Contributions of the philosophy of science to juridical semantics

Internationalization of terminology: “Cosmopolitan” vocabulary revisited

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Internationalization of terminology: “Cosmopolitan” vocabulary revisited

The purpose of this paper is twofold:

1. To revert briefly to the earlier discussion about the process of internationalization and the nature of the so-called international words to clarify some basic principles.
Different views have been expressed in order to explain the "internationality" of a comparatively large group of words, chiefly terms. The most convincing basis for determining words as international seems to be the scope of distribution. This, as a rule, means borrowing of a word from some source language into a number of other languages, especially into different language groups.
One of the extreme opinions maintains that words of international type come into existence in no particular language or in no-man`s-land, to put it metaphorically, which does not seem convincing in relation to all previous historical periods.
2. To draw attention to some recent trends in the character or methods of term formation which may become even more pronounced in future. As the bulk of academic and technical writing is done in a very limited number of languages (English towering among them) new terms reflecting development of society, science and technology are generated in these languages, even by non-native speakers. On the other hand, familiarity with terminology in two or even more languages among influential representatives of a nation may lead to internationalizing trends in previously adopted standardization principles of this national language and its terminological system if nationalist or regional feelings do not neutralize them.

Ballansat-Aebi, Suzanne
Untersuchung der Kulturspezifik in französischen und englischen juristischen Lehrbüchern und ihrer Bedeutung für die Übersetzung ins Deutsche
Die Übersetzungswissenschaft hat bisher unter den Rechtsquellen den Gesetzen und Gerichtsurteilen grössere Aufmerksamkeit geschenkt als der Rechtslehre. Eine Analyse der Stilmerkmale von juristischen Lehrbüchern ist gerade für die Übersetzung hilfreich, da sie die Entscheidung erleichtern kann, wann Textsortenkonventionen des Ausgangstexts in der Zielsprache übernommen oder wie sie wiedergegeben werden können.
Der interlinguale Vergleich der Stilmerkmale in juristischen Lehrbüchern wird anhand von je zwei Werken mit gleicher Thematik und gleichem Zielpublikum vorgenommen (Einführung ins Rechtssystem). Allerdings zeigt sich sofort, dass die unterschiedliche Darstellung des Stoffes nicht nur auf die Kulturspezifik der juristischen Fachsprache, sondern vor allem auch auf das unterschiedliche Rechtsdenken zurückzuführen ist. Das angelsächsische Rechtssystem beruht auf kasuistischem Denken, das französische auf der Anwendung abstrakter Normen. Englische Lehrbücher sind anschaulich und sprechen den Leser direkt an, französische wirken abstrakt und objektbezogen. In französischen Lehrbüchern wird hingegen auf eine systematische, leicht überschaubare Darstellungsweise grösseren Wert gelegt als in englischen. Es werden insbesondere folgende Merkmale untersucht : Gliederungssignale, typographische Gestaltungsmittel, Text­kohäsion, Darstellungshaltung des Autors und Einbindung des Lesers, Einführung, Definition und Illustrierung von Begriffen, Lexik, Tempus).

Baumann, Prof. Dr.phil. Klaus-Dieter
Communicative-cognitive strategies of knowledge realisation in LSP
A comprehensive analysis of various communicative strategies of knowledge realisation needs a model of LSP communication integrating all relevant knowledge representation systems. As a result of numerous interdisciplinary and contrastive analyses of LSP communication in different sciences and languages we have found hierarchically working communicative strategies being determined by knowledge structures to a large extent. In this context we will present first methodological positions of a comprehensive theory of LSP communication. Finally, it becomes more and more important for learners of LSP to raise practical awareness of the specific complexity of LSP communication.

Bekisheva, Dr.Ph. Elena

Linguoconceptual analysis of medical classifications

Together with: Alexander Krasnov

The problem of medical knowledge presentation and classification is taking up a central lace in linguistics since the knowledge of the language participates in information processing and, rough this, in creating the image of the world in the human mind. Since the antiquity when natural science were “in statu nascendi” and nowadays as well attempts have been undertaken to divide the subject area on the basis of different ontological signs.
We have made an attempt to undertake linguoconceptual analysis of medial classifications using classifications of pelvis bones impairments.
The following statements are presented for discussion.

  1. Professional sublanguage being reflection of a particular subject area creates a conventional informational model of this area which reveals itself in specific speech acts.

  2. This syntactic structural model can be presented as a tree – like graph based on correlations.

  3. Professional vocabulary with different degree of terminological status and different frequency of usage participates in formation of this model.

  4. There are stable lexico-semantic groups having specific correlations between themselves as well as between the lexical units composing them. The correlations reflect the system linking the objects and phenomena of the existing reality.

Belotti, Ulisse
Blending and word manufacture in IT jargon: some examples from 'Wired'
The aim of this study is to consider the new terms used by people sharing their interest in information technology, a sector in which word-formation is characterised by a high level of either creativity or productivity. The corpus considered concerns 'Jargon Watch', a column in Wired, the world famous magazine for those who are interested in computers and in the Net and comprises terms coming from various sources, such as online discussions and glossaries, web pages, email submissions, trade shows and lectures, magazines and newspapers and TV news, published from May 1993 to August 2000. As the corpus shows the presence of various patterns in word-formation, I have tried to investigate, in a more detailed way, how new terms are coined by means of blending and manufacturing. Blending accounts for a significant proportion of new words, particularly those concerning the business and information technology related areas; in other cases the expression word manufacture is used because the technique of coinage of new words implies the use of unusual patterns. The paper is intended for anyone having a minimal computer background.

Bhatia, Prof. Vijay K.

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