operazzjoni, bħal ħajjiet operattivi twal mingħajr il-ħtiġijiet tal-manutenzjoni jew l-addattament biex tiffaċilita t-skambju, sempliċità tal-ħidma u l-kontroll, u l-flessibbilità għal varjazzjoni fil-kondizzjonijiet tal-proċess.<0}

{0>Especially designed or prepared solvent extractors such as packed or pulse columns, mixer settlers or centrifugal contactors for use in a plant for the reprocessing of irradiated fuel.<}0{>Estratturi tas-solventi mfassla jew preparati b’mod speċjali bħal kolonni ppakjati jew bil-polz, mixer settlers jew centrifugal contactors għall-użu f’impjant għall-ipproċessar mill-ġdid tal-karburanti li m’humiex irradjati.<0} {0>Solvent extractors must be resistant to the corrosive effect of nitric acid.<}0{>L-estratturi tas-solventi għandhom ikunu reżistenti għall-effett korrossiv ta’ l-aċidu nitrat.<0} {0>Solvent extractors are normally fabricated to extremely high standards (including special welding and inspection and quality assurance and quality control techniques) out of low carbon stainless steels, titanium, zirconium, or other high quality materials.<}0{>L-estratturi tas-solventi huma normalment fabbrikati għal-livelli estremament għolja (inkluż l-iweldjar speċjali u l-assigurazzjoni ta’ l-ispezzjoni u l-kwalità u l-kontroll u l-kwalità ta’ metodi ta' teknika) barra lanqas karbonju ta’ l-azzar li ma jissaddadx, titanju, żirkonju, jew il-materjali l-oħra ta’ kwalità għolja.<0}

3.4. {0>Chemical holding or storage vessels <}0{>Ir-reċipjenti għaż-żamma u għal ħażna ta’ kimika <0}



{0>Introductory note <}100{>Nota ta’ introduzzjoni <0}

{0>Three main process liquor streams result from the solvent extraction step.<}0{>Tliet kurrenti prinċipali tal-likuri tal-proċessi li jirriżultaw mill-pass ta’ l-estrazzjoni tas-solventi.<0} {0>Holding or storage vessels are used in the further processing of all three streams, as follows:<}0{>Ir-reċipjenti taż-żamma u l-immaggazzinar huma wżati għal aktar proċessar tat-tliet kurrenti kollha, kif ġej:<0}

{0>(a) the pure uranium nitrate solution is concentrated by evaporation and passed to a denitration process where it is converted to uranium oxide.<}0{>(a) is-soluzzjoni pura ta’ l-uranju nitroġenu hija kkonċentrata bl-evaporazzjoni u mgħoddi għal proċess tad-denitrazzjoni billi huwa konvertit għal uranju ossidu.<0} {0>This oxide is reused in the nuclear fuel cycle; <}0{>Dan l-ossidu huwa wżat mill-ġdid fiċ-ċiklu nukleari tal-karburanti; <0}

{0>(b) the intensely radioactive fission products solution is normally concentrated by evaporation and stored as a liquor concentrate.<}0{>(b) il-fissjoni ntensiva radjoattiva tas-soluzzjoni tal-prodotti hija normalment konċentrata bl-evaporazzjoni u maggazzinar bħala konċentrat tal-likuri.<0} {0>This concentrate may be subsequently evaporated and converted to a form suitable for storage or disposal; <}0{>Din il-konċentrazzjoni wara tista’ tkun evaporata u mibdula għal forma tajba għal maggazzinar u r-rimi; <0}

{0>(c) the pure plutonium nitrate solution is concentrated and stored pending its transfer to further process steps.<}0{>(c) is-soluzzjoni tan-nitrat tal-plutonju pura hija kkonċentrata u maggazzinar pendenti għat-trasferiment għal aktar passi tal-proċess.<0} {0>In particular, holding or storage vessels for plutonium solutions are designed to avoid criticality problems resulting from changes in concentration and form of this stream.<}0{>Partikolarment, ir-reċipjenti taż-żamma u l-maggazzinar għas-soluzzjonjiet tal-plutonju huma mfassla biex jevitaw il-problemi kritiċi li jirriżultaw mit-skambju fil-konċentrazzjoni u l-forma ta’ dan il-kurrent.<0}

{0>Especially designed or prepared holding or storage vessels for use in a plant for the reprocessing of irradiated fuel.<}0{>Ir-reċipjenti għaż-żamma jew l-immaggazzinar li huma mfassla jew preparati b’mod speċjali għall-użu ta ‘l-impjant għall-ipproċessar mill-ġdid tal-karburanti li m’humiex irradjati.<0} {0>The holding or storage vessels must be resistant to the corrosive effect of nitric acid.<}0{>Ir-reċipjenti taż-żamma jew ta’ l-immaggazzinar għandhom ikunu reżistenti għall-effett tal-korrossività tan-nitrat ta’ l-aċidu.<0} {0>The holding or storage vessels are normally fabricated of materials such as low carbon stainless steels, titanium or zirconium, or other high quality materials.<}0{>Ir-reċipjenti taż-żamma jew ta’ l-immaggazzinar huma normalment fabbrikati minn materjali bħala l-inqas karbonju ta’ l-azzar li ma jissaddadx, titanju jew żirkonju, jew il-materjali l-oħra ta’ kwalità għolja.<0} {0>Holding or storage vessels may be designed for remote operation and maintenance and may have the following features for control of nuclear criticality:<}0{>Ir-reċipjenti għaż-żamma jew l-immaggazzinar jistgħu jitffasslu għall-operazzjoni remota u l-manutenzjoni u jistgħu jkollhom il-fatturi li ġejjin għal kontroll tal-kritikalità nukleari:<0}

{0>(1) walls or internal structures with a boron equivalent of at least 2 %, or <}0{>(1) il-ħitan u l-istrutturi interni bl-ekwivalenti boron ta’ mill-inqas 2 %, jew <0}

{0>(2) a maximum diameter of 175 mm (7?<}0{>(2) dijametru massimu ta’ 175 mm (7"<0} {0>) for cylindrical vessels, or <}0{>) tar-reċipjenti ċilindriċi, jew <0}

{0>(3) a maximum width of 75 mm (3?<}82{>(3) il-wisa’ massima ta’ 75 mm (3"<0} {0>) for either a slab or annular vessel.<}0{>) jew għal reċipjent annulari jew slab.<0}

3.5. {0>Plutonium nitrate to oxide conversion system<}0{>Is-sistema tal-konversjoni min-nitrat tal-plutonju għal ossidu <0}



{0>Introductory note <}100{>Nota ta’ introduzzjoni <0}

{0>In most reprocessing facilities, this final process involves the conversion of the plutonium nitrate solution to plutonium dioxide.<}0{>F’ħafna mill-faċilitajiet ta’ l-ipproċessar mill-ġdid, dan il-proċess finali jinvolvi l-konversjoni tas-soluzzjoni tan-nitrat tal-plutonju għal diossidu tal-plutonju.<0} {0>The main functions involved in this process are:<}0{>Il-funzjonijiet prinċipali involuti f’dan il-proċess huma:<0} {0>process feed storage and adjustment, precipitation and solid/liquor separation, calcination, product handling, ventilation, waste management, and process control.<}0{>l-immaggazzinar tal-proċess ta’ l-ikel u l-arranġament, il-preċipitazzjoni u separazzjoni tas-solidu/likuri, il-kalċitazzjoni, l-immaniġġjar tal-prodotti, il-ventilazzjoni, l-immaniġġjar ta' l-iskart, u l-kontroll tal-proċess.<0}

{0>Complete systems especially designed or prepared for the conversion of plutonium nitrate to plutonium oxide, in particular adapted so as to avoid criticality and radiation effects and to minimise toxicity hazards.<}0{>Is-sistema kompleta mfassla b’mod speċjali jew preparata għal konversjoni tan- nitrat tal-plutonju għal ossidu tal-plutonju, partikolarment addattati biex jevitaw l-effetti kritiċi u tar-radjazzjoni u biex jitnaqqas il-periklu ta’ tossiċità.<0}

3.6. {0>Plutonium oxide to metal production system<}0{>Is-sistema għal produzzjoni tal-ħadid minn ossidu tal-plutonju <0}



{0>Introductory note <}100{>Nota ta’ introduzzjoni <0}

{0>This process, which could be related to a reprocessing facility, involves the fluorination of plutonium dioxide, normally with highly corrosive hydrogen fluoride, to produce plutonium fluoride which is subsequently reduced using high purity calcium metal to produce metallic plutonium and a calcium fluoride slag.<}0{>Dan il-proċess, li jista’ jkun relatat għal faċilità ta’ l-ipproċessar, jinvovi l-florinazzjoni tad-diossidu tal-plutonju, normalment idroġenu floridu korrossiv għoli, għal produzzjoni tal-plutonju floridu li wara jitnaqqas bl-użu tal-metall tal-kalċju bil-purità għolja għal plutonju metalliku u slag tal-kalċju floridu.<0} {0>The main functions involved in this process are:<}0{>Il-funzjonijiet prinċipali involuti f’dan il-proċess huma:<0} {0>fluorination (e.g. involving equipment fabricated or lined with a precious metal), metal reduction (e.g. employing ceramic crucibles), slag recovery, product handling, ventilation, waste management and process control.<}0{>florinazzjoni (eż. li jinvolvi t-tagħmir fabbrikat jew imdawwar b’metall prezzjuż), tnaqqis tal-metall (eż. it-tħaddim tal-griġjoli taċ-ċeramika), l-irkuprar tal-frak, l-immaniġġjar tal-prodott, il-ventilazzjoni, l-immaniġġjar ta' l-iskart u l-kontroll tal-proċess.<0}

{0>Complete systems especially designed or prepared for the production of plutonium metal, in particular adapted so as to avoid criticality and radiation effects and to minimise toxicity hazards.<}0{>Is-sistemi kompluti mfassla jew preparati b’mod speċjali għal produzzjoni tal-metal tal-plutonju, partikolarment addattat sabiex ikunu evitati l-effetti kritiċi u ta’ radjazzjoni u sabiex jitnaqqas il-periklu ta’ tossiċità.<0}

4. {0>PLANTS FOR THE FABRICATION OF FUEL ELEMENTS <}0{>IMPJANTI GĦAL FABBRIKAZZJONI TA’ L-ELEMENTI TAL-KARBURANTI <0}



{0>A 'plant for the fabrication of fuel elements' includes the equipment:<}0{> 'Impjant għal fabbrikazzjoni ta’ l-elementi tal-karburanti ' inkluż it-tagħmir:<0}

{0>(a) which normally comes in direct contact with, or directly processes, or controls, the production flow of nuclear material, or <}0{>(a) li normalment jiġi f’kuntatt dirett ma’, jew proċess dirett, jew jikkontrolla, it-tmexxija tal-produzzjoni tal-materjali nukleari, jew <0}

{0>(b) which seals the nuclear material within the cladding.<}0{>(b) li jissiġilla l-materjal nukleari fl-ilbies.<0}

5. {0>PLANTS FOR THE SEPARATION OF ISOTOPES OF URANIUM AND EQUIPMENT, OTHER THAN ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENTS, ESPECIALLY DESIGNED OR PREPARED THEREFOR <}0{>IMPJANTI GĦAS-SEPARAZZJONI TA ‘L-ISOTOPI TA’ L-URANJU U T-TAGĦMIR, AKTAR MILL-ISTRUMENTI TA’ L-ANALIŻI, IMFASSLA JEW PREPARATI B’MOD SPEĊJALI GĦALIHOM <0}



{0>Items of equipment that are considered to fall within the meaning of the phrase 'equipment, other than analytical instruments, especially designed or prepared' for the separation of isotopes of uranium include:<}74{>L-oġġetti tat-tagħmir li jitqiesu li jaqgħu fi ħdan it-tifsira tal-frażi 't-tagħmir, aktar mill-istrumenti analitiċi mfassal jew preparat b’mod speċjali' għas-separazzjoni ta’ l-isotopi ta’ l-uranju inkluż:<0}

5.1. {0>Gas centrifuges and assemblies and components especially designed or prepared for use in gas centrifuges <}0{>Iċ-ċentrifugazzjoni tal-gass u l-għaqdiet u l-komponenti mfassla jew preparati b’mod speċjali għall-użu fiċ-ċentrifugazzjoni tal-gassijiet <0}



{0>Introductory note <}100{>Nota ta’ introduzzjoni <0}

{0>The gas centrifuge normally consists of a thin-walled cylinder(s) of between 75 mm (3?<}0{>Iċ-ċentrifugazzjoni tal-gass normalment tikkonsisti f’ċilindru(i) b’ħitan irqaq ta’ bejn il-75 mm (3"<0} {0>) and 400 mm (16?<}0{>) u 400 mm (16"<0}{0>) diameter contained in a vacuum environment and spun at high peripheral speed of the order of 300 m/s or more with its central axis vertical.<}0{>) id-dijametru li jkunu jinsab fl-ambjenti vacuum u mdawwar b’veloċità periferali għolja ta ‘l-ordni ta’ 300 m/s u aktar mal-fus ċentrali vertikali.<0} {0>In order to achieve high speed the materials of construction for the rotating components have to be of a high strength to density ratio and the rotor assembly, and hence its individual components, have to be manufactured to very close tolerances in order to minimise the imbalance.<}0{>Bil-għan li tintlaħaq il-veloċità għolja tal-materjali u l-kostruzzjoni tal-komponenti li jduru għandha tkun ta’ saħħa għolja għar-ratio ta’ densità u l-assemblaġġ li jdur, u għalhekk il-komponenti individwali, għandhom ikunu fabbrikati għat-tolleranza l-aktar viċina bil-għan li jitnaqqas l-iżbilanċ.<0} {0>In contrast to other centrifuges, the gas centrifuge for uranium enrichment is characterised by having within the rotor chamber a rotating disc-shaped baffle(s) and a stationary tube arrangement for feeding and extracting to UF6 gas and featuring at least three separate channels, of which two are connected to scoops extending from the rotor axis towards the periphery of the rotor chamber.<}0{>F’kuntrast ma’ ċentrifugazzjonijiet oħra, iċ-ċentrifugazzjoni tal-gass għat-tisħiħ ta’ l-uranju hija karatterizzata billi f’kamra tal-mutur ikun hemm baffle(s) b’forma ta’ diska ddur u arranġament ta’ tubu wieqaf għall-ikel u l-estrazzjoni għal UF6 gass u li juri mill-inqas tliet kanali separati, li tnejn minnhom huma maqbuda ma’ sasliet li huma estiżi mill-fus li jdur lejn il-periferija tal-kamra li ddur.<0} {0>Also contained within the vacuum environment are a number of critical items which do not rotate and which although they are especially designed are not difficult to fabricate nor are they fabricated out of unique materials.<}0{>Anki li jkollu fi ħdan l-ambjent tal-vacuum huma numru ta’ l-oġġetti kritiċi li ma jdurux u li għalkemm huma mfassla b’mod speċjali m’humiex diffiċli biex ikunu fabbrikati u lanqas huma fabbrikati barra l-materjal uniku.<0} {0>A centrifuge facility however requires a large number of these components, so that quantities can provide an important indication of end use.<}0{>Il-faċilità ta’ ċentrifugazzjoni għandha bżonn numru kbir ta’ dawn il-komponenti, sabiex il-kwantitajiet jistgħu jipprovdu l-indikazzjoni importanti tat-terminu ta’ l-użu.<0}

5.1.1. {0>Rotating components <}0{>Il-komponenti li jduru <0}


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