Directorate General of Shipping, Ministry of Shipping, Govt of India, Mumbai



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Note

Throughout the course, safe working practices are to be clearly defined and emphasized with reference to current international requirements and regulations.


It is expected that the institution implementing the course will insert references to national and/or regional requirements and regulations as necessary.



  1. LEARNING OBJECTIVES




Detailed Learning Objectives

IMO

Reference

Textbooks

Bibliography

Teaching

Aids

1. Course Introduction, Ice Nomenclature, Characteristics and Detection

1.1. Course Introduction

1.2. Ice Physics Formation, Growth, Aging, and Stages of Melt

1.2.1. Discuss the process of formation, growth, aging, salinity, and decay of sea ice.

1.2.2. Discuss the process of formation, growth, aging, salinity, and decay of fresh water ice.

1.2.3. Recognize the difference between compressive and flexural strength of ice.



1.3. Snow Covered Ice

1.3.1. Recognize the increase in frictional resistance due to snow cover.

1.4. Ice Types, Concentrations and Features

1.4.1. Identify the physical characteristics and key identifiers of the following ice types:

a. First Year Sea Ice

1. New Ice/Frazil

2. New Ice/Grease Ice

3. New Ice/Shuga

4. New Ice/Dark Nilas

5. New Ice/Light Nilas

6. Young Ice/Grey Ice

7. Young Ice/Grey White Ice

8. Thin First Year Ice (first stage)

9. Thin First Year Ice (second stage)

10. Medium First Year Ice

11. Thick First Year Ice

b. Second Year Sea Ice

c. Multi Year Sea Ice

1. Light Multi Year Ice

2. Heavy Multi Year Ice

d. Fresh Water Ice

e. Glacial/Land Ice

1. Blocky Iceberg

2. Bergy Bit

3. Domed Iceberg

4. Dry-docked Iceberg

5. Growler

6. Pinnacled Iceberg

7. Tabular Iceberg

8. Wedged Iceberg

9. Glacier

10. Ice Shelf.

1.4.2. Identify the following forms of ice:

a. Brash Ice

b. Pancake Ice

c. Ice Cake

d. Small Floe

e. Medium Floe

f. Big Floe

g. Vast Floe

h. Giant Floe

i. Fast Ice

j. Strips.



R2, R5

T1, TC7, TC8

A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A6

Detailed Learning Objectives

IMO

Reference

Textbooks

Bibliography

Teaching

Aids

1.4.3. Recognize the following ice concentrations:

a. Consolidated Ice

b. Compact Ice

c. Very Close Ice

d. Close Ice

e. Open Ice

f. Very Open Water

g. Open Water

h. Ice Free

i. Drift Ice

j. Pack Ice.

1.4.4. Identify the following ice features:

a. Blind Lead

b. Crack


c. Finger Rafted Ice

d. Flaw Lead

e. Floeberg (Stamukha)

f. Hummock

g. Level Ice

h. Melt Ponds

i. Open Lead

j. Polynya

k. Rafting

l. Ridge


m. Ridge Keel

n. Ridge Sail

o. Shore Lead

p. Thaw Holes

q. Ice Rivers1
1.5. Ice Reports, Ice Reporting, Coding and Terminology

1.5.1. List sources of ice advisories and forecasts available to the vessel.

1.5.2. Recall the terminology used for ice reporting.

1.5.3. Interpret ice reports (including coding using the Egg Code)

1.5.4. Discuss the contents of the various ice advisories and forecasts.
1.6. Signs of Ice in the Vicinity

1.6.1. Describe the signs of ice in the vicinity.

1.6.2. Recognize Ice Blink and Water Sky.

1.6.3. Recognize a sudden drop in sea water temperature to zero.

1.6.4. Recognize meteorological conditions that affect visibility in ice covered waters including:

a. Fog


b. Refraction

c. Sea smoke

d. White outs

e. Sea Temperature.


1.7. Ice Imagery

1.7.1. List the sources ice imagery types that are available:

a. Aircraft Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Side Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR)

b. Satellite

c. Purpose of computer modelling by ice forecasters.












1See textbook reference T5 Ice Phenomenon Threatening Arctic Shipping (2012)

Detailed Learning Objectives

IMO

Reference

Textbooks

Bibliography

Teaching

Aids

1.7.2. List the advantages and disadvantages of the different ice imagery/reconnaissance systems including:

a. Cloud penetration

b. Image resolution

c. Infrared

d. Satellite orbit parameters close to Polar Regions

e. Swath


f. Visual.

1.7.3. Analyse and interpret ice types and features using SAR, SLAR, infrared and visual imagery for both Arctic and Antarctic Regions.

1.7.4. Introduce new Satellite technology and discuss advantages/disadvantages (e.g. RadarSat 2, VIIRS, and Cryosat).
1.8. Effects of Weather Patterns, Current, Tides and Wind on Ice formation and Motion Overview

1.8.1. Discuss the effect of meteorological conditions and climate on ice formation.

1.8.2. Discuss the effects of wind and current on ice motion.

1.8.3. Relate the differing effects of wind and current on drift/pack ice as opposed to icebergs.

1.8.4. Discuss effects of common weather patterns on ice formation for the Arctic and Antarctic.

1.8.5. Discuss effects of common current patterns on icemovement for the Arctic and Antarctic.

1.8.6. Discuss special phenomenon that could affect operations in the Arctic and Antarctic.
1.9. Ice Pressure & Distribution

1.9.1. Discuss the causes of ice pressure.

a. Environmental

b. Terrestrial.

1.9.2. Understand the consequences of ice pressure and how to recognize it in a practical way.

1.9.3. Demonstrate continuous monitoring of ice presence and ice movement resulting from environmental forces such as wind, tides, while navigating the vessel.

1.9.4. Identify and interpret indicators of the presence of ice pressure.

a. Environmental

b. Ships performance

c. Terrestrial.

1.9.5. Introduce new developments to forecast ice pressure based on meteorological indicators, such as computer based modelling.











2.1 Regulations

2.1.1 International Regulations and Guidelines

2.1.1.1 Highlight and refer to relevant information from latest version of the Polar Code, including the requirements in regulation 12.3.1., chapter 12.

2.1.1.2 Recognize that the following international documents contain information relating to international requirements for ice navigation in polar waters:

a. SOLAS chapter V

b. SOLAS chapter XIV

c. Chapter V/4 STCW Convention

d. UNCLOS Article 194 and 234

e. MARPOL Annexes I, II, IV and V


R2, R5, R6

TA1

(Antarctica)


T1, T2

(Canada)
B6 (all other

areas)


A1,A2, A3

Detailed Learning Objectives

IMO

Reference

Textbooks

Bibliography

Teaching

Aids

f. Resolution MEPC.163 (56) Guidelines for ballast water exchange in the Antarctic Treaty Area

g. MSC.1/Circ. 1519 Guidance on Methodologies for Assessing Operational Capabilities and Limitations in Ice.

2.1.1.3 Highlight and refer to relevant information from latest version of the following IMO regulations:

a. SOLAS Chapter V (accident reporting)

2.1.1.4 Recognize that the following documents contain information relating to national requirements for ice navigation in polar waters:

a. Antarctic Treaty, Protocol, Annexes and recommendations

b. Madrid Protocol

2.1.2 National/Regional Regulations

2.1.2.1 Reference the legislation and communication requirements for the national/regional areas in which they operate.
2.2 Standards

2.2.1 Shipboard Documentation

2.2.1.1 Highlight relevant sections from the Polar ShipCertificate, including Record of Equipment for thePolar Ship Certificate, and shipboarddocumentation relevant to the vessel's operation in polar waters:a. Polar Waters Operations Manual (PWOM).

2.2.2 National/Regional Standards

2.2.2.1 Reference the standards for the national/regionalareas in which they operate,











3. Vessel Characteristics

3.1 Vessel Types

3.1.1 Describe the relationship between power, size, displacement, ice strength, ice design.

3.1.2 Discuss the differences in ice transitingperformance of the following:

a. Icebreakers

b. Ice classed vessels with ice breaking bows

c. Ice classed vessels without ice breaking bows

d. Vessels without ice class.
3.2 Hull Design

3.2.1 Ice Strengthening/Class Requirements

3.2.1.1 Outline the purpose of ice strengthening.

3.2.1.2 Outline and compare Canadian, Finnish-Swedishand Russian ice class designations.

3.2.1.3 Outline and compare Classification Society andIACS ice class designations.

3.2.1.4 Discuss limitations of the different ice classes.

3.2.1.5 Discuss the basic ice strengthening/ice classrequirements, relating to vessel structure.

3.2.1.6 Discuss the basic ice class requirements, relatingto main propulsion machinery and auxiliarysystems.

3.2.1.7 Discuss the application of ice strengtheningpertaining to impact loads and vibration on avessel's structural components.

3.2.2 Bow

3.2.2.1 Discuss how bow design affects a vessel's ice transiting performance.

3.2.2.2 Describe how an icebreaking bow functions.

3.2.2.3 Understand that icebreaking bow designs can vary in icebreaking and ice transitingperformance.



R1, R2, R5,R10

T1, T2, T3,

T4,


TC2,TC4,

TC5,TC6,


TR4

A1, A2, A3,A4

Detailed Learning Objectives

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Reference

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Teaching

Aids

3.2.2.4 Identify an ice knife.

3.2.2.5 Discuss advantages and disadvantages of navigating with an ice knife.

3.2.2.6 Identify reamers as fitted on an icebreaker.

3.2.2.7 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of navigating with reamers.

3.2.3 Hull Form

3.2.3.1 Discuss how hull design affects turning performance in ice.

3.2.3.2 Discuss how specialized ice coatings can reduce frictional resistance in ice.

3.2.4 Stern Configuration

3.2.4.1 Discuss how stern design affects a vessels backing and turning performance in ice.

3.2.4.2 Identify an ice horn.

3.2.4.3 Discuss advantages and disadvantages of operating with ice horn.

3.2.4.4 Identify vessels with stern configurations designed for stern first operation during ice transit.


3.3 Enhanced Icebreaking Design Features

3.3.1 Discuss the fitting and purpose of bow propellers.

3.3.2 Discuss the fitting and purpose of hull airlubrication systems.

3.3.3 Discuss the fitting and purpose of hull waterlubrication systems.

3.3.4 Discuss icebreaker towing arrangements.

3.3.5 Discuss the relevance of length to beam ratio.

3.3.6 Discuss deep water and shallow watericebreaking vessels.

3.3.7 Discuss propulsion types.


3.4 Propulsion

3.4.1 Discuss consequences and remedial action of iceingestion with respect to sea suctions and waterintakes.

3.4.2 Discuss the relevance of displacement versuspropulsive power in ice operations.
3.5 Subdivision and Stability for Ice StrengthenedVessels

3.5.1 Explain the intact stability condition for anicebreaking vessel when beached upon a largeice floe.

3.5.2 Explain the icing stability condition, along withcorrective measures.

3.5.3 Explain flooding, sub-division, and damagedstability criteria.












4. Manoeuvring in Ice

4.1 Approaching and Entering Ice

4.1.1 Explain the hazards in connection with draughtand trim in relation to ice transit.

4.1.2 Discuss ballast conditions in relation to an icebelt.

4.1.3 Outline factors to consider when entering ice.

4.1.4 Understand the importance of safe speed.

4.1.5 Demonstrate the proper methods of adjustingspeed and power-output, prior to ice contact,upon ice contact and following open water leadsthrough ice infested waters.

4.1.6 Discuss precautions and arrangements related tosea inlets and cooling systems for ice transit.

4.1.7 Discuss factors and indicators concerning engineloads and cooling problems.




R2, R4, R5,R6, R7, R8,

R9, R10


T1, T2, TC1,TC4, TC5,TC6, TD1,

TR4,


TUS3

A1, A2, A3,A4, A5, A6

Detailed Learning Objectives

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4.1.8 Discuss the importance of a checklist ofprocedures for the OOW to follow when enteringice.

4.1.9 Explain the importance of bridge teamaugmentation in the vicinity, approaching andtransiting ice.


4.2 Manoeuvring Astern

4.2.1 Relate the hazards of astern movements in ice.

4.2.2 Demonstrate correct procedures for manoeuvringastern in ice.

4.2.3 Demonstrate correct rudder position when goingastern in ice.

4.2.4 Explain the importance of bridge teamaugmentation when backing in ice, if view frombridge is insufficient.
4.3 Transiting Ice

4.3.1 Outline factors to consider related to determiningsafe speed for ice transit.

4.3.2 Outline environmental factors to consider whendetermining route through ice infested waters.

4.3.3 Describe procedures to follow to ensure that safespeed is maintained when transit is through icethat is variable in concentration/type and includesareas of open water including:

a. Open water

b. Bergy waters

c. 1/10 to 6/10's ice concentration ("Drift Ice")

d. 7/10 to 10/10's ice concentration ("Pack Ice")

4.3.4 Demonstrate preparedness to change course andspeed at any given moment.

4.3.5 Outline factors to consider when deciding on thebest route through the ice.

4.3.6 Outline the advantages and disadvantages ofutilizing leads during ice transit.

4.3.7 Recognize the hazards associated with thefollowing, during ice transit:

a. Operating around icebergs

b. Operating under reduce visibility

c. Propeller ice interaction

d. Ramming and pushing of ice

e. Operating astern in First Year Ice, Multi YearIce, and Glacial Ice

f. Shallow water

g. Transiting ice at night; use of searchlights

h. Turning the vessel

i. Wind speed and direction

j. During heavy weather near ice edge

k. Snow covered ice
4.3.8 Discuss monitoring of ice pressure on the vesselhull.
4.3.9 Understand the relationship between hullcondition and friction, for ice transit.

4.3.10 Discuss proper procedures for dealing with thefollowing hazardous ice conditions during transit:

a. Glacial and multiyear ice

b. Grounded ice

c. Pressure and compression

d. Ridging, hummocks and floebergs(stamukha)

e. Shear zones











Detailed Learning Objectives

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Reference

Textbooks

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Teaching

Aids

4.4 Vessel Damage

4.4.1 Understand the types of damage which may beincurred for vessels operating in ice (e.g. damageto hull/propeller/rudder, engine failure, ballasttanks, etc.)

4.4.2 Discuss incident reports concerning vesseldamage sustained when operating in ice.

4.4.3 Outline damage control measures that can beused, taking into account that the vessel mayneed to transit ice to get to repair facilities


4.5 Vessel Manoeuvring Capabilities In Ice

4.5.1 Describe manoeuvring capabilities for different icetransiting vessels (including icebreakers).

4.5.2 Describe manoeuvring capabilities of single, twinand Triple screw vessels.

4.5.3 Discuss the increased effect of rudders andinteraction with the propeller steam including:

a. Turning Circles,

b. Turning manoeuvre in ice, avoiding collisionimpactof stern and ship sides,

c. Star manoeuvre.

4.5.4 Demonstrate a turning manoeuvre in ice, avoidingCollision/impact of stern and ship's sides.


4.6 Bridge Watch keeping

4.6.1 Discuss the importance of Bridge Teamaugmentation to improve situational awareness,while navigating in ice-infested waters.

4.6.2 Explain the role of the Ice Navigator or IceAdvisor and their authority and responsibilitieswith respect to the officers on the bridge.











5. Passage Planning and Reporting

5.1 Passage Planning

5.1.1 Interpret Ice forecasts and imagery.

5.1.2 Forecast ice for different ice regimes:

a. Arctic

b. Antarctic

5.1.3 Discuss how ice imagery/reports can be used topredict changes in ice conditions.

5.1.4 Discuss methods of estimating vessel capability inice, including:

a. Polar Ship Certificate

b. Guidance on Methodologies for AssessingOperational Capabilities and Limitations inIce

c. Ice Certificates/Passport and their limitations

d. Ice Regimen Shipping Control System(AIRSS) calculation in accordance withCanadian Legislation

e. Discuss POLARIS System under IMOMSC.1/Circ. 1519

5.1.5 Explain contingency planning for polar waters.
5.2 Communications

5.2.1 Recognize the limitations of SAR communication availability in sea area A4.

5.3 Provisioning and Vessel Services

5.3.1 Recognize that voyage planning, with respect tobunkers, must consider the following:

a. Fuel consumption when working in the ice islikely to be higher.

b. Infrastructure for bunkering may not be widelyavailable or not exist at all in polar waters.




R1, R2, R4,R5, R7, R8,

R9, R10


T1, T2, TC1,TC5, TC6,

TD1,


TR4,

TUS3


A1, A2, A3,A4, A5, A6

Detailed Learning Objectives

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Reference

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Teaching

Aids

c. Manoeuvring capabilities may be impacted byenvironmental and fuel efficiency regulations(e.g. low sulphur emissions and load limiters)

d. Operating in polar waters may requirespecialized bunkers.

5.3.2 Recognize that infrastructure for replenishment ofships stores may not be widely available or notexist at all in polar waters.

5.3.3 Recognize that infrastructure for vessel repair, inthe event of breakdown or damage, may not bewidely available, or not exist at all in polar waters.












6. Icebreaker Assistance

6.1 Icebreaker Requirement

6.1.1 Describe additional support services that areavailable when Icebreaker assistance isrequested (e.g. ice routing, ice reconnaissance,advanced notification, Search and Rescue).

6.1.2 Discuss levels of service and icebreakingpriorities for different regions.

6.1.3 Explain how to obtain Icebreaker assistance.

6.1.4 Determine if Icebreaker assistance is requiredthrough:

a. Analysis of forecasted environmentalconditions

b. Passage planning

c. Recognition of prudent navigation practices

d. Regulatory requirements

6.1.5 Demonstrate preparations and proceduresrequired by the escort vessel during ice escort.


6.2 Safe Speeds and Distances

6.2.1 Explain the assessment of conditions relative tosafe speed which determine minimum andmaximum escort distance during Icebreakerassisted transits.

6.2.2 Describe the safety procedures for working withan Icebreaker during ice transit.


R2, R5, R6,R10

T1, T2, TC1,TC4,TC5,TC6

A1, A2, A3,A4, A5, A6

7. Vessel Performance in polar waters/Low Air Temperature

7.1 Classification Society rules for Vessel Winterization

7.1.1 Discuss the purpose and general requirements forwinterization.

7.1.2 Understand the need for winterization rules.
7.2 Ship's Preparations for Low Air Temperatures

7.2.1 Discuss preparation necessary before a ship isbrought into polar waters.


7.3 Freezing of Equipment

7.3.1 Identify the conditions and measures to preventfreezing of:

a. Ballast tanks and piping arrangements

b. Bridge windows

c. Fire-fighting systems

d. Freshwater tanks and piping arrangements

e. Lifesaving equipment

f. Tank vents

g. Mooring ropes

h. Bilge systems

7.3.2 Recognize the importance of fitting shipconstruction materials suitable for low airtemperatures.

7.3.3 Understand the importance of closely monitoringtanks or systems containing liquids that aresubject to freezing.

7.3.4 Identify the preventative measures used tomaintain deck equipment in operational readinessin low air temperatures.


R1, R2, R5,R7, R8, R9

R10


T1, T2, T3,

TC1, TC2,

TC4, TC5,

TC6,


TD1,

TR4,


TUS3

A1, A2, A3,A4, A5, A6

Detailed Learning Objectives

IMO

Reference

Textbooks

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Teaching

Aids

7.4 Ship Equipment/Systems in a Cold Environment

7.4.1 Identify how the following equipment/systems are different for vessels designed to operate in a cold environment:

a. Accommodation and Emergency Escape Measures

b. Air Intake

c. Ballast

d. Bilge


e. Bunkering

f. Cooling

g. Electrical

h. Fire-Fighting

i. Life Saving Appliances

j. Helicopter facilities

k. Ventilation

l. Water Intake/Discharge

m. Specialized fuel and engine starting aids for lifesaving appliances
7.5 Cargo Operations in polar waters

7.5.1 Discuss the effects of cold air temperatures on the following cargo handling equipment:

a. Cargo Rigging

b. Connections for transferring liquid cargos

c. Cranes

d. Derricks

e. Lifting Gear

f. Hatch Covers

7.5.2 Discuss the effects of freezing and increased viscosity of liquid cargos.

7.5.3 Understand that some liquid cargos may require heating before they are loaded or discharged and during transit.

7.5.4 Understand that some cargos may requirestowage in temperature-controlled cargo holdsduring transit.

7.5.5 Discuss the effects of snow, wind, current, icemovement and ice pressure on cargo operations,where no dock is available.

7.5.6 Discuss methods to deal with the effects of snow,wind, current, ice movement and ice pressure oncargo operations.

7.5.7 Discuss the potential lack of facilities for dockingto discharge cargo in polar waters including thepotential requirement for ship to ship transfer.

7.5.8 Discuss arrangements for mooring a vessel todischarge cargo onto the ice.

7.5.9 Discuss arrangements for mooring a vesseloffshore to discharge liquid cargo to the beach orgeneral cargo to barges for transhipment to thebeach.


7.6 Passenger Embarkation and Disembarkation in polar waters

7.6.1 Discuss embarking and disembarking passengersinto small boats/tenders when not docked in port.

7.6.2 Discuss embarking passengers from anddisembarking passengers onto ice.

7.6.3 Discuss precautions and procedures with regardto encountering wildlife.


7.7 Vessel Superstructure or Deck Icing Due to Freezing Spray

7.7.1 Understand environmental conditions required tomake freezing spray possible.

7.7.2 Understand factors that increase the possibility oficing occurring.

7.7.3 State the methods of identifying that icing isoccurring.












Detailed Learning Objectives

IMO

Reference

Textbooks

Bibliography

Teaching

Aids

7.7.4 Discuss precautions that can be taken toprevent/reduce the possibility of icing, including:

a. Reduction of speed

b. Changing heading

c. Entering sheltered waters

d. Entering warmer waters

7.7.5 Understand the danger of excessive iceaccumulation.

7.7.6 Explain the effect of icing on stability and trim.

7.7.7 Demonstrate an example of ice accretioncalculation to ascertain added weight to ship.

7.7.8 Describe methods for the removal of ice from thefollowing:

a. Anchors including chain, windlasses andhawse pipes

b. Decks

c. Deck machinery including mooringequipment

d. Fire-Fighting and Life-Saving Equipment

e. Fittings

f. Rigging

g. Superstructure

7.7.9 Identify the methods and precautions that can beused when de-icing the following:

a. Ballast tanks and piping arrangements

b. Fresh water tanks and piping arrangements

c. Fire-fighting systems

d. Lifesaving equipment

e. Tank vents

7.7.10 Discuss technologies and design features used tominimize the requirement to de-ice essentialequipment.











8. Crew Preparation, Working Conditions and Safety

8.1 Safe Working Procedures for Crew, Specific to Polar

Environments

8.1.1 Recognize dangers when crews are exposed to low air temperatures including:

a. Effects of wind chill

b. Working time limitations may be required when exposed to low air temperatures

c. Fatigue problems due to noise and vibrations during ice transit

d. Working in cold environments may increase crew fatigue

8.1.2 Outline personal protective equipment required for work in polar waters/low air temperatures.

8.1.3 Recognize the hazards and precautions of fallingice from overhead ship structures, antennae andequipment.

8.1.4 Recognize precautions to be taken when crewhave to work on ice covered surfaces.

8.1.5 Recognize the benefits of using a buddy system.

8.1.6 Identify medical/first aid issues related to workingin cold environments.

8.1.7 Discuss the effects and precautions of extendedperiods of daylight or darkness as it may affectnavigation and human performance whenoperating in polar waters.


8.2 Cold Weather Survival in polar waters

8.2.1 Identify need for extra supplies of food andclothing.

8.2.2 Discuss requirements for and use of personalsurvival equipment, with reference to Polar Code.

8.2.3 Discuss requirements for and use of groupsurvival equipment, with reference to Polar Code.

8.2.4 Discuss a real case study of survival in polarwaters and subsequent rescue attempt.


R1, R2, R4,R5,R7, R8,

R9, R10


T1, T2, TC1,TC5, TC6,

TD1,


TR4,

TUS3


A1, A2, A3,A4, A5, A6

Detailed Learning Objectives

IMO

Reference

Textbooks

Bibliography

Teaching

Aids

8.3 Search and Rescue in polar waters

8.3.1 Recognize limitations of search and rescue availability and responsibility in polar waters.

8.3.2 Discuss limitations of search and rescue availability and responsibility, including sea area A4 and its SAR communication facility limitation.

8.3.3 Discuss dangers related to wildlife when abandoning ship in polar waters.












9. Environment

9.1 Pollution Prevention in polar waters

9.1.1 Discuss the need to recognize and adhere toregulatory requirements pertaining to identifiedparticularly sensitive sea areas regardingdischarge.

9.1.2 Identify areas where shipping is prohibited orshould be avoided.

9.1.3 Identify special geographical areas in MARPOLand specific Regions such as Antarctica,Canadian Arctic, etc.


9.2 Oil Spills and Pollution

9.2.1 Recognize the effect of freezing and reducedviscosity on liquid pollutants.

9.2.2 Recognize limitations of cleanup methods in iceinfested

waters, including:

a. Absorbents

b. Booms


c. Chemical dispersants

d. In-situ burning

e. Skimmers

9.2.3 Discuss the effects of snow, wind, current, icemovement and ice pressure on oil spills andpollution in polar waters.

9.2.4 Discuss the impact on the environment andwildlife resulting from pollution in polar waters.

9.2.5 Highlight and refer to international/regionallegislation regarding enforcement and penaltiesagainst pollution in polar waters.



9.3 Garbage and Vessel Waste

9.3.1 Discuss the need to plan for coping withaccumulation of garbage, bilge water and sewagedue to reception facilities not being widelyavailable or non-existing in polar waters. Makereference to statutory rules and enforcement.



R2, R3, R5

T1, T2, TC4,TC6, TR4

A1, A2, A3

Example of Trainee Exercises

  • Navigating in Ice waters using leads available / thinner ice conditions by observance visually and by Radar

  • Navigating in ice infested waters using available leads / thinner ice conditions while in close proximity to land

  • Navigating in Iceberg, growlers, bergy bits infested waters with minimal visibility (onset of twilight or onset of daylight)

R2, R5

T1, T4, TC2,TC7,

Regional


Sailing

Directions,

Tide Tables,


A1, A2, A5,A6, A7















  1. rectangle 46Cgroup 38ERTIFICATE (SAMPLE)


BASIC TRAINING FOR

SHIPS OPERATING IN POLAR WATERS

Certificate No: _______________


held from …………………to …………….…. .

The course is approved by the Directorate General of Shipping and meets the Mandatory minimum STCW requirementsfor the training and qualifications of Masters and deck officers on ships operating in polar waters, specifically as these apply to Tables A-V/4-1 "Specification of minimum standard of competence in basic training for ships operating in polar waters".

This certificate is issued under the authority of the Directorate General of Shipping Ministry of Shipping, Government of India.


group 11

Date of Expiry: UNLIMITED




group 18


group 15

ANNEXURE - 2


NAVIGATION SIMULATOR SPECIFICATIONS


No.

Specification

REMARKS

1

NAVIGATION SIMULATORSPECIFICATIONS:
















  • Full - Mission Simulator consisting of one or more own ship stations having a full scale mock - up of a ship’s bridge with instruments for navigation as listed below, as well as full scale display of target ships and surroundings as seen from the portholes of a wheel house.

  • Equipment and consoles to be installed, mounted and arranged in a ship like manner.

  •  A separate instructor room equipped with equipment necessary to monitor the activities in the wheel house effectively.

  • Each piece of equipment installed in the simulator shall have a similar functionality to corresponding equipment used on board ships.

  • If any piece of equipment does not correspond to a specific make, (the applicable IMO performance standard (functionality requirements only) for such equipment shall be followed. If such a performance standard does not exist, then the functionality of the equipment shall, as a minimum, be the same as for any recognized genuine equipment of that type, in use on board ships.

  • Each piece of equipment shall resemble the behavioural characteristics e.g. accuracy, reaction time and other limitations, related to corresponding equipment in use on board ships.

  • User manuals for the simulator equipment and operational controls shall be available to the learners for use during exercises.













2

SHIP TYPES AND EXERCISE AREAS:







The simulator shall include mathematical models of at least 10 types of own ship.

The models shall resemble accurately the behavioural characteristics of an actual ship of that size, power and type, and realistically behave as per the hydrodynamic effects of wind, current and swell.



Recommended ship types:

Type Displacement (t)

  1. Bulk Carrier (Handy size) About 30,000

  2. Bulk Carrier (Panamax size) About 60,000

  3. Containership About 30,000

  4. Containership About70,000

  5. Containership About1,00,000

  6. Coaster Under 10,000

  7. RO-RO/ Car Carrier About 15,000

  8. Tanker About 85,000

  9. Super Tanker Over 1,50,000

  10. VLCC Over 2,50,000

The above is a suggested list for general guidance.

Among the Own Ship Types, there should be vessels equipped with bow thruster and some with Controllable Pitch Propeller









The simulator shall be able to present at least 20 different types of target ships, each equipped with a mathematical model, which accounts for motion, drift and steering angles according to forces induced by current, wind and wave.







The simulator should be able to provide at least five international Polar waters (as defined by the Polar Code) geographical visual areas for exercises.

Recommended Polar waters geographical Areas:

  1. Barents Sea 6) Davis Straits

  2. Kara Sea 7) Greenland Sea

  3. Bering Straits 8) Laptev Sea

  4. Chukchi Sea 9) Baffin Bay

  5. Beaufort Sea 10) East Siberian Sea













3

DETAILED SPECIFICATIONS




A

Visualization:







  • At least 5 channels visualization of high resolution XGA graphics, about 170 degree horizontal field of view. In addition, the remaining 190 degree view should be able to be viewed by panning.

  • The visual screen size for each channel shall not be less than 6’ x 4’, when projected.

OR If utilizing flat screen displays (instead of projected image), then panels must be a minimum of 65” on the diagonal




  • The visual system shall present all navigational marks as displayed on ECDIS and paper charts for that area.

  • The visual system shall show objects with sufficient realism (detailed enough to be recognized as in real life

  • The visual system shall replicate movements of all Own Ships according to 6 degrees of motion

  • The simulator shall provide a realistic visual scenario by day, dusk or by night, including variable meteorological visibility, changing in time. It shall be possible to create a range of visual conditions, from clear to dense fog.

  • It shall be possible to take accurate bearings of objects seen on the screen.

  • It shall be possible to use magnified view for observations.

  • The visual system shall present at least 25 degrees of vertical field view. In addition by any method, it shall be possible to observe the ship’s side and the dock during mooring operations.

  • There should be a proper correspondence between the visual picture, radar and ECDIS.







ICE VISUALISATION:

General:

    • Visual presentation of different ice zones: Ice field, Broken ice, Brash ice, Pancake ice, Small floe, Nilas ice as a 3D object with the true‐colour high‐realistic texturing;

    • Visual presentation of brash ice around the ship’s hull while it is moving through the ice zone;

    • Concentration of the broken ice in the channel is visually represented by means of dynamic texture changing (including uneven obliteration);

    • Visual presentation of different thickness of Ice field.

SOUND SYSTEM

  • Dynamic reproduction of ice breaking sounds and noises produced by the ice friction against the ship hull;













B

Simulator Capabilities







  1. The model shall realistically simulate own ship hydrodynamics in open water conditions, including the effects of wind forces, wave forces, tidal stream and currents.

  2. The model shall realistically simulate own ship hydrodynamics in restricted waterways, including shallow water and bank effects and interaction with other ships.

  3. The simulator shall provide an own ship engine sound reflecting the power output.

  4. The target ships shall be equipped with navigational — lights, shapes and sound signals, according to the “Rules of the Road”.  The signals shall be individually controlled by the instructor and the sound signals shall be directional and fade with range.

  5. The simulator shall be able to present at least 20 target ships at the same time, where the instructor shall be able to program voyage routes for each target ship individually.

  6. The simulator shall be capable of providing environmental sound (e.g. wind) according to conditions simulated.

  7. The simulation shall include the depth according to charts used, reflecting water level according to tidal water situation.

  8. The simulator shall provide waves, variable in direction and strength.

  9. It shall be possible to simulate usage of at least 4 tugs for the purpose of mooring the vessel with the capability to control the power and orientation of the tugs (push and pull).

  10. It shall be possible to berth and un-berth a vessel using mooring lines with the capability to control run out, heave, slack, stop, let go the various mooring lines bearing in mind their breaking stress.

  11. It shall be possible for Own ship to let go the bower anchors and control its pay-out as per the strain on the cable. The simulator shall have the capability to read the number of shackles out and the strain at any time. 













C

ICE Functionality Module:







Ship motion modelling:

  • Forces and moments of the hull from the movement in broken ice of various solidarity and thickness taken into account;

  • Mechanical interaction with the edge of the solid‐ice of various thickness, ice breaking;

  • Effects related to the ship’s interaction with ice: increased resistance to the ship’s motion; limited manoeuvrability; dangerous impacts against ice;

  • Ice Class Properties:

    • Safety of ice navigation provided by hull strength and propulsion / steering unit for the models is regulated by assigning of appropriate ice category (ice class).







Areas of application:

Simulation training in navigating in ice conditions:



  • When proceeding in broken ice;

  • When proceeding along the solid ice edge, bumping against the edge;

  • When proceeding in open pack ice, in ice holes and in patches of ice‐free water.

  • When collision with single ice floes.













D

Own Ship Control Station







The following shall be provided as HARDWARE PANELS and shall be installed, mounted and arranged in a manner that would physically resemble a ship’s navigating bridge. These hardware panels should have operational resemblance to actual shipboard equipment.




1

Propulsion Controls for controlling own ships engine ahead and astern.




2

Steering Console Stand

There shall be provision for the following, at or near the console:



  1. Steering wheel

  2. Steering motors (at least two)

  3. Hand, auto-pilot and non-follow up steering.

  4. Compass Repeater able to depict gyro and/or magnetic heading.

  5. Gyro failure alarm

  6. Auto-pilot

The Auto-Pilot should have the following capabilities :-

  1. Weather adjustment (yawing and course control)

  2. Rudder limit setting

  3. Counter Rudder

  4. Off-course alarm

  5. Setting of constant rate of turn.




3

Engine Alarm Panel giving audible and visual alarm in case of :-

  1. Start fail

  2. Shutdown

  3. Slow down

  4. Over speed

  5. Overload




4

Radar set with Automatic Radar Plotting Aids (ARPA)21” colour screen

  • It shall be possible to simulate both 3cms and 10cms radar.

  • The radar shall be capable of being operated in the sea stabilized relative motion mode and sea and ground stabilized true motion modes.

  • The radar simulation equipment shall be capable of generation of interference, noise, Radar/ARPA failure, yawing, clutter, spurious echoes, blind sector and parallel index lines.

  • The ARPA simulation equipment shall incorporate the facilities for:-

  • Manual and automatic target acquisition.

  • Past track information

  • Use of exclusion areas

  • Vector/graphic time and data display

  • Trial manoeuvres




5

ECDIS — 21” colour screen

  • Updated to the latest IMO and IHO Standards.

  • ENCs (or ARCS if ENCs not available / suitable scale / Paper charts) should be available for the exercise areas.

  • It should be possible to edit existing areas and be able to generate chart database of any area and scale if desired at a later stage.

  • Normal features for ECDIS system should be available including chart scaling and zooming, review, selectable layer, route planning and monitoring.




6

VHF Communication System

  • Communication between ships and port VTS shall be simulated on VHF sets which will have at least the following channels = 16, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, 75, 77, 69, 67.

  • The following realism should be depicted

  • Volume control

  • Squelch

  • Dual watch.

  • Pressel switch when speaking

  • Simplex communication system.




7

Intercom / Telephone

There should be a provision to communicate between Bridge and the other strategic locations like engine room, steering flat, Master, C/O, 2/O, 3/O, C/E, forward, aft, etc.



OR One handheld walkie-talkie

8

General Emergency Alarm

There shall be a facility provided for activating the General Emergency Alarm from the wheelhouse.






9

Chart Table with paper charts and publications

  • Chart Table will resemble a ship’s Chart Table of minimum dimension 4’ x 3’.

  • At least two sets of paper charts of one of the simulated area

Paper charts required if No ENC available / of suitable scale for Simulated exercise areas used.

10

Indicators

Each own ship station shall have at least the following indicators:-



  1. Wind direction and speed indicator

  2. Rudder Angle Indicator

  3. Rate of Turn Indicator

  4. RPM /Pitch Indicator

  5. Clock (Exercise time indicator)

  6. Depth indicator

  7. Doppler Speed Log

  8. Sound reception equipment

It should be capable of indicating fore / aft and athwart ship speed.

Depending upon the depth, speed shall be indicated on ground or water track.






11

Ships Horn

To be provided on the wheelhouse console as a pushbutton.






12

The following equipment shall be SIMULATED:-

If not using hardware panels, then, a colour monitor of not less than 17” size interfaced with the position and movement of own ship shall be used.






a

Electronic Navigation Aids

  • Global Position System (GPS) - Simulation of all facilities of a standard GPS receiver shall be available.

  • This should include display of latitude, longitude, course and speed over ground by the own ship, UTC, normal navigational calculation functions such as Great Circle, Rhumb line sailing, 100 way points, Alarms for X-track error, anchor drag, approaching way point, etc.




b

Echo Sounder

  • Simulation of complete echo sounder shall be provided.

  • Facility to change gain adjustment, change over from DBS to DBK and vice versa etc., shall be provided. Alarm for shallow water depth should be provided.




c

Anchor Control

Capable of simulating anchoring with 2 anchors (port and starboard - Bower anchors)



  • Means to let go and heave up own ship’s anchor

  • Indicators for amount of cable paid out, direction of cable and strain on cable.




d

Sound Signal Generator

  • Ship’s whistle and fog signals: Facilities shall be available to generate fog signals manually or automatically operated by own ship(s) independently, as well as for each target separately by the Instructor console.

  • The fog signals should be interactive and the intensity and direction at own ship stations shall correspond to relative range and position of the station generating the sound signal.

  • The fog signal generator shall be capable of generating the sound signals for the following:-

  1. Vessel making way through water.

  2. Vessel making no way through water.

  3. Vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre

  4. Vessel at anchor

  5. Vessel aground

  6. Vessel not under command.




e

Navigation Lights and Shapes Display

  • Full set of Navigation, Christmas tree lights and shapes shall be available, which the own ship can select for display depending upon the prevailing circumstances.













E

INSTRUCTOR







The instructor and the assessor shall be able to:




1

Start, halt, reset in time and place, and restart an exercise




2

Visually observe the trainees and their actions and follow the proceedings of an exercise by any method




3

Change the operating environment during the running of an exercise, viz. shall Be able to alter the wind (direction and force), swell (direction and height), current (direction and rate), cloud cover, state of visibility.




4

Communicate with the trainees (i.e. simulate the outside world) by VHF on relevant communication channels and by Intercom / Telephone (for within the ship conversations)




5

A display (min 19” monitor) providing a global view of the criteria simulation scenario.

The display plots ships tracks, target movements and also provides a tool for altering the parameters of the various ships.






6

Be able to view the Ownship radar as set and operated by the trainee.




7

Activate simulation of failures in real time in thefollowing equipment :-

  1. Navigation lights

  2. Gyro compass including insertion of error

  3. Doppler log failure or insertion of error

  4. Echo sounder

  5. Radar

  6. ARPA

  7. GPS (including degrading of signal quality)

  8. Autopilot

  9. Steering motor

  10. Bow thruster

  11. Engine




8

It shall be possible to replay a full exercise showing the actions performed by the trainees




9

Instructor shall be able to create exercises where one or more own ship stations can be interactive within the exercise or to be able to run the exercises independently and in differing areas if so required.




10

For educational purposes, the instructor shall be able to create a channel by inputting depths and buoys (buoyage system A or B)




11

Instructor can on request from Own ship, engage tugs and ship mooring lines during an exercise.




12

Audio / Visual Recording Device, either:

  • DVR that can burn to a memory stick, or

  • DVD Recorder, or

  • The ability to play back Audio and Video recording synchronized to playback of exercise log file




13

ICE FEATURE CONTROLS







General:

    • Ice fields could overlap. Ship model will be affected by both fields when sailing within zones of overlap.

Channel Formation:

    • Concentration of the broken ice in the channel increases linearly from an initial value (specified in the properties) to the maximum 100%;

    • Thickness of the broken ice in the channel is equal to the thickness of an initial ice field;

History:

    • “Freezing” parameter specifies the time (in minutes) that takes broken ice to get maximum concentration (become solid) in the channel;

    • “Compacting” parameter specifies the speed (cm/sec) of the ice channel closing from its edges.

Radar Echo:

    • “Detection range” parameter specifies maximum distance of the ice field edge detection by the radar;

Additional features:

    • Setting of exercise ice zones as polygon zones with planar boundaries: Ice field, Broken ice, Brash ice, Pancake ice, Small floe, Nilas ice;

    • Setting of drifting ice fields ‐ following the route, drifting as per weather settings, moving with predefined speed and course;

    • Setting of exercise ice zones thickness and concentration;

    • Setting of exercise Ice field channel parameters;

    • Setting of exercise Hummocks parameters;

    • Possibility to increase ice repulsion in order to speed up vessels’ stopping in the ice field;

Exercise objects:

  • Ice zone object;













F

DE-BRIEFING ROOM













1

Area to be 1.2 sq. m per trainee (min 5sq.m.)




2

Table to sit a minimum of 4 trainee course participants + instructor




3

Large TV or Projected Visual of Full Mission Navigation Simulator Environment –

  • to include audio

  • Should be able to hear and see everything that the Bridge team does

High Definition Camera and Audio Recording ofSimulation Bridge.

Log file may be played back in synchronization with AV file



4

Three (minimum 17”) Monitors Repeating front 3 visual screens (approximately 90 - 105 degrees)

De-briefing room may be connected to the Instructor Station, in which case the monitors can be common for the instructor and the debrief

5

Minimum 17” Monitor Repeater of Radar System on Bridge

6

Minimum 17” Monitor Repeater of ECDIS Display

7

Minimum 17” Monitor Repeater of Conning Display













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