Draft Import Risk Analysis Report for Fresh Apple Fruit from the People’s Republic of China


Alternaria malorum (Ruehle) U. Braun, Crous & Dugan



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Alternaria malorum (Ruehle) U. Braun, Crous & Dugan

Syn: Cladosporium malorum Ruhle

[Anamorphic Pleosporaceae]

fruit rot

Yes

Reported on Malus and Prunus in Shaanxi (Zhuang 2005).



No record found

Yes

(Biosecurity Australia 2002)



Likely

Storage pathogen. Observed on stored apple fruit (Goetz and Dugan 2006; Ruehle 1931).



Yes

Alternaria tenuissima (Fr.) Wiltshire

[Anamorphic Pleosporaceae]




Yes

Reported on Malus in Ningxia (Zhuang 2005).



Yes

(APPD 2008)



Yes

(Biosecurity Australia 2008a)






No

Armillaria tabescens (Scop.) Dennis, Orton & Hora

[Agaricales: Phycalacriaceae]



armillaria root rot


Yes

(CIQSA 2001c)




No record found

Yes

(AQIS 1998b; Biosecurity Australia 2005b)



Unlikely

This pathogen causes a root disease (Drake 1990). Transmission of this pathogen occurs by infection of woody debris and stumps by airborne basidiospores, by the growth of rhizomorphs through the soil, by root contact with infected soil debris and through the transport of infected plant material (Pegler and Gibson 1998).



No

Ascochyta piricola Sacc.

[Anamorphic Mycosphaerellaceae]




Yes

Reported on Malus in Ningxia (Zhuang 2005).



No (APPD 2008)

Record on Pyrus in WA (Shivas 1989).



No

Unlikely

Leaf disease (Chkistoff 1934).



No

Aspergillus glaucus Link: Fr.

[Anamorphic Trichocomaceae]



postharvest fruit rot

Yes

Reported on other crops in China (Zhou et al. 2004).

Apple storage rot in Japan (AQIS 1998a).


Yes

NSW, QLD, VIC (APPD 2008)

Not in WA (DAWA 2006)


Yes

(AQIS 1998a)



Likely

Almost all Aspergillus spp. are saprophytes, but can also affect stored fruit and tubers, act as opportunistic pathogens, and damage and subsequently grow on living tissues (CAB International 2008; Huber 1930).



Yes WA

Aspergillus niger Tiegh.

[Anamorphic Trichocomaceae]



postharvest fruit rot

Yes

Reported on other crops in Shanxi, China (Fu and Zhang 1988)

Apple storage rot in Japan (AQIS 1998a)


Yes

(APPD 2008; Shivas 1989)



Yes

(AQIS 1998a)






No

Aspergillus ochraceus K. Wilh.

[Anamorphic Trichocomaceae]



postharvest fruit rot

Yes

Present in China (Yao et al. 1993).

Apple storage rot in Japan (AQIS 1998a)


Yes

VIC (APPD 2008)

Not in WA (DAWA 2006)


Yes

(AQIS 1998a)



Likely

Almost all Aspergillus spp. are saprophytes, but can also affect stored fruit and tubers, act as opportunistic pathogens, and damage and subsequently grow on living tissues (CAB International 2008; Huber 1930).



Yes WA

Botryosphaeria dothidea (Moug.: Fr) Ces. & De Not.

Anamorph: Fusicoccum aesculii Corda

As Botryosphaeria berengeriana and Botryosphaeria berengeriana De Not. f. sp. pyricola Kogan. & Sakuma in CIQSA (2001c)8

[Dothideales: Botryosphaeriaceae]



apple botryosphaeria canker; apple ring rot

Yes

(CIQSA 2001c)



Yes

(APPD 2008; APPD 2008; CAB International 2008; Cunnington et al. 2007)



Yes

(AFFA 2003a; Biosecurity Australia 2005b)






No

Botryosphaeria obtusa (Schwein.) Shoemaker

Anamorph: Sphaeropsis malorum Berk.

[Dothideales: Botryosphaeriaceae]


black rot; black canker

Yes

Present in China on other crops (Farr et al. 1995).

Associated with Fuji apple in Japan (AQIS 1998a)


Yes

(APPD 2008; Cunnington et al. 2007; Letham 1995)



Yes

(AQIS 1998a; Buchanan et al. 1984)






No

Botryosphaeria stevensii Shoemaker

Anamorph: Diplodia mutila (Fr.: Fr.) Mont.

[Dothideales: Botryosphaeriaceae]

Botryosphaeria canker

Yes

Reported on Malus in Ningxia (Zhuang 2005).



Yes (APPD 2008; Shivas 1989)

Yes (Biosecurity Australia 2006a)




No

Botrytis cinerea Pers.: Fr.

Teleomorph: Botryotinia fuckeliana (de Bary) Whetzel

[Helotiales: Sclerotiniaceae]


hui mei bing; grey mould; botrytis rot

Yes

(CAB International 2008; Jarvis 1977)



Yes

(APPD 2008)



Yes

(AQIS 1998b; Biosecurity Australia 2005b)






No

Butlerelfia eustacei Weresub & IIIman

Syn: Corticium centrifugum (Lev.) Bres.

[Polyporales: Atkeciaceae]

fisheye rot of apples

Yes

(Farr et al. 2008)



No record found

Yes

(Biosecurity Australia 2002)



Likely

Causes fisheye rot of apples in storage (Rosenberger 1990; Weresub and Illman 1980).

A saprophyte fungus which primarily lives on dead or dying tissue. It has also been found on the surface of apples in the orchard that are not decayed and on stems of healthy apples after harvest. Apples become infested in the field and decay develops when the fungus invades the fruit through wounds or lenticels in overmature fruit (Rosenberger 1990). A post-harvest rot that affects damaged fruit but is rare in modern storages. It appears primarily in apples that have been held late into the storage season (Rosenberger 1990).


Yes

Chondrostereum purpureum (Pers.: Fr.) Pouzar

[Poriales: Meruliaceae]



silver leaf

Yes

(CIQSA 2001c)



Yes

(APPD 2008; Washington and Nancarrow 1983)



Yes

(Biosecurity Australia 2006a)






No

Colletotrichum acutatum J. H. Simmons

[Phyllachorales: Glomerellaceae]



black spot

Yes

(CIQSA 2001c)



Yes

(APPD 2008)



Yes

(Biosecurity Australia 2006a)






No

Cylindrosporium mali (Allesch.) Wollenw.

[Anamorphic Pyrenopeziza]




Yes

Reported on Malus in Gansu (Zhuang 2005).



No record found

No

Uncertain

Although it was included as a pathogen of apple in Gansu Ningxia (Zhuang 2005), no further reports on this pathogen were found.



Yes

Cytospora leucostoma (Pers.) Sacc.

[Anamorphic Valsaceae]

dieback, peach canker

Yes

Reported on Malus and Prunus in Xinjiang (Zhuang 2005).



Yes (APPD 2008)

Not in WA (DAWA 2006).



Yes

(Biosecurity Australia 2002; Biosecurity Australia 2006a)



Unlikely

Stem and trunk disease (Leyendecker 1952).



No

Cytospora spp.

[Anamorphic Valsaceae]

dieback, apple canker

Yes

Reported on Malus and Prunus in Gansu, and Xinjiang (Zhuang 2005).



No record found

No

Unlikely

Stem and trunk disease (Paclt 1978).



No

Diaporthe eres Nitschke

Anamorph: Phomopsis oblonga (Desm.) Traverso

[Diaporthales: Diaporthaceae]


pear canker

Yes

Reported on pears in China (Ciferri 1955). Apple is one of the major hosts (Smith et al. 1996).



Yes

NSW (APPD 2008)



Yes

(AQIS 1998b; Biosecurity Australia 2005b)



Unlikely

This pathogen was found to be the cause of canker of apple, pear and plum rootstocks. It is not associated with fruit (Smith et al. 1996).



No

Diplocarpon mali Y. Harada & Sawamura

Anamorph: Marssonia coronaria (Ellis & Davis Davis

As Marssonina mali in CIQSA (2001a)

[Helotiales: Dermateaceae]



marssonina blotch, apple leaf brown rot

Yes

In Shandong (AQSIQ 2005) and Gansu (Zhuang 2005).(CIQSA 2001a)



No record found

Yes

(AQIS 1998a; AQIS 1998b)



Likely

Marssonina blotch caused by Diplocarpon mali usually occurs on leaves. It was also reported on fruit and stem (Lee et al. 2006; Takahashi and Sawamura 1990; Yukita 2003).



Yes

Diaporthe perniciosa Marchal & É.J. Marchal

Anamorph: Phomopsis mali (Schulzer & Sacc.) Roberge

[Diaporthales: Diaporthaceae]

barker canker, storage rot

Yes

(Ma 2006)



Yes

(APPD 2008)



Yes

(Biosecurity Australia 2006a)






No

Dissoconium mali G.Y. Sun, Z Zhang & R. Zhang

[Anamorphic Mycosphaerellaceae]

sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS)

Yes

(Zhang et al. 2007)



No record found

No

Likely

Isolated from the sooty blotch and flyspeck complex on apple fruit in Shaanxi province in China (Zhang et al. 2007).



Yes

Dissoconium multiseptatae G.Y. Sun & Z. Zhang

[Anamorphic Mycosphaerellaceae]

sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS)

Yes

(Zhang 2007)



No record found

No

Likely

Isolated from the sooty blotch and flyspeck complex on apple fruit in China (Zhang 2007).



Yes

Erythricium salmonicolor (Berk. & Broome) Burds.

[Poriales: Corticiaceae]



pink disease

damping off



Yes

Reported in Hubei, Sichuan, Jiangsu on apple (Leng et al. 1982)



Yes

(APPD 2008)

Not in WA (DAWA 2006)


Yes

(AQIS 1998a)



Unlikely

This pathogen causes stem and trunk disease in its hosts (Leng et al. 1982).



No

Fusarium avenaceum (Fr.: Fr) Sacc.

Teleomorph: Gibberella avenacea R.J. Cook

[Hypocreales: Nectriaceae]


water rot; fruit rot; collar rot

Yes

Reported on other crops in China (Yu and Fang 1948).

Associated with Fuji apple in Japan (AQIS 1998a)


Yes

(APPD 2008; Shivas 1989)



Yes

(AQIS 1998a)






No

Fusarium camptoceras Wollenw. & Reinking

[Anamorphic Nectriaceae]

mould

Yes

Reported on Malus in Guansu (Zhuang 2005).



Yes

(APPD 2008)

Not in WA (DAWA 2006).


No

Unlikely

Soil, fruit and storage pathogen (Roy et al. 1977; Sharma and Siddiqui 1979).



No

Fusarium culmorum (W.G. Sm.) Sacc.

[Anamorphic Nectriaceae]



root rot

Yes

Reported on other crops in China (Zhao 2001)

Associated with apple in Japan (AQIS 1998a)


Yes

(APPD 2008)




Yes

(AQIS 1998a)






No

Fusarium moniliforme J. Sheld.

Teleomorph: Gibberella fujikuroi (Sawada) Wollenw.

[Hypocreales: Nectriaceae]

fig endosepsis

Yes

Reported on Malus in Guansu (Zhuang 2005).



Yes

(APPD 2008)



Yes (AQIS 1999b)




No

Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc.

Teleomorph: Haematonectria haematococca (Berk. & Broome) Samuels & Rossman

[Hypocreales: Nectriaceae]


root rot

Yes

Reported on Malus in Guansu (Zhuang 2005).



Yes

(APPD 2008)



Yes (AQIS 1999b)




No

Fusarium sp.

[Anamorphic Nectriaceae]



root rot

Yes

(AQSIQ 2005; CIQSA 2001a)



Yes

(Letham 1995; Shivas 1989; Washington and Nancarrow 1983)



Yes

(AQIS 1998a; Biosecurity Australia 2006a)






No

Fusicladium carpophilum (Thüm.) Oudem.

Teleomorph: Venturia carpophila E.E. Fisher

[Pleosporales: Venturiaceae]


mouldy core

Yes

Reported on other crops in China (Tang 2004)

Associated with apple in Japan (AQIS 1998a)


Yes

(AQIS 1998a; Shivas 1989)



Yes

(AQIS 1998a)






No

Fusicladium swnsriticum (Wallr.) Fuckel

[Hypocreales: Nectriaceae]




Yes

Reported on Malus in Ningxia (Zhuang 2005)



No record found


No

Uncertain

Although it was included as a pathogen of apple trees in Ningxia (Zhuang 2005), no further reports on this pathogen were found, suggesting that this pathogen is not an economically important fungi.



Yes

Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. & Sacc. Telemorph: Glomerella cingulata (Stoneman) Spauld. & H. Schrenk

[Phyllachorales: Hypocreomycetidae]



anthracnose; bitter rot

Yes

(AQSIQ 2005; CIQSA 2001a)



Yes

(APPD 2008; Washington and Nancarrow 1983)



Yes

(AQIS 1998a; AQIS 1998b; Biosecurity Australia 2005b)






No

Gymnosporangium yamadae Miyade ex G. Yamada

[Uredinales: Pucciniaceae]



Japanese apple rust

Yes

(AQSIQ 2005; CIQSA 2001c)



No record found


Yes

(AQIS 1998a)



Likely

Fruit are liable to carry this pathogen (Guo 1994). Latent infections on fruit may occur (Laundon 1998), although fruit infection is rare.

This pathogen is listed as on the pathway in the IRA for Fuji apples from Japan (AQIS 1998a).


Yes

Helicobasidium mompa Tanaka

[Helicobasidiales: Helicobasidiaceae]



violet root rot

Yes

(AQSIQ 2005; CIQSA 2001a; CIQSA 2001c)



No record found


Yes

(AQIS 1998a)



Unlikely

This pathogen causes root disease in its hosts (CAB International 2008; Pegler and Gibson 1998; Segawa and Harada 1990).



No

Inonotus hispidus (Bull.: Fr.) P. Karst

[Hymenochaetales: Hymenochaetaceae]

tree decay canker

Yes

Reported on Malus in Ningxia, Gansu and Xinjiang (Zhuang 2005).



No record found

No

Unlikely

Inonotus hispidus is a wood decay fungus (Grand and Vernia 2005).

No

Kalmusia coniothyrium (Fuckel) Huhndorf

Anamorph: Microsphaeropsis fuckelii (SACC.) Boereua




Yes

(Farr et al. 2008)



Yes

(APPD 2008)



No




No

Leptosphaeria yulan Sacc.

[Pleosporales: Leptosphaeriaceae]



leaf spot

Yes

Reported on pear in China (Yu 1940)

Associated with Fuji apple in Japan (AQIS 1998a).


No record found

Yes

(AQIS 1998a)



Unlikely

This pathogen is a leaf disease and is not associated with fruit (Yu 1940).



No


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