Civil Law Property



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CIVIL LAW PROPERTY - SUMMARY 2004

Semester 1 – Cantin-Cumyn


Part 1: Introduction to the Civil Law of Property 3

Chapter I – Historical Background to Civil Law Property 3

A.M. Patault, Introduction historique au droit des biens 3

A.M. Patault, Introduction historique au droit des biens 3

Chapter II – Theory of Patrimony 3



S.2 Definition of Patrimony 3

S.3: Role of theory of Patrimony in the Civil Law Tradition 4

C. Aubry & G. Rau, Cours de droit civil français d’après la méthode de Zacharie 4



C. Aubry & G. Rau, Cours de droit civil français d’après la méthode de Zacharie 4

J. Ghestin, Traité de droit civil : Introduction générale 4



J. Ghestin, Traité de droit civil : Introduction générale 4

J.-L. Baudouin & P.-G. Jobin Les obligations 5



J.-L. Baudouin & P.-G. Jobin Les obligations 5

M. Cantin-Cumyn, La fiducie, un nouveau sujet de droit ? 5



M. Cantin-Cumyn, La fiducie, un nouveau sujet de droit ? 5

S.4 Classification of subjective rights based on the concept of patrimony 6

B. Respect of the body as an extra-patrimonial right 7



B. Respect of the body as an extra-patrimonial right 7

C. Respect to image, reputation and privacy 7



C. Respect to image, reputation and privacy 7

Case: Torrito v. Fondation 7

Case: Laoun v. Malo 8

Case: Laprairie Shopping Centre 9

E. Extra-Patrimoniality of the Family Relationship 9

E. Extra-Patrimoniality of the Family Relationship 9

Part 2: Classification of Property (or Patrimonial Rights) and of Things 9

Chapter I: Distinction b/n Real Rights, Personal Rights, Intellectual Rights 10



S. 1 Real Rights 10

S. 2 Personal Rights 11

Case: Ouimet v. Guilbault 12



S. 3 Comparison b/n Real Rights and Personal Rights 12

S. 4 Intellectual Property 15

Case: Diffusion YFB v. Les Disques Gamma 16

Case: SOQUIA v. Robert Libman 17

S. 5 Observations on the use of Terminology 18

Chapter II: Distinction b/n Movables and Immovables 18



S. 1 – Origin of the distinction and classification 18

S. 2 – Classification in the CcQ -- Comparison b/w Codes 18

Case: Belair 19

Case: Cablevision 19

S. 3 – Relevance of Classification Today 21

Case: Horn Elevator 21

Case: Nadeau v. Rousseau 21

Case: Construktek 22

Case: Axor Construction 22

What is at stake when classifying an object as immovable under 901 or 903 23

Chapter III: Other Classifications 24

S. 1 – Capital and Fruit/income 24

S. 2 – Fungible / Consumable 25

S. 3 – Things in Commerce, res nullius, res communes 25

S. 4 – Legal Characterisation of Water 26

Cantin Cumyn, L'eau, chose commune: un statut juridique à confirmer 27



Cantin Cumyn, L'eau, chose commune: un statut juridique à confirmer 27

Case: Morin v. Morin 28



Part 3: Property in Relation with Persons (subjects of rights in Land) 29

Chapter II: Private Ownership of Land and its origin 29



S. 1 – The Seigneurial System and its abolition 29

S. 2 Permanent Consequences of abolition of tenure system 30

S. 3 Private Ownership of Land (or private domain); multiple sources; content of title 31

Case: Houde 31

Watercourses Act 32

Case: Auger 32



S. 4 – State Ownership of Land (or Public Domain) 33

Case: Batiments Kalad’art 34

Chapter II: Rights in Land of Native Peoples 35

Part 4: The Right of Ownership 37

Chapter I: Concept of Ownership in Quebec and in the Civil Law 37



S. 1 – The Paramount Legal Right 38

S. 2 – Attributes of Ownership 40

S. 3 – Characteristics of Ownership 41

Individual right 41

Exclusive right 42

Perpetual right 42

Chapter II: Restrictions in the Exercise of the Right of Ownership 43

S. 1 – Relations b/n Neighbours: Abnormal Inconveniences distinguished from abuse of right and encroachment 44

Case: Lessard v. Bernard 44

Case: Gourdeau v. Letellier 45

Case: Barrette v. Ciment St-Laurent 45



S. 2 – Other Codal Restrictions 46

Articles in relation to Art 976 46



Articles in relation to Art 976 46

Prevention of conflict b/n neighbours (owned by different people – real rights) 47



Prevention of conflict b/n neighbours (owned by different people – real rights) 47

Procedures to avoid encroachments with regards to buildings 48



Procedures to avoid encroachments with regards to buildings 48

Case: Themens v. Royer 48



S. 3 – Expropriation and other instances of non-consensual Acquisitions 49

Case: Sula v. Cité de Duvernay 49



S. 4 Other sources of limitation:  Special Legislation found outside of the Code: 50

Civil Law Property

Summary

K. Shannon

Part 1: Introduction to the Civil Law of Property




Chapter I – Historical Background to Civil Law Property




A.M. Patault, Introduction historique au droit des biens

The affirmation of “jus disponendi” (associated with the right of ownership)


The power to dispose of material, to alienate and modify, not only to enjoy its possibilities. This power is held only by he who fully possesses the immovable, not by he who only enjoys its utility.
L’opposition propriété / droits sur la chose d’autrui



Servitude Art 1177: A servitude is a charge imposed on an immovable, the servient land, in favour of another immovable, the dominant land, belonging to a different owner.

Usufruct Art. 1120: Usufruct is the right of use and enjoyment, for a certain time, of property owned by another as one’s own, subject to the obligation of preserving its substance.

Notes : Customary Law : The immovable is the source of wealth and therefore property law is based on the notion of ownership





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