Sport and health are closely related. Generally speaking health has several components and sport is one of them. Others are healthy diet, hasteless and calm lifestyle, being in harmony with yourself and with others and positive attitude, of course. Sport is regarded more as a component of physical health. However, everybody knows that healthy body means sound mind. Sport is mostly associated with young people, but that’s a false opinion. Many old people also regularly exercise. Nowadays, there are several ways to keep fit. First is to do regular morning exercises. Second is to exercise during the day through cycling, roller-skating, walking in the park, jogging, swimming, ice-skating etc. And the third way is to attend specialized fitness – centers, which can be found nearly everywhere now. They offer wide opportunities for people with different needs. They are often combined with swimming-pools or ice-rinks. There are many opportunities for such exercises as yoga, aerobics, karate, belly dancing, body building, weightlifting, and a simple work out in the gym. Children also have numerous opportunities to keep fit. Every school offers physical education as a compulsory subject. Some schools even offer swimming lessons in summer and skiing lessons in winter. The most popular sports in our country are gymnastics, figure skating, football, hockey, skiing, athletics, swimming, tennis, basketball, volleyball and some others. Everybody can choose the type of sport they want to do. Some people even become professionals; some simply do it as an amateur in order to maintain a healthy lifestyle.
Билет № 2. Переведитетекст:
Heroes. Peter I the Great
Peter I, or Peter the Great (1672-1725), was one of the most outstanding rulers and reformers in Russian history. He was at first a joint ruler with his weak and sickly half-brother, Ivan V, and his sister, Sophia. In 1696 he became a sole ruler. Peter I was Tsar of Russia and became Emperor in 1721. As a child, he loved military games and enjoyed carpentry, blacksmithing and printing. He was first married at the age of 17.
Peter I is famous for carrying out a policy of 'westernization' and drawing Russia further to the East that transformed Russia into a major European power. Having travelled much in Western Europe, Peter tried to carry western customs and habits to Russia. He introduced western technology and completely changed the Russian government, increasing the power of the monarch and reducing the power of the boyars and the church. He reorganized Russian army along Western lines.
He also transferred the capital to St. Petersburg, building the new capital to the pattern o/European cities.
In foreign policy, Peter dreamt of making Russia a maritime power. To get access to the Black Sea, the Caspian Sea, the Azov Sea and the Baltic, he waged wars with the Ottoman Empire (1695—1696), the Great Northern War with Sweden (1700-1721), and a war with Persia (1722-1723). He managed to get the shores of the Baltic and the Caspian Sea.
In his day, Peter I was regarded as a strong and brutal ruler. He faced much opposition to his reforms, but suppressed any and all rebellion against his power. The rebellion of streltsy, the old Russian army, took place in 1698 and was headed by his half-sister Sophia. The greatest civilian uprising of Peter's reign, the Bulavin Rebellion (1707—1709) started as a Cossack war. Both rebellions aimed at overthrowing Peter and were followed by repressions.
Peter I played a great part in Russian history. After his death, Russia was much more secure and progressive than it had been before his reign.
Билет № 3. Переведитетекст:
Twenty years ago some people travelled overseas for their holidays. The majority of people stayed to have holidays in their country. Today the situation is different.
It is possible to book a holiday to a seaside resort on the other side of the world. Staying at home, you can book it through the Internet or by phone. The plane takes you on a tropical beach, where you can breathe the clean air and swim in the crystal warm water of a tropical sea.
We can travel by car, by train or plane. Some young people prefer walking or hitch-hike travelling, when you travel, paying nearly nothing. You get new friends, lots of fun and have no idea where you will be tomorrow. It has great advantages for the tourists. If you like mountains, you could climb any mountains around the globe and there is only one restriction. It is money. If you like travelling, you have got to have some money, because it is not a cheap hobby indeed. The economy of some countries is mainly based on tourism industry. Modern tourism has become a highly developed industry.
If we travel for pleasure, by all means one would like to enjoy picturesque places they are passing through, one would like seeing the places of interest, enjoying the sightseeing of the cities, towns and countries.
Nowadays people travel not only for pleasure but also on business. People have to go to other countries for taking part in different negotiations, for signing some very important documents, for participating in different exhibitions, in order to exhibit the goods of own firm or company. Travelling on business helps people to get more information about achievements of other companies, which will help making own business more successful.
There are a lot of means of travelling: travelling by ship, by plane, by car, walking. It depends on a person to decide which means of travelling one would prefer.
Билет № 4. Переведитетекст:
Lifestyle. Family Life in Britain
A "typical" British family used to consist of mother, father and two children. But in recent years there have been many changes in family life. For example, since the law made it easier to get a divorce, the number of divorces has increased. That's why 24% of British children live with only one parent, usually their mother.
The most British children live with their parents at least until they finish school at the age of 17 or 18. Then many go away to college, leaving some parents sad and lonely in their empty nest and others enjoying their release from parental responsibilities.
But many students stay with their parents during their college years or return home after graduation. Today parents cannot even be sure that their married children have moved out forever. After a divorce they may return to the parental home temporarily or even on a long-term basis.
Older people take pride in their independence, enjoy their freedom and don't want to be a burden to their children. The telephone, the car and the airplane keep them in close contact even when they live in different parts of the country.
Members of family — grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins-keep in touch, but they see less of each other than they used to. This is because people often move away from home town to work and so the family becomes scattered. Christmas is the traditional season for reunions.
Although the family group is smaller nowadays than it used to be, relatives often travel many miles in order to spend the holiday together. Family parties may be all the more joyous when they bring together relatives who haven't seen each other for a while.
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Time spending. Leisure Time. Hobbies
Leisure time is free from compulsory activities such as work, study, household duties, eating and sleeping, it is often referred to as 'free time'.
Since then the idea of leisure time and relaxation has been popular with all the age groups and social classes, old and young, rich and poor have been using their free time for rest and entertainment. The ways people spend their leisure time normally differ according to the age group: middle-aged and old people normally prefer more passive kind of rest like watching TV or going to the theatre, or sometimes gardening, younger people enjoy more active pastimes like doing extreme sports, visiting night clubs and discos or travelling. However, the idea of active leisure like doing sports or travelling is gaining popularity with the older people, too.
So the basic leisure time activities of the young are travelling, doing sports including extreme sports, visiting discos and night clubs or more passive ways of recreation like listening to music or watching TV and videos, and surfing the Internet. Teenagers normally prefer to do extreme sports, such as bungee jumping, climbing, white-water rafting, surfing, windsurfing and many others. Popular music associated with youth subcultures, such as hard rock, hip-hop or rap, punk rock and the like. In watching TV and videos or going to the cinema, they prefer film genres which are full of action, movement, colour, cinema effects and have a good soundtrack. They normally like action films, comedies, musicals, thrillers and cartoons.
A thing we do in our free time for recreation and pleasure is called a hobby. Hobbies are practiced for interest and enjoyment, rather than for money. Hobby can lead to acquiring substantial skill, knowledge, and experience. A lot of celestial bodies and events have been discovered by amateur astronomers. However, the aim of a hobby is pleasure and personal fulfillment.
Билет № 6.Переведите текст:
Sea. Travelling by Sea
Human beings are very inquisitive and like discovering different places. That is why people all over the world like to travel around the globe. It is not so interesting for them to see the world on TV today. It is precious to see it by their own.
And when people come to beautiful beaches and sparkling blue waters, they understand it is really the amazing thing they wanted to see. There are countless adventures within reach on cruise vacation. There are many cruise companies in the world, and each of these companies can provide you a qualified service.
During the cruise people live in comfortable cabins. During sea days when a cruise liner is in the open sea, people can take sunbathes, swim in the swimming pools, play fools in the slide or promenade around the ship visiting different decks. You can rent a cabin for two, four, six persons.
Cruise companies offer different tours during which you can discover the inhabitants of a coral reef on a glass-bottomed boat, go horseback riding on the beach, go mountain biking rain forests, explore ancient civilizations as you climb mysterious pyramids or snorkel with stingrays and dive 800 feet down in a research submarine. Days onboard are casual but full of joy and new impressions. But don't forget your camera and binoculars, so you don't miss a thing.
Adventures are endless in this area. People can relax on a cruise surrounded by the white-sand beaches and beautiful turquoise waters of the most beautiful islands on the earth, find and visit tropical places where nature brings striking mountains and pristine beaches.
Such islands are home to rich culture and complex histories. There are archaic ruins, beaches, rain forests and many waterfalls. Here you can find new friends and buy a lot of souvenirs
Билет № 7. Переведите текст:
Do you know the famous phrase "We are what we eat"? The saying is as old as the hills and means that to be fit and healthy you need to eat proper food.
All food is made up of nutrients which our bodies use. There are different kinds of nutrients: carbohydrates, proteins, fats» vitamins and minerals. Different foods contain different nutrients.
We all know that to eat much fat is bad for our health. The matter is that there are different kinds of fat. There are fats that are good for us and fats that are bad for us. Eating less of the bad ones and more of the good ones can actually help us to live longer! Bad fats are the saturated fats, found in animal productions, like red meat, butter and cheese.
Friendly fats are the found naturally in foods like nuts and seeds, olives, avocados and oily fish, including tuna.
One more thing to know is that when food is cooked, its structure changes. It can change the vitamin and nutrient contents of food.
More and more people feel strongly about the way, their food is produced. Nowadays so much of the basic food we eat — meat, fish, fruit and vegetables — is grown using chemicals and additives.
There is another problem. It is modified food, which is cheaper that ordinary one. There is a rumour that such food can cause cancer and other problems. Nobody knows, either it is just an imagined fear or a real problem. This problem could be solved and examined, but it will take some time.
The food we eat depends on lots of things. Taste is a big factor. Culture, religion and health also play a part in what food we eat. Advertising and social factors also have a big influence.
Finally, there are three main messages to follow for healthy eating:
First, we should eat less fat, particularly saturated fat.
Secondly, we are to cut down on sugar and salt.
Thirdly, we must eat more fresh fruit and vegetables.
Билет № 8. Переведите текст:
We have a nice flat in a new block of flats. Our flat is on the fourth floor. It has all modern conveniences: central heating, gas, electricity, cold and hot water, a lift and a chute to carry rubbish down There are three rooms, a kitchen, a bathroom and a hall in our flat. The living-room is the largest and most comfortable room in the flat. In the middle of the room we have a square-table with six chairs round it. To the right of the dinner-table there is a wall-unit which has several sections: a sideboard, a wardrobe and some shelves. At the opposite wall there is a piano and stool before it. Between the two large windows there is a little table with a colour TV set on it. Near the TV set there are two cosy armchairs. A small round table, a divan-bed and a standard lamp are in the left-hand corner. This small table is for newspapers and magazines. My father is used to having a rest sitting on this divan-bed reading books, newspapers, magazines or watching TV. The bedroom is smaller than the living-room and not so light as there is only one window in it. In this room there are two beds with a bedside-table between them. An alarm-clock and a small lamp with a pink lamp-shade are on the table. In the left-hand corner there is a dressing-table with a big mirror. In this room we have a built-in wardrobe with coat-hangers to-hang clothes on. There is a thick carpet on the floor and plain light-brown curtains on the window. The third room is my study. It is not large but very cosy. There isn't much furniture in it, only the most necessary. It has a writing-table and an armchair before it. In the right-hand corner there is a bookcase full of books, magazines and newspapers. A small table with a radio is standing in the left-hand corner. Near it there is a sofa with some cushions. In my opinion, the study is the best room in our flat. But the warmest place in our flat is the kitchen, I think — the place where the whole family gathers every evening not only to have supper together, but also to speak and rest. I like the English proverb: "My home is my castle" because my flat is, indeed, my castle.
Билет № 9. Переведите текст:
Tetris, the computer game in which players rotate a series of falling block shapes to fit them together, is celebrating its 25th anniversary.
The game was created by Alexey Pajitnov, a computer engineer who was working for the Computing Centre of the Soviet Academy of Sciences.
It has sold more than 70 million copies, been released for nearly every video-game platform of the past two decades and even been played on the side of a skyscraper.
The game was first made available on the IBM computer, but it didn't become a major hit until it was launched on Nintendo's Game Boy handheld console in 1989.
According to The Tetris Co., the Game Boy version of Tetris sold more than 35 million copies.
Despite the record-breaking popularity of Mr Pajitnov's creation, the royalties from the game were claimed by the Kremlin rather than the Russian programmer.
He finally began earning money from the game after he moved to the US and the rights reverted back to him in 1996.
Mr Pajitnov, speaking in an interview with the Guardian newspaper, described how he came up with the idea to distract him from his work on a large Soviet-built Elektronika 60 computer. He said: "I started to put together all kinds of mathematical puzzles and diversions that I had loved all my life. "The program wasn't complicated. There was no scoring, no levels. But I started playing and I couldn't stop. "I think that most of the classic games written in the 80s or early 90s are dead just because their authors or owners didn't care about them."
He chose the name Tetris by combining the words "tennis", his favourite sport, and "tetra", a Greek prefix.
The variously shaped groups of blocks that fall down the screen are called tetrominoes.