Draft Import Risk Analysis Report for Fresh Apple Fruit from the People’s Republic of China


Monodictys melanopa (Ach.ex Dawson Turner) M.B. Ellis



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Monodictys melanopa (Ach.ex Dawson Turner) M.B. Ellis

[Anamorphic Dothideales]




Reported on Malus in Ningxia (Zhuang 2005)

No record found

No

Unlikely

This pathogen attacks the bark surface of Malus (Farr et al. 2008).



No

Monilinia fructicola (G. Winter) Honey

Anamorph: Monilia fructicola Batra

[Helotiales: Sclerotiniaceae]

fruit rot

Yes

Reported on peach and nectarine in an orchard in Beijing (Zhu et al. 2005).



Yes

(APPD 2008)



Yes

(Biosecurity Australia 2006b)






No

Monilinia fructigena Honey

Anamorph: Monilia fructigena Pers.:Fr.

[Helotiales: Sclerotiniaceae]


brown rot

Yes

(AQSIQ 2005; CIQSA 2001c)



No record found

Yes

(AQIS 1998a; Biosecurity Australia 2005b)



Likely

This pathogen causes fruit rot and fruit are liable to transmit infection (Batra and Harada 1986).



Monilinia fructigena is a very common and destructive disease; sometimes the fungus spreads into branches from the fruit and gives rise to cankers (Byrde and Willetts 1977).

This pathogen is listed as on pathway in IRA for Fuji apples from Japan (AQIS 1998a) and the final extension of policy for pears from China (Biosecurity Australia 2005b).



Yes

Monilinia laxa (Aderh. & Ruhland) Honey

Anamorph: Monilia laxa (Ehrenb.) Sacc. & Voglino

[Helotiales: Sclerotiniaceae]

fruit rot

Yes

(Farr et al. 2008)



Yes

(APPD 2008)



Yes

(Biosecurity Australia 2006b)






No

Monilinia mali (Takah.)

[Helotiales: Sclerotiniaceae]



monilia leaf blight; apple blossom blight

Yes

(CIQSA 2001c; Zhuang 2005)



Yes

(APPD 2008; APPD 2008; Shivas 1989)



Yes

(AQIS 1998a)






No

Mycosphaerella pomi (Pass.) Lindau

Anamorph: Cylindrosporium pomi C. Brooks

[Mycosphaerellales: Mycosphaerellaceae]

Brook’s fruit spot

Yes

Reported on Malus in Ningxia (Zhuang 2005).



Uncertain

Reported only from NSW as Cylindrosporium pomi (APPD 2008) and reported as the pathogen causing Brook’s fruit spot on apple (Penrose 1984).

Whether Cylindrosporium pomi is a synonym of Mycosphaerella pomi remains uncertain.


Yes

(Biosecurity Australia 2006a)



Likely

Infect apple leaves, shoots and fruit (Kobakhidze and Kovalenko 1976).



Yes

Nectria cinnabarina (Tode: Fr.) Fr.

Anamorph: Tubercularia vulgaris Tode: Fr.

[Hypocreales: Nectriaceae]


apple canker; nectria twig blight

Yes

(Booth 1998; Yang and Tian 1988)



Yes

(APPD 2008)

Not in WA (DAWA 2006)


Yes

(AQIS 1998a)



Unlikely

This pathogen is not associated with fruit (Booth 1998; Yang and Tian 1988).



No

Neonectria ditissima (Tul. & C. Tul.) Samuels & Rossman

Syn: Nectria galligena Bres.; Anamorph: Cylindrocarpon herteronema (Berk. & Broome) Wollenw.

[Hypocreales: Nectriaceae]

European canker

Yes

(Ma 2006)



No (APPD 2008)

Has been eradicated from Tasmania (Ransom 1997).



Yes

(Biosecurity Australia 2006a)



Likely

It causes a primary fruit spot. Latent fruit infection may occur (Swinburne 1971).



Yes

Paraconiothyrium sp.

[Anamorphic Montagnulaceae]

sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS)

Yes

(Zhang 2007)



No record found

No

Likely

Isolated from the sooty blotch and flyspeck complex on apple fruit in China (Zhang 2007).



Yes

Passalora sp.

[Anamorphic Mycosphaerellaceae]

sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS)

Yes

(Zhang 2007)



No record found

No

Likely

Isolated from the sooty blotch and flyspeck complex on apple fruit in China (Zhang 2007).



Yes

Peltaster sp.

[Dothidiales: Dothioraceae]

sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS)

Yes

(Zhang 2007)



No record found

No

Likely

Isolated from the sooty blotch and flyspeck complex on apple fruit in China (Zhang 2007).



Yes

Penicillium expansum Link

[Anamorphic Trichocomaceae]



soft rot; blue mould; wet rot

Yes

(AQSIQ 2005; CIQSA 2001a; CIQSA 2001c)



Yes

(APPD 2008; AQIS 1998b; Shivas 1989)



Yes

(AQIS 1998b)






No

Pezicula malicorticis (Jacks) Nannfeldt

Anamorph: Cryptosporiopsis curvispora (Peck) Gremmen

[Helotiales: Dermateaceae]

apple Cryptosporio-psis canker

Yes

(Ma 2006)



Yes

(APPD 2008)



Yes

(Biosecurity Australia 2006a)






No

Phoma pomorum Thum. var pomorum

As Phyllosticta pirina Sacc. in (AQSIQ 2005; CIQSA 2001a; CIQSA 2001c).

[Anamorphic Leptosphaereaceae]


apple leaf grey spot

Yes

(AQSIQ 2005; CIQSA 2001a; CIQSA 2001c)



Yes

(APPD 2008; Shivas 1989; Washington and Nancarrow 1983)



Yes

(Biosecurity Australia 2005b)






No

Phyllactinia guttata

Anamorph: Erysiphe suffulta Rebent.

[Erysiphales: Erysiphaceae]


powdery mildew

Yes

(Wu and Guo 1987)



No record found

Yes

(AQIS 1998b; Biosecurity Australia 2005b)



Unlikely

This pathogen mainly affects leaves (Szentivanyi and Kiss 2003; Wu and Guo 1987).

It was determined as not on pathway in the policy for pears from China (AQIS 1998b; Biosecurity Australia 2005b).


No

Phyllactinia mali (Duby) U. Braun

Anamorph: Erysiphe mali Duby

[Erysiphales: Erysiphaceae]


powdery mildew

Yes

(CAB International 2008; Liu and Gao 1997)



No record found

Yes

(AQIS 1998b; Biosecurity Australia 2005b)



Unlikely

Apples are a host of this pathogen, which mainly affects leaves. Badly affected leaves drop early. This pathogen is not associated with fruit (Liu and Gao 1997; Wu and Guo 1987).



Phyllactinia guttata from the same genus was determined as not on pathway in the policy for pears from China (AQIS 1998b).

No

Phyllosticta arbutifolia Ellis & G. Martin

As Phyllosticta solitaria Ellis & Everh in CIQSA (2001c).

[Anamorphic Botryosphaeriaceae]


apple blotch; apple leaf round spot

Yes

(CIQSA 2001c)



No record found

Yes

(AQIS 1998a)



Likely

This pathogen can infect leaves, twigs and fruit (Gardner 1923; Guba 1924; Yoder 1990).

This pathogen is listed as on the pathway in the IRA for Fuji apples from Japan (AQIS 1998a).

However, according to (McClintock 1930), international movement of P. arbutifolia is only on seedlings or in planting material with cankers. This pathogen is able to survive at least 9 months of cold storage at 1-2 °C.



Yes

Pleospora herbarum (Pers.: Fr.) Rabenh.

Anamorph: Stemphylium herbarum E.G. Simmons

[Pleosporales: Pleosporaceae]


pleospora rot; leaf spot

Yes

Reported on other crops in China (Yang et al. 2000)

Associated with Fuji apple in Japan (AQIS 1998a)


Yes

(APPD 2008; Shivas 1989)



Yes

(AQIS 1998a)






No

Podosphaera leucotricha (Ellis & Everh.) E. S. Salmon

Anamorph: Oidium mespili Cooke

[Erysiphales: Erysiphaceae]


powdery mildew of apple

Yes

(AQSIQ 2005; CIQSA 2001a; CIQSA 2001c)



Yes

(APPD 2008; APPD 2008; Letham 1995; Washington and Nancarrow 1983)




Yes

(AQIS 1998a; AQIS 1998b; Biosecurity Australia 2006a)






No

Pseudocercospora mali (Ellis & Everch.) Deighton

[Anamorphic Mycosphaerellaceae]

leaf spot

Yes

Reported on Malus in Guangdong and Pyrus in Guangxi, Xinjiang and Hong Kong (Zhuang 2001).



No record found

Yes

(Biosecurity Australia 2002)



Unlikely

Leaf disease (Singh et al. 1984).



No

Pseudocercospora sp

[Anamorphic Mycosphaerellaceae]

sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS)

Yes

(Zhang 2007)



No record found

No

Likely

Isolated from the sooty blotch and flyspeck complex on apple fruit in China (Zhang 2007).



Yes

Rhizoctonia solani J.G. Kühn.

Teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris (A.B. Frank) Donk

[Ceratobasidiales: Ceratobasidiaceae]

thread blight

Yes

Reported on Malus in Ningxia (Zhuang 2005).



Yes

(APPD 2008)



Yes (AQIS 1999b)




No

Rhizopus stolonifer (Ehrenb. ex Fr.) Vuill.

[Mucorales: Mucoraceae]



rhizopus rot

Yes

Reported on pears in China (Biosecurity Australia 2005b).

Associated with Fuji apple in Japan (AQIS 1998a)


Yes

(APPD 2008; Shivas 1989)



Yes

(AQIS 1998b; Biosecurity Australia 2005b)






No

Roestelia fenzeliana (F.L. Tai & C.C. Cheo) F. Kern

Syn: Gymnosporangium fenzelianum F.L.Tai & C.C. Cheo

[Anamorphic Pucciniaceae]

rust disease

Yes

Reported on Malus in Shaanxi (Zhuang 2005).



No record found

No

Uncertain

Apple is cited as the host of R. fenzeliana in China (Farr et al. 2008) referring to a book edited by Zhuang (2005).

Literature searches of databases including the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI: www.global.cnki.net) found no publications of R. fenzeliana associated with apple fruit. Lack of reports on R. fenzeliana as a disease of apple suggested that this pathogen is not an economically significant pest of apple trees.


Yes

Rosellinia necatrix Prill.

Anamorph: Dematophora necatrix R. Hartic

[Xylariales: Xylariaceae]


pear tree white root rot; dematophora root rot

Yes

Reported on pears in China (AQIS 1998b).

Apple can be a host (CAB International 2008)


Yes

(APPD 2008; Shivas 1989)



Yes

(AQIS 1998b; Biosecurity Australia 2005b)






No

Schizophyllum commune Fr.: Fr.

[Agaricales: Schizophyllaceae]



heart rot; heartwood rot; wood rot

Yes

Reported in other crops in China (Dai 2005).

Associated with apple in Japan (AQIS 1998a).


Yes

(APPD 2008; Shivas 1989)



Yes

(AQIS 1998a)






No

Schizothyrium pomi (Mont. & Fr.) Arx

As Leptothyrium pomi in CIQSA (2001c)

Anamorph: Zygophalia sp.

[Microthyriales: Schizothyriaceae]



apple fly speck

Yes

(CIQSA 2001c)



Yes

(APPD 2008; Letham 1995; Shivas 1989)



Yes

(AQIS 1998a)






No

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary

[Helotiales: Sclerotiniaceae]

sclerotinia rot, white rot

Yes

Reported on other plant species in China (Farr et al. 2008).



Yes

(APPD 2008)



Yes

(Biosecurity Australia 2006a)






No

Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc.

Teleomorph: Athelia rolfsii (Curzi) C.C. Tu & Kimbr.

[Polyporales: Corticiaceae]


wilt and fruit rot

Yes

(AQSIQ 2005; CIQSA 2001a)



Yes

(APPD 2008; Letham 1995; Shivas 1989)



Yes

(AFFA 2003a; AQIS 1998b)






No

Septobasidium bogoriense Pat.

[Septobasidiales: Septobasidiaceae]



felty fungus

Yes

Reported in Shaanxi (Cao and Wang 1989) on other plant species.

Associated with Fuji apple in Japan (AQIS 1998a).


No record found

Yes

(AQIS 1998a)



Unlikely

This pathogen is not associated with apple fruit (Cao and Wang 1989; Hsieh 1980).



No

Stenella sp.

[Anamorphic Mycosphaerellaceae]

sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS)

Yes

(Zhang 2007)



No record found

No

Likely

Isolated from the sooty blotch and flyspeck complex on apple fruit in China (Zhang 2007).



Yes

Stomiopeltis spp.

[Anamorphic Micropeltidaceae]

sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS)

Yes

(Zhang 2007)



No record found

No

Likely

Isolated from the sooty blotch and flyspeck complex on apple fruit in China (Zhang 2007).



Yes

Strelitziana mali G.Y. Sun & Z. Zhang

[Anamorphic Chaetothyriales]

sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS)

Yes

(Zhang 2007)



No record found

No

Likely

Isolated from the sooty blotch and flyspeck complex on apple fruit in China (Zhang 2007).



Yes

Trimmatostroma sp.

[Anamorphic Ascomycetes]




Yes

Reported on Malus in Ningxia (Zhuang 2005).



Some Trimmatostroma species are present in Australia (APPD 2008)

No




No

Trichothecium roseum (Pers.: Fr.) Link

[Anamorphic Bionectriaceae]



apple pink rot; pink mould rot

Yes

(CIQSA 2001c)



Yes

(APPD 2008)



Yes

(AQIS 1998b)






No

Valsa ceratosperma (Tode: Fr.) Maire

Anamorph: Cytospora sacculus (Schwein.: Fr.) Gvrit.

As Valsa mali in CIQSA (2001c)

[Diaporthales: Valsaceae]



valsa canker; dieback of apple

Yes

(AQSIQ 2005; CIQSA 2001a; CIQSA 2001c)



Yes (APPD 2008; Letham 1995)

Not in WA (DAWA 2006)



Yes

(AQIS 1998a; AQIS 1998b)



Unlikely

This pathogen is associated with planting materials (Hayova and Minter 1998; Sun et al. 2004; Wang and Li 1991; Xin 1996).



No

Venturia inaequalis (Cooke) G. Winter

Anamorph: Fusicladium pomi (Fr.: Fr.)

[Pleosporales: Venturiaceae]


apple scab; black spot

Yes

(Ma 2006; Wang et al. 1987)



Yes (APPD 2008; Letham 1995)

Under official control in Western Australia (Kumar 2002)



Yes

(Biosecurity Australia 2006a)



Likely

This species is reported on apple in China and causes primary fruit spot (Wang et al. 1987).




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