Draft Import Risk Analysis Report for Fresh Apple Fruit from the People’s Republic of China



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Yes WA

Wallemia longxianensis

[Anamorphic Wallemiales]

sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS)

Yes

Isolated from sooty blotch and flyspeck complex on apple (Zhang 2006).



No record found

No

Likely

Wallemia longxianensis is associated with sooty blotch and flyspeck complex on apple fruit in China (Zhang 2006).

Yes

Wallemia qiangyangesis

[Anamorphic Wallemiales]

sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS)

Yes

Isolated from sooty blotch and flyspeck complex on apple (Zhang 2006).



No record found

No`

Likely

Wallemia qiangyangesis is associated with sooty blotch and flyspeck complex on apple fruit in China (Zhang 2006).

Yes

Wallemia sebi (Fr.) Arx

[Anamorphic Wallemiales]

sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS)

Yes

Isolated from sooty blotch and flyspeck complex on apple (Zhang 2006).



Yes

NT (APPD 2008)



No

Likely

Wallemia sebi is associated with sooty blotch and flyspeck complex on apple fruit in China (Zhang 2006).

Yes

Xenostigmina sp.

[Anamorphic Mycosphaerellaceae]

sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS)

Yes

Isolated from sooty blotch and flyspeck complex on apple (Zhang 2006).



No record found

No

Likely

Xenostigmina sp. is associated with sooty blotch and flyspeck complex on apple fruit in China (Zhang 2006).

Yes

Zygophiala liquanensis

[Anamorphic Schizothyriaceae]

sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS)

Yes

Isolated from sooty blotch and flyspeck complex on apple (Zhang 2006).



No record found

No

Likely

Zygophiala liquanensis is associated with sooty blotch and flyspeck complex on apple fruit in China (Zhang 2006).

Yes

Zygophiala taiyuensis

[Anamorphic Schizothyriaceae]

sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS)

Yes

Isolated from sooty blotch and flyspeck complex on apple (Zhang 2006).



No record found

No

Likely

Zygophiala taiyuensis is associated with sooty blotch and flyspeck complex on apple fruit in China (Zhang 2006).

Yes

STRAMINOPILA



















Phytophthora cactorum (Lebert & Cohn) Schröter

[Pythiales: Pythiaceae]



fruit rot; root rot; collar rot; crown rot

Yes

(CIQSA 2001c)



Yes

(APPD 2008)




Yes

(AQIS 1998a)






No

Phytophthora cambivora (Petri) Buisman

[Pythiales: Pythiaceae]



root rot; collar rot; crown rot

Yes

Reported on chestnut in China (Bounous and Liu 1996)

Associated with Fuji apple in Japan (AQIS 1998a).


Yes

(APPD 2008)



Yes

(AQIS 1998a)





No

VIROIDS



















Apple scar skin viroid

[Pospiviroidae: Apscaviroid]



apple dimple; pear rusty skin disease

Yes

(Biosecurity Australia 2005b; Han et al. 2003; Zhou et al. 2004)



No record found

Yes

(Biosecurity Australia 2005b)



Likely

This viroid can be found in the fruit pulp (Hurtt and Podleckis 1995; Koganezawa et al. 2003) and seeds (Hadidi et al. 1991; Han et al. 2003).



Yes

VIRUSES



















Apple mosaic virus

[Bromoviridae: Ilarvirus]



apple mosaic virus


Yes

(AQSIQ 2005; CIQSA 2001a; CIQSA 2001c)



Yes

(Letham 1995; Washington and Nancarrow 1983)



Yes

(Biosecurity Australia 2006a)






No

Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus

[Flexiviridae: Trichovirus]



apple chlorotic leaf spot virus

Yes

(AQSIQ 2005; CIQSA 2001a; CIQSA 2001c)



Yes

(Letham 1995; Washington and Nancarrow 1983)



Yes

(Biosecurity Australia 2006a)






No

Apple stem grooving virus

[Flexiviridae: Capillovirus]



apple stem grooving virus

Yes

(AQSIQ 2005; CIQSA 2001a; CIQSA 2001c)



Yes

(Letham 1995; Washington and Nancarrow 1983)

Not in WA (DAWA 2006)


Yes

(Biosecurity Australia 2006a)



Unlikely

This virus is transmitted among woody hosts by grafting and budding (Welsh and Van der Meer 1989).



No

Apple stem pitting virus

[Flexiviridae: Foveavirus]



apple stem pitting virus

Yes

(AQSIQ 2005; CIQSA 2001a; CIQSA 2001c)



Yes

(Letham 1995; Washington and Nancarrow 1983)

Not in WA (DAWA 2006)


Yes

(Biosecurity Australia 2006a)



Unlikely

Apple stem pitting virus has no known vector. Spread of this virus occurs by grafting, budding and infected clonal rootstocks (Campbell 1963).



No

Cherry rasp leaf virus

Syn: Flat apple virus

[Sesquiviridae: Cheravirus]

cherry rasp leaf

Yes

(ICTVdB 2007)



Yes

(APPD 2008)



Yes

(Biosecurity Australia 2002)






No

Tomato ringspot virus

Syns: Peach yellow bud; mosaic virus; Prune brown line

[Couoviridae: Nepovirus]

tomato ringspot

Yes

(ICTVdB 2007)



Yes

Reported in SA (Cooke and Dubé 1989)



Yes

(Biosecurity Australia 2002)



Unlikely

Natural spread of this virus in orchards and nurseries results directly from transmission by nematode vectors, including the dagger nematodes Xiphinema americanum Cobb, X. rivesi Dalmasso and X. californicum Lamberti & Bleve-Zacheo. The virus can be transmitted by grafting and budding. In infested sites, the nematode and virus can persist for years on roots of infected perennial and herbaceous plants. The virus is seedborne in several weed hosts (Ogawa et al. 1995), but no mention is made of seed transmission in Malus spp.



No


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