Back to (pre-)History



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Back to (pre-)History

  • Back to (pre-)History

  • A Quick Look at Cutting-Edge IC Technologies

    • Super Computing
    • Large Scale Computing: Grid and Cloud Computing
    • Mobile, Ubiquitous and Pervasive Computing
    • The Internet of Things
  • How all this has happened?

    • Technological Evolutions
    • Software Evolutions












Super Computing

  • Super Computing

  • Grid and Cloud Computing

  • Mobile, Ubiquitous and Pervasive Computing

  • The Internet of Things





Basic ideas

  • Basic ideas

    • A super computer is like a Ferrari → use specific components
    • Super computing is like F1 or WRG → adapt to the application scenario
  • Vector Computer (Cray)

  • Database Computer

  • An alternative idea:

  • Super SIMD (Connection

  • Machines)

  • Incredible creativity in

  • architecture and network design



Ranked 1st in the top500 list of the most “powerful” (computing intensive) computers (June 2013)

  • Ranked 1st in the top500 list of the most “powerful” (computing intensive) computers (June 2013)

  • Ranked 6th in the graph500 list of the most “powerful” (data intensive processing) computers (June 2013)

  • Ranked 32nd in the green500 list of the most energy efficient computer (June 2013)

  • China (National University of Defense Technology)



Rmax = 33862 (i.e., 33,9 Pflops) – Rpeak = 54902 (computing efficiency : 61,7 %)

  • Rmax = 33862 (i.e., 33,9 Pflops) – Rpeak = 54902 (computing efficiency : 61,7 %)

  • 3,120,000 cores – Memory: 1.375 PB – Disk: 12,4 PB –fat-tree based Interconnection Network

  • 16000 computer nodes

  • 1 node = 2 Intel (12 cores) Ivy Bridge Xeon + 3 (57 cores) Xeon Phi co-procs + 88GB memory shared by the Ivy Bridges procs + 8 GB memory shared by the Xeon Phi chips

  • Power:17,8 MW (1,9 Tflops/kW – 1,9 Gflops/W … only!)

  • « Tianhe-2 operation for 1 hour is equivalent to 1.3 billion people calculator operating one thousand years » (best-news.us – assertion not checked)



Ranked 2nd in the top500 list (1st in Nov. 2012)

  • Ranked 2nd in the top500 list (1st in Nov. 2012)

  • 299008 cores – Memory: 710 TB – Cray Gemini Interconnect

  • 18688 Opteron 6274 16 cores 2.200GHz + 18,688 Nvidia Tesla K20X GPUs

  • Rmax = 17590 – Rpeak = 27112 (computing efficiency : 65 %)

  • Power: 8.2 MW… only!



Top500.org

  • Top500.org

    • performance development
    • logarithmic progression! (x10 in 3years)
    • clusters, clusters (84%)!
    • 54% in industry
    • max power efficiency: 2.9 Gflops/W
    • #500: 96 TFlops! – Total : 223 Pflops
    • poster Top500
  • Graph500.org

    • BlueGene++
  • Green500.org and GreenGraph500

    • List
    • max: 3,2 Gflops/W
    • #1 green500 = #467 top500 (1 T00flops)
    • #1 top500 = #32 green500






Grid Computing: Applications

  • High energy & nuclear physics

  • Simulation

    • Earth observation, climate modeling
    • Geophysics, earthquake modeling
    • Fluids, aerodynamic design
    • Pollutant dispersal scenarios
  • Astronomy- Digital sky surveys: modern telescopes produce over 10 Petabytes per year (upto 30 TB per day)!

  • Molecular genomics

  • Chemistry and biochemistry

  • Financial applications

  • Medical images





“A large-scale distributed computing paradigm that is driven by economies of scale, in which a pool of abstracted, virtualized, dynamically-scalable, managed computing power, storage, platforms, and services are delivered on demand to external customers over the Internet” (Foster at al.)

  • “A large-scale distributed computing paradigm that is driven by economies of scale, in which a pool of abstracted, virtualized, dynamically-scalable, managed computing power, storage, platforms, and services are delivered on demand to external customers over the Internet” (Foster at al.)

  • SalesForces, Amazon, IBM, Google, Microsoft, Backblaze…

  • Everything as a service

    • Infrastructure as a service
    • Platform as a service
    • Software as a service
  • Behind the scene: some kind of a (proprietary) grid





Mobile communications have freed the user from the Internet plug

  • Mobile communications have freed the user from the Internet plug

  • 3G/4G mobile Internet is as faster as Internet-at-work and Internet-at-home

  • Ubiquity, i.e., Internet-everywhere, is a reality (at least in Western countries)

  • A dramatic social (and business) change!

  • A still-open issue: context-awareness

    • what is your device, what are the network conditions?
    • where are you?
    • what are you doing right now and in the near future?
    • what are your preferences?
    • Who are your friends?


Sensor networks (smart dust)

  • Sensor networks (smart dust)

  • Home networks

  • Patient monitoring (personal area networks)

  • Emergency management / battlefield / borders monitoring

  • Museums and pervasive buildings

  • Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks (VANET) / MANET

  • Alert management (parking, kids, etc.)

  • Supply chain

  • U-Society

    • People to People (P2P): Facebook on your cell phone
    • People to Object (P2O): IoT platforms
    • Geopositioned Services: App Store
  • Do-IoT-Yourself: Arduino / Raspberry Pi / Beaglebone - Fab Lab ?





The « Internet of Things (IoT) is […] a dynamic global network infrastructure with self configuring capabilities based on standard and interoperable communication protocols where physical and virtual ‘things’ have identities, physical attributes, and virtual personalities and use intelligent interfaces, and are seamlessly integrated into the information network.

  • The « Internet of Things (IoT) is […] a dynamic global network infrastructure with self configuring capabilities based on standard and interoperable communication protocols where physical and virtual ‘things’ have identities, physical attributes, and virtual personalities and use intelligent interfaces, and are seamlessly integrated into the information network.

  • In the IoT, ‘things’ are expected to become active participants in business, information and social processes where they are enabled to interact and communicate among themselves and with the environment by exchanging data and information ‘sensed’ about the environment, while reacting autonomously to the ‘real/physical world’s events » (CERP-IoT)



IoT platforms yet exist: xively (ex-cosm, ex-pachube), sen.se, etc.

  • IoT platforms yet exist: xively (ex-cosm, ex-pachube), sen.se, etc.

  • Machine To Machine (M2M) / Object To Object (O2O)

    • the never lasting intelligent fridge ?
    • smart maintenance
    • « Intelligent » sensors networks
    • smart factory
    • ITS and Smart car
  • What place for humans?



Key words

  • Key words

    • Identity / Personality
    • Autonomy
    • Interaction / Environment
    • Communication / Global Network
  • A philosophical approach: Spimes (Bruce Sterling, 2004)?

  • A promise with no future? A nightmare? A dream? The true future?









Large bandwidth communications

  • Large bandwidth communications

    • Optical fiber
    • 3G, 4G, WiMax
    • WiFi Direct
  • Low power local communications

    • NFC
    • Zigbee, Bluetooth…
  • « Universal » identification

    • RFID - Electronic Product Code (EPC) – EPCGlobalNetwork –
    • Object Naming Service (ONS)
    • IETF Host Identity Protocol (HIP – RFC 4423-5201 )
  • Geopositioning

    • GPS/Galileo
    • GSM


Supercomputing

  • Supercomputing

    • Parallel supercomputers (1- Tianhe-2 - 34 Pflops)
    • Super-clusters/clouds (Microsft = 1 million of servers (July’13) ; Google 2+ millions of servers? Soon 10 millions?)
  • Super storage

    • Key: ~GB
    • Disk: ~TB
    • Data Center: ~PB
  • Micro-Nano technologies

  • Sensors – Sensor networks

  • “Things”

  • Convergence digital camera – telephone – laptop → smartphone



Services – SOA

  • Services – SOA

  • Object  Service / Service  Object

  • (Everything as a Service)

  • Social networks

  • E-Services

  • Mobility (M-services)

  • “All digital, any where, any time” Era





« The most profound technologies are those that disappear. They weave themselves into the fabric of everyday life until they are indistinguishable from it »

  • « The most profound technologies are those that disappear. They weave themselves into the fabric of everyday life until they are indistinguishable from it »

  • [The objective of pervasive computing is to ] “ … make a computer so imbedded, so fitting, so natural, that we use it without even thinking about it.”

  • “Ubiquitous (pervasive) computing is roughly the opposite of virtual reality. Where virtual reality puts people inside a computer-generated world, ubiquitous computing forces the computer to live out here in the world with people.”

  • « A new way of thinking about computers in the world, one that takes into account the natural human environment and allows the computers themselves to vanish in the background »

  • Mark Weiser, Xerox PARC, 1991-



[M. Satyanarayanan, 2001]

  • [M. Satyanarayanan, 2001]

    • Pervasive computing environment = « one saturated with computing and communication capability, yet so gracefully integrated with users that it becomes ‘a technology that disappears’ »
    • So:
      • “Smart” spaces
      • “Invisibility” and transparency
      • Scalability


The « object-subject » is actor (a first-class citizen) of the “system” / of the Future

  • The « object-subject » is actor (a first-class citizen) of the “system” / of the Future

    • smart objects / smart everything
    • active objects
    • “the” cloud
  • « Intelligence » is, at first, the « network » i.e., the ability to exchange information / communicate

  • « Intelligence », is also the ability to self-adapt to the user profile and the context (« context awareness »), “to weave” into the environment

  • « Ego » is part of the context

  • « Intelligence », finally, is the ability to organize:

    • autonomously (autonomic computing, self healing…)
    • spontaneously
  • Multi-Scale Ubiquitous Ego-Centric Digital Ecosystem



An incredible change!

  • An incredible change!

  • A digital world (and digital life)

  • An (almost) unlimited power of processing, storage, communication

  • Unlimited opportunities of new applications

  • But a coined in the 60’s client-server way of thinking!

  • And strong concerns about privacy

  • (A Highway to) Hell or Eden?






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