Back to (pre-)history



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tarix06.09.2018
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Back to (pre-)history

  • Back to (pre-)history

  • What has happened to IT ?

  • Visions for a new (IT) world ?













A short history of computers and IT… The Jaguar

  • 224162 cores – Memory: 300 TB – Disk: 10 PB

  • AMD x86_64 Opteron Six Core 2600 MHz (10.4 GFlops)

  • Rmax = 1759 – Rpeak = 2331

  • Power: 6,950 MW

  • http://www.nccs.gov/jaguar/



A short history of computers and IT… The LCG System Architecture



And in 2010, a (still) new paradigm: the Cloud

  • “A large-scale distributed computing paradigm that is driven by economies of scale, in which a pool of abstracted, virtualized, dynamically-scalable, managed computing power, storage, platforms, and services are delivered on demand to external customers over the Internet”

  • Amazon, Google, Microsoft… even L’Oréal !

  • Everything as a service

    • Infrastructure as a service
    • Platform as a service
    • Software as a service
  • Behind the scene: a grid

  • Do not worry, be happy: the cloud takes care of your all your digital activities

  • Issue: digital activity, digital life, life ?

  • For the first time in the history of mankind, some[body, thing] can know everything about your life: your professional data, your friends, the movies/the leisure you like, your friends, your political opinions, your mood…





Technological Evolutions

  • « Universal » identification

    • RFID - Electronic Product Code (EPC) – EPCGlobalNetwork – Object Naming Service (ONS)
    • IETF Host Identity Protocol (HIP)
  • Large bandwidth communications

    • Optical fiber
    • 3G, 3G+, 4G, WiMax
    • WiFi Direct
  • Geopositioning

    • GPS/Galileo
    • GSM


Technological Evolutions (Cont’d)

  • Super computing

    • Parallel super-computers (1- Jaguar (224162 cores, 2,3(1,7) Pflops)):
    • Super-clusters (Google 1,8 millions of servers ? Soon 10 millions ?)
  • Super storage

    • Key: ~GB
    • Disk: ~TB
    • Data Center: ~PB
  • Micro-Nano technologies

  • Sensors – Sensor networks

  • Convergence digital camera – telephone – laptop → smartphone



Software Evolutions

  • Cloud computing

  • Social networks

  • Services - SOA

  • E-Services

  • Mobility (M-services)

  • Object  Service / Service  Object

  • All digital, any where, any time Era



  • « The most profound technologies are those that disappear. They weave themselves into the fabric of everyday life until they are indistinguishable from it »

  • [The objective of pervasive computing is to ] “ … make a computer so imbedded, so fitting, so natural, that we use it without even thinking about it.”

  • “Ubiquitous (pervasive) computing is roughly the opposite of virtual reality. Where virtual reality puts people inside a computer-generated world, ubiquitous computing forces the computer to live out here in the world with people.”

  • « A new way of thinking about computers in the world, one that takes into account the natural human environment and allows the computers themselves to vanish in the background »

  • Mark Weiser, Xerox PARC, 1991-



Vision (Cont’d)

  • [M. Satyanarayanan, 2001]

    • Pervasive computing environment = « one saturated with computing and communication capability, yet so gracefully integrated with users that it becomes ‘a technology that disappears’ »
    • So:
      • “Smart” spaces
      • “Invisibility” and transparency
      • Scalability


Visions (Cont’d))

  • « I just want to use these f… so-called smart objects/appliances/… »

  • « I want to get rid of the software/hardware/network organization/structure: I just want to access my personal data and the data I need what ever the place /when ever the time

  • « Put down the barriers »: no network interconnection pb, no computer administration frontiers

  • What about security/privacy ???



The « object-subject » is actor (a first-class citizen) of the system

  • The « object-subject » is actor (a first-class citizen) of the system

    • smart objects / smart everything
    • active objects
  • « Intelligence » is, at first, the « network » i.e., the ability to exchange information

  • « Intelligence », is also the ability to self-adapt to the user profile and the context (« context awareness »), to weave into the environment

  • « Ego » is part of the context

  • « Intelligence », finally, is the ability to organize:

    • autonomously (autonomic computing, self healing…)
    • spontaneously
  • Ecosystem



Sensor networks (smart dust)

  • Sensor networks (smart dust)

  • Home networks

  • Patient monitoring (personal area networks)

  • Emergency management / battlefield / borders monitoring

  • Museums and pervasive buildings

  • Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks (VANET) / MANET

  • Alert management (parking, kids, etc.)

  • Supply chain



Society and RFID

  • Society and RFID

  • Personal data spaces

  • Web of things

  • Machine To Machine (M2M) / Object To Object (O2O)

    • The never lasting intelligent fridge ?
    • Maintenance – Supply chain
    • « Intelligent » sensors networks


U-Society

  • U-Society

    • People to People (P2P): Facebook on your telefonino
    • People to Object (P2O): Pachube
    • Geopositioned Services: App Store
  • Spimes (Bruce Sterling) ?

  • « Hypermatter » (Bernard Stiegler) ?

  • Do-IOT-Yourself: Arduino / Fab Lab ?



An old dream: Computing as a utility (John Mac Carthy: “Computation may someday be organized as a public utility” (1961))

  • An old dream: Computing as a utility (John Mac Carthy: “Computation may someday be organized as a public utility” (1961))

  • A supposed to be user centered vision

    • managing a computer is exhausting
    • the user does not care about the system components: the user just want his problem to be solved
    • eliminate the burden of the software/hardware management
    • allow the user benefit from economies of scale
  • A business vision

    • a small set of computing power providers
    • a global market
    • an integrated « hyper-market »: computing, entertainment, learning ?
    • for the best of the big companies





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