Chapter Establishment of Islamic Republic of Pakistan

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Chapter 1 .

Establishment of Islamic Republic of Pakistan

. Pakistan came into being on the basis of a strong ideology. The basis of Pakistan's ideology is Islam. Islam is a complete code of life that guides Muslims in all fields of life. Islamic system comprises solid principles, rules and regulations to guide the political, economic, social, domestic and moral life of human beings. The guidance is provided in the light of the teachings of the Holy Quran and sayings of the Holy Prophet (SAW). This system became the base of Pakistan. Muslims like other. peoples of the subcontinent were living like slaves. They wanted an independent sovereign state. But after getting freedom from Britishers there was no hope of achieving their 00bjective. The rule of Hindu majority was evident. After great consideration the Muslims decided to establish a Muslim state of those areas where they were in majority. This was the way out of shedding the slavery and achieving a piece of land to develop an Islamic system of government. The idea became popular among the Muslims, and became the goal of Muslims. The Muslims started a gigantic movement for the establishment of Pakistan. It became their objective that led to the establishment of Pakistan.

Ideology of Islam is, in fact, the ideology of Pakistan.

Hazrat Mujjadad Alif Sani, Hazrat Shah Wali Ullah, Hazrat Syed Ahmed Shaheed, Hazrat Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, Allama Iqbal and Quaid-e-Azam, the great personalities cared this plant. They desired to develop the social, economic, ethical and cultural system, Islamic in matter and spirit. Their dream became true after years of struggle and sacrifices.

Quaid-e-Azam and Ideology of Pakistan

The great personality that led the MuslimS' of the subcontinent to a safe place and materialized the concept of a Muslim state, was Quaid-e-Azam who said while explaining the ideology of Pakistan that Pakistan came into being when the first Hindu became a Muslim. In the annual meeting of 1943 .at Karachi Quaid-e-Azam said while clarifying the relation of Pakistan and Islam,

"What is that relation which has made Muslim a single body? What is that rock on which the structure of Millat is restored? What is that base which has secured the safety of the boat of this mill at? That relation, rock and

base is the Holy Quran." .

While addressing the students, in March 1944 he said, "our guide is Islam and this is the complete code of our life. On 21 March 1948 he addressed the people in

Dhaka and said, .

"I want not to see you to talk as a Sindhi, Balochi, Punjabi and Bengali. What is the fun of saying that we are Punjabi, Sindhi or Pathan? We are only Muslims."

While addressing at Aligarh he clarified the ideology of Pakistan in these words:

"What was the motive of the demand for Pakistan and a se~a~~t~ electora~e for Muslim~? W~at was the need of the dIvIsIOn of IndIa? Its cause IS neUher the narrow mindedness of Hindus nor the tactics of Britishers, but is the basic demand of Islam?"

In the light of the history of the subcontinent Quaid­e':'Azam argued that Muslims have never been a minority.

Allama Iqbal and Ideology of Pakistan

Allama Iqbal categorically stated that the Hindus and the Muslims can't live together in one state and that the Muslims would succeed in making their own separate state sooner or later. He rejected the idea of one nation in the sub-continent and advocated the separate nationhood of Muslims. Declaring Islam a complete code of life Allama Iqbal in the annua1.Session of All India Muslim League at Allahabad in 1930, demanded a Muslim state in the North West of the sub-continent. Iqbal made it clear that “India is not a country, it is a Sub-continent of human beings belonging to different languages and practising different religions. Muslim nation has its own religious and cultural identity.”

Ideology of Pakistan - Basic Principles

The Muslims of the sub-continent acquired a separate state to give practical shape to the absolute sovereignty of Allah Almighty, so that an Islamic system is established which is based on the teachings of the Holy Quran and sayings of the Holy Prophet (SA W).

Islam is not only the collection of rituals but also a complete code of life that is capable of meeting all the needs of human life. It has all the guide lines to achieve all the objectives of economy, morality and politics. Islamic system is applicable in every period to meet the modem

needs. The components of Islamic system are:

1. Beliefs and Prayers

The demand for Pakistan was made to enable the Muslims to live according to their belief, and feel not any problem in the performance of their prayers. Beliefs on Tawheed, Prophethood, Day of judgment, angels and revealed books are necessary. Prayers include namaz, fast, zakat and Hajj. Great importance is given to Jihad (struggle) in Islam. Worship of no one except Allah Almighty, and spending of day and night to acquire the farvours of that great ONE is Islam. And always keep one.. self ready to sacrifice one's life and property is jihad. Both Jihad-bin-nafas and Jihad-bin-mal are advised.

The basic purpose of all submissions and jihad is to keep oneself follower of the good will of Allah Almighty. All the submissions train a Muslim to adopt the path of Allah, and to live for Him. They stop the Muslims to seek the help of any other one except Allah Almighty. They are helpful in developing the character, and pave the way for the establishment of an exemplary Islamic state.

2. Democracy

Counselling is the base of Islamic state and society. It promotes democracy in an Islamic state. The state ensures equality and equity for all the citizens irrespective of their caste, colour.. language and race. The government 'performs all duties for the welfare of all the people. The opinion of each citizen is respected and given due importance. The citizen has full liberty to criticize the working of the government. The Amir of Ummah leads a simple life like all other members of the Islamic society. He performs his duties according to the teachings of Islam. The sovereignty in an Islamic state belongs to Allah and the Amir conducts it as His delegate. Hazrat Abu Bakr made it clear to the people, not to follow his orders if they are contrary to the Holy Quran and Sunnah.

The objective of the establishment of Pakistan was I the real implementation of the above mentioned democratic I concepts. It was neces",ary to adopt the Islamic social structure and enforce the Islamic virtues. So it was decided to pave the path of Islamic society in Pakistan. The concept of Islamic democracy is totally different from that of the West. Quaid-e-Azam described the objective of the establishment of Pakistan in Sibi as:

"Let us promote democracy according to the Islamic principles. Allah Almighty has taught us to settle the issues of state by mutual consultation."

3 Social Justice and Equality

Equity is the essence of a society based on justice. The people fail to establish a just society without acting upon the norms of justice and equality. In Islamic state all the citizens enjoy equal status. The rights of the citizens are guaranteed. The state stands to cater the economic needs of all the members. An independent and powerful judiciary looks after their rights. All are considered equal in the eyes of law. The Holy Prophet (SAW) himself set an example of equality by saying that the criminal would be punished, may she be his own daughter Fatima. The four Khalifahs strictly acted upon these principles to render justice. Hazrat Dmer Farooq (RA) did not spare his own son. The Khalifahs kept alive the traditions of justice, equality and supremacy of law.

Islamic state and society is held responsible for the betterment of poor, helpless and old people. The widows and orphans get state protection. Registers were maintained to enlist all such persons in Hazrat Dmer's government. The wealth is equitably distributed among the people. Accumulation of wealth in few hands is not allowed. It is considered sordid in Islamic society.

The Islamic state gives woman equal rights and protects her special status. A woman plays different roles as a mother, a wife, a sister and a daughter. All such roles are sacred and she is fully respected. The idea of "Paradise under the feet of 'mother" is presented by Islam. Islam safeguards her social, economic, cultural and domestic rights. She is considered an integral part of the family and society. Allah has advised the menfolk to lookafter the betterment of the women. If it is not done, it is a violation of His orders. Holy Prophet (SAW) once said, "One who rears and brings up three daughters earns a place in paradise." It is a responsibility of the husband to provide food, clothing and shelter to his wife.

4. Basic Fundamental Human Rights

With the establishment of Pakistan the emphasis on the protection of the rights of the citizens alongwith their duties. The right of one is the duty of the other. Rights and duties are interlinked. The balance of rights and duties makes an Islamic state successful one.

Fundamental human rights are given by the Islamic state to all the citizens without any discrimination. The Holy Prophet (SAW) declared the charter of human rights in his final address, and told the Muslims that an Arab has no edge on a non-Arab, and white is not superior to the black. Superiority depends upon the piety. The Western world presented the charter of Fundamental Human Rights in the mid of 20th century while the rights in a Muslim state were ensured to the citizens 1400 years ago. The state was directed to look after the rights of all its inhabitants.

The concept of the protection of the right of minorities was also a part of the demand of Pakistan. Quaid-e-Azam made it clear that the rights of minorities would be protected fully, and an Islamic state ensures them.

5. Equality and Fraternity

Islam is a religion of peace and security; and promotes equality and fraternity among the Muslims.

Fraternity encourages love, sincerity sacrifice, generosity and affection. All Muslims are brothers. One's grief is the grief of all and one's joy is the joy of all the Muslims. Muslims fulfill needs of one another. These excellent virtues strengthen the Islamic state.

Pakistan - The Result of Muslim Struggle

The creation of Pakistan was made possible after a long and strenuous struggle. The Muslims had been ruling the sub-continent for centuries till the European nations entered the area. The British had commercial objectives but when they saw the mutual, mistrust and differences among the Indians they decided to avail the opportunity. They usurped the power by defeating Tipu Sultan and Siraj-ud­daula with the help qf the traitors. Gradually the Britishers took the full control of the Sub-continent. A number of efforts made by the Muslims to get rid of the British were failed. A full fledged war of independence was fought in 1857 but the traitors again played their dubious role. The British government took the control of South Asia direct in its hands by abrogating the control of East India Company.

The Muslims were about to scatter away after the war ofIndependence 1857 when Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and his companions organized a multipurpose movement. Aligarh Movement led' the Muslims and prepared them to play active but positive role in different fields of life. Education was the top priority. The movement made all efforts to protect the social, economic, cultural, religious and political rights of the Muslims. The Hindus had already taken up the challenge to go ahead of the Muslims in education. The Muslim nation was organized by the Aligarh Movement to face the Hindu community. The Muslims made tremendous progress in the second half of the 19th century. Sir Syed kept the Muslims away from politics and advised them to achieve respectable status in economic and social fields. It was in the beginning of 20th century that the Muslim League, endeavoured to. get rid of the slavery of both the Britishers and the Hindus. Indian National Congress strived hard to introduce the majority rule in the sub-continent. The Indian leaders wanted the British to quit the Indian soil. Logically the governing powers could be switched over to the majority community after the departure of the Britishers. The Muslims opposed the Hindu movement to avoid the permanent Hindu control on Indian politics. The All India Muslim League guided the Muslims to the destiny, and independent Pakistan emerged on the map of the world in 1947. The Muslim nation had to face gigantic problems and their struggle met with success. Many milestones came on the way to independent Pakistan.

Aligarh Movement

Britishers and Hindus did everything to crush the Muslims after the war of Independence 1857. The Hindus convinced the government that they were not a party against the British government in the war. The Muslims were held responsible for the so called 'mutiny'. They were made the target by the revengeful British soldiers. The life of Muslims became miserable.

The Muslims were killed mercilessly and their properties were confiscated.

The Muslims were expelled from the government jobs and they were deprived of their jagirs.

The doors of government educational institutions were closed for them.

The Muslims economically.

The masjids and Madarassas were locked.




~s were made a down trodden and

suppressed race.

Some English authors have portrayed the gloomy picture of the plight of Muslims in the following words:

W. W. Hunter: "The properties of Muslims were distributed among the Hindus and the Sikhs, and to be a Muslim was considered a crime."

Lord Roberts: "I passed through the Chandni Chowk Delhi. There were heaps of dead bodies lying everywhere."

Bosworth Smith: "The British soldiers were like blood hounds. They entered one house after the other and looted the belongings of the Muslims."

Sir Syed Ahmad Khan wrote about the misery of Muslims:

"No devil from sky has decended on earth before ransacking the house of a Muslim."


Sir Syed Ahmed Khan came forward to protect the Muslims. His vision was enlightened and he immediately looked into the future of his nation. He founded a great movement for the welfare of the Muslims in Delhi. Sir Syed came to the rescue of the Muslims~and by his untiring efforts changed the whole atmosphere. Sir Richard Symond has written in his book that the claim of. Pakistanis was absolutely true and Sir Syed was among the founders and builders of Pakistan. He inculcated a new and healthy spirit in the Muslims through his Aligarh. Movement. He taught tolerance and foresightedness to his Muslim brothers and guided them in all fields of life. A galaxy of stars like Maulana Hali, Maulana Shibli Nomani, Maulana Chiragh Ali, Mohsin-ul-Mulk, Viqar-ul-Mulk and Deputy Nazeer Ahmad were around him. All such personalities co­operated with him and honoured him as their guide, and followed the track proposed by him. The team performed excellently. The generations to come would remain grateful to those selfless workers. Sir Syed and his companions turned the Aligarh Movement into a comprehensive successful movement. This is how the Muslim renaissance emerged. The Movement contributed in the following fields:


Education was the top most priority for Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. He was of the opinion that honour of the nation could be achieved only by education. He advised the Muslims to get the most modem western education of science, modem literature and social sciences. He declared English education a ladder of success for Muslims so that they may come upto the level of Hindus socially and economically. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan established educational institutions for the Muslim youth and guided them both theoretically and practically.

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan established the educational institutions in Muradabad in 1858, in Ghazi Pur in 1862, in Aligarh in 1875.

The M.A.O. School Aligarh was, later on, upgraded to a college. This institution became Muslim University Aligarh in 1920.

The services of the English teachers like Arnold, Morrison and Archibold were hired. Some versatile personalities of the sub-continent were appointed as teachers. Teacher to teach Sansikrit was a Hindu Syllabi

The syllabi of the Muslim institution were adopted after a lot of deliberations and considerations. The syllabi were a good blend of Western, Eastern and Islamic education. He once said,

"Philosophy will be in our right hand, natural science in our left hand and the crown of Islamic ideology will be on our head."

Scientific Society

Sir Syed established a unique institution in Ghazipur in 1863. Its name was Scientific Society. The Headquarters of this society were shifted to Aligarh in 1876. The purpose of its establishment was to acquire the books in other languages, and translated them in Urdu. Sir Syed stressed upon the need for education in English language so that the Muslim generation could learn the Western and modem knowledge as soon as possible. To achieve the objective, the great leader made arrangements for the translation of best Western books. The scientific' society did a commendable service and a large number of books on science, literature and other subjects were translated in Urdu. The scientific society served the cause of Urdu language as well, and urdu developed a lot.

Muhammadan Educational Conference

In 1886 another institution named Muhammadan Educational Conference was developed. The renowned Muslim personalities used to participate in the meetings of the Conference. The Conference provided large funds to fulfill the requirements of the Aligarh Movement. The achievements of Muhammadan Educational Conference impressed many people. Some of them worked on the same pattern in their respective areas. Educational activities spread all over the sub-continent. The following institutions were founded on the line of Aligarh College:

Haleem College Kawnpur

Islamia College Lahore Islamia College Peshawar

Sindh Muslim Madarassa Karachi

The Muhammadan Educational Conference was a multi-purpose institution. It served the Muslim community in social, cultural, religious and political fields. It was in 1906 that All India Muslim League, the Muslim political pal1y, was made in the annual meeting of the Muhammadan Educational Conference held at Dhaka.

Literary Activities

Sir Syed himself was a prolific writer. Luckily he was supported by a group of intellectuals, essayists, critics, historians and poets. He used literature for the national progress. The Muslims followed the Aligarh Movement, and they achieved their objectives. The following publications brought a great revolution in the life of Muslims.

Khutabat-e-Ahmadia, Tabbian-ul-Kalam, Ain-Akbari-Asar­us-Sanadeed, Tafseer-e-Quran, Risala Tehzib-ul-Ikhlaq, the great creations of Sir Syed. Maulana Shibli Nomani wrote Seerat-un-Nabi, Al-Farooq, Al-Ghazali, Al-Mamoon. Deputy Nazeer Ahmed wrote Maraat-ul-Uroos, Toba-tun­Nasuh,Ibne-ul-Waqat. Maulana Hali wrote Mussadas-e-Hali, Diwan-e-Hali, Moazana Dabeer-o-Anees and Hayat-e-Javaid.
Social And Economic Services

Sir Syed took many steps to regain the lost social and economic status of the Muslims. The suppressed and ruined community became dynamic.

Risala - "c - Asbabe - Baghawat - e - Hind, Loyal Muhammadans of India and Tabiyan-ul-Kalam were the writings of Sir Syed in which he tried to construct a bridge between the Britishers and the Muslims. He succeeded in getting the victimization of Muslims stopped. The revengeful attitude was finally changed and the Muslims, once again, joined the main stream.

Political Services

Sir Syed advised the Muslims to remain away from politics but he himself took important political steps in this regard, and fully concentrate on the acquisition of education for their socio-economic restoration so that they might acquire the status equivalent of that to Hindus.

Hindu-Muslim reconciliation was an~ther objective. Sir Syed took steps to bring the two nations closer to one another. He recruited Hindu teachers and allowed admission to Hindu students in his educational institutions. He openly stated once, "India is a bridegroom with two glittering eyes, Hindus and Muslims". The Hindi-Urdu controversy changed the views of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and from then onward he talked about the rights of the Muslims. He changed his mind and on the basis of Two Nation Theory he decided to solve the political problems of the sub-continent.

On the basis of Two Nation Theory, Sir Syed asked for special safeguards for the Muslims in different fields.

Special seats for the Muslims in the local councils

Quota in services

Started a movement against the open competitive examinations for superior services

Rejected the government of the majorities because that could lead to the monopoly of the Hindus

The services of Sir Syed were highly applaudable, therefore, he is recognized as one of the founders of Pakistan. Maulvi Abdul Haque appreciated the role played by Sir Syed and said,

. "The first stone of the foundation of Pakistan was laid down by this old man."

Indian National Congress was established in 1885 by an English bureaucrat, A. O. Hume. He invited Sir Syed to join the party but he did not do so. .Sir Syed wanted to keep the Muslims away from politics so that they might use all their energies and time to improve their socio-economic conditions. This is why Sir Syed opposed the joining of the Muslims in Indian National Congress. The worth of this policy was, later on, proved by the circumstances.

Establishment of All India Muslim League

All India Muslim 1 eague was established in 1906 at Dhaka where the annual session of Muhammadan Education Conference was held. In the final.session it was decided by the participants, on the request of Nawab Salim Ullah Khan of Dhaka, to hold a special meeting to discuss exclusively the political issues. In the meeting all the delegates agreed to form a permanen~ political party to look after the political interests of the Muslims. Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar, Maulana Zafar Ali Khan, Hakim Ajmal Khan and Nawab Salim Ullah Khan supported the proposal. The meeting was presided over by Nawab Viqar­ul-Mulk. Sir Agha Khan and Viqar-ul-Mulk were elected President. and Secretary of the political party. The Headquarters was established in Aligarh. Branches were organized in all the provinces. Syed Ameer Ali was' appointed President of London branch. The name of the political party was unanimously suggested. as All India Muslim League.

Causes of the Establishment of Muslim League

1. Establishment of Indian National Congress

It was actually not a national party. It worked for the interests of Hindus only. The extremists had captured the top positions of the party. The Muslims were compelled to form their own party to face the challenges of Indian National Congress.

2. Communalism

The Hindu proved prejudiced against the Muslims. The extremist organizations like Sanghtan, Shudhi, Arya . Samaj and Rindu Mahasaba endang~red the life of Muslims. The Muslims were scared of all their activities and they decided to form All India Muslim League.

3. Partition of Bengal

The partition of Bengal created new situation in politics. The new province of East Bengal was created by the Government on administrative grounds by dividing the province of Bengal into two parts. It was just a chance that­ East Bengal was predominantly a Muslim region. The partition proved a blessing fot them. The betterment of Muslims was not tolerable for Hindus. Therefore, Hindus strongly opposed the partition and asked for its annulment. This opposition also beca!lle the cause of the establishment of political party of Muslims.

Urdu Hindi Controversy

The IrIindu organizations including Indian National. Congress"strived hard to replace the official language Urdu by Hindi. They were also favouring devnagri script in place of Arabic or Persian' script. British Governors of two provinces, the Bengal and the United Province came to their help. The Muslims started a movement to support Urdu. Urdu Defence Association was formed. In the beginning of 20th Century the status of Urdu was endangered, therefore, the leaders gathered to form a political party. Defence of Urdu and Muslim culture was the need of time. All India Muslim League was founded to meet the challenges. .

5. Political Reforms

The Liberal Party won the elections in England and announced the implementation of certain political reforms. The chances of the reformation of political institutions

provided an opportunity for the Muslims to form a political I party to protect their representation.

6. Simla Deputation

A deputation of Muslim leaders called on Lord Minto, the Vicroy, on 1 st October, 1906 at Simla. Sir Agha Khan, the Head of the Deputation, presented a Memorandum and requested for basic political, economic, cultural and other rights for the Muslims,.' One of the important demands was to introduce a system of separate electorate for the Muslims. The response of Vicroy was encouraging. On the way back the members of Deputation seriously felt the need of a Muslim political. party. So All India Muslim League emerged on the scene.

Objectives of All India Muslim League

1. To create an understanding between the government and the Indian Muslims, and to promote the feelings of loyalty among them.

To co-ordinate with other nations and political parties for general welfare of the people.

To protect the rights of the Muslim" nation, and to interact with the government and other agencies for this purpose.

3. All India Muslim League met with early success when the government accepted the. demand of separate electorate in 1909. In 1916 Muslim League signed a Pact with Indian National Congress and got significant concessions for the Muslims, Muslim' League under the leadership of Agha Khan, Viqar-ul-Mulk and Quaid-e­

Azam worked very hard. Muslim League in its annual' Session at Lahore passed an ,historic resolution in 1940 demanding a separate homeland for Muslims. It was in 1947 that Muslim League succeeded in getting Pakistan for Muslims after a struggle of seven years.

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