Best practice principles



Yüklə 0,51 Mb.
səhifə1/17
tarix06.03.2018
ölçüsü0,51 Mb.
#44981
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   17


best practice princIples
for the operation of
community service schemes

a systematic review of the literature



Shelley Turner
and Chris Trotter

Monash University Criminal Justice Research Consortium

August 2013

Table of Contents


Table of Contents 2

Best practice principles for community service schemes:


a systematic review of the literature 5

PART 1: OUTLINE OF THE LITERATURE REVIEW 5

Review aims and research question 5

Structure of this review 5

Scope of the review 6

Methodology 6

Systematic approach 6

Inclusion and exclusion criteria 7

Search strategy 8

Key studies 11

Community service in Scotland 11

CS Pathfinder Projects in England and Wales 11

What works in the supervision of offenders in Victoria 12

Pro-social modelling and community service supervision 13

Home Office research reports on community service in Britain 13

Offenders on probation in Britain 13

The Tasmanian Work Order Scheme 14

Evaluating rehabilitation: South Australian community service scheme 15

Restorative community service in Washington State 15

Community Justice Inspections: Probation Board of Northern Ireland 15

PART 2: COMMUNITY SERVICE: CONTEXT AND RESEARCH CONCEPTS 16

Community service in australia 16

Community service in the sentencing hierarchy 16

Aims of community service 16

Characteristics of community service schemes 17

Effective practice in community corrections: key research concepts 18

The ‘what works’ paradigm 18

What works with young offenders 19

The ‘desistance’ paradigm 20

Effective practice with involuntary clients 20

PART 3: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 22

Measuring effectiveness in community service 22

Evaluating community service against its aims 23

Evaluating rehabilitation 24

Community service as restorative justice 24

Community service as an alternative to imprisonment 25

Alternative to custody 25

Community service fine default schemes 26

Referral and selection bias in community service 27

Cost-effectiveness of community service 29

Recidivism and reconviction studies 30

Comparison studies of community service and other sentencing outcomes 30

Community service and recidivism outcomes 31

Completion rates of community service 32

Length of order and offender breach rates 33

Offender characteristics and breach risk 34

Reasons for absenteeism and record-keeping practices 34

Role of assessment and support in completion rates 35

Experiences of community service, placement type and completion rates 36

Contamination effect of group work sites 37

‘McIvor criteria’ and views of key community service stakeholders 37

‘McIvor criteria’ 39

Views of offenders 39

‘Real work’ and skills accreditation 40

Views of beneficiaries 41

Community service for graffiti removal 41

Importance of relationships 42

Community agency supervision 43

Importance of a pro-social modelling (PSM) approach 44

The complexity of compliance 44

PART 4: MODELS AND BEST PRACTICE PRINCIPLES 46

Models of community service 46

Independent model 46

Probation-dependent model 47

Existing best practice frameworks FOR COMMUNITY SERVICE 48

PART 5: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 51

Summary of key findings from this review 51

What we know: current best practice principles 51

What we think we know: current promising best practice principles 54

What we need to know: gaps in the research and literature 56

Conclusion 57

APPENDIX 1.: TABLE 1. KEY STUDIES IN THE REVIEW 59

References 112



Best practice principles for community service schemes:
a systematic review of the literature



PART 1: OUTLINE OF THE LITERATURE REVIEW

Review aims and research question


This literature review was commissioned by Corrections Victoria (CV), Department of Justice (DoJ) in 2013 to examine national and international research outcomes regarding the operation of community service schemes in community corrections, to identify effective models and a set of best practice principles. As the aim of the research is exploratory, that is, to shed new light on the operation of community service schemes and also identify knowledge gaps, a literature review was considered the most appropriate methodology.

Through discussion with research and community service experts from Corrections Victoria (CV) and following the findings of a brief, initial scoping review undertaken by the researchers, it was apparent that the way in which community service has been used over time, both nationally and internationally, appears to have evolved from purely a punishment or sanction to a recognition that it may provide a potential for opportunity for meaningful rehabilitation. Keen to exploit such an opportunity, CV identified the following knowledge gaps:



  1. What constitutes successful outcomes in community service schemes?

  2. How can community service participants’ compliance and completion rates be improved?

  3. What is evidence-based practice in the operation of community service schemes?

Thus, the following general research question was formed to guide this review:

‘What are the identifiable best practice principles and models for the operation of community service schemes in community corrections?’

The review systematically poses this general research question when examining the available literature and identifies any knowledge gaps pertinent to the research area. A systematic literature review was chosen as an appropriate methodology that suits the exploratory nature of the research question and can assist to identify research knowledge and gaps in the knowledge, important for practice.



Yüklə 0,51 Mb.

Dostları ilə paylaş:
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   17




Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur ©muhaz.org 2022
rəhbərliyinə müraciət

    Ana səhifə