Only valid names are used in this table. For lists of synonyms and outdated names refer to Appendix A1 and Appendix B.
Potential for establishment and spread in the PRA area
Potential for consequences
Feasible/ Not feasible
Significant/ Not significant
hawthorn spider mite
Hawthorn spider mite feeds on many very common host plants which include apple cherry, apricot, peach, plum, pear, groundnut, hazel, quince, fig, cotton and raspberry (CAB International 2008). Most of these host species are grown in Australia.
Hawthorn spider mite is found in many countries throughout Asia and Europe (CAB International 2008). Climatic conditions in many parts of Australia are similar to these countries.
Hawthorn spider mite is an important pest in apple and other crops in Asia and Europe (CAB International 2008).
flat scarlet mite
Flat scarlet mite feeds on a wide range of host plants including apple, quince, loquat, walnut, oriental sycamore, apricot, prune, pomegranate, pear, willow (USDA-APHIS 2000b). These host species are planted in Australia.
Flat scarlet mite is found in various countries in Asia, Europe and Africa (USDA-APHIS 2000b) and climatic conditions in southern Australia are similar to these countries.
Flat scarlet mite is an important pest in apple and other fruit crops in Asia, Europe, Africa and North America (CAB International 2008; NAPPO 2008).
Japanese pear weevil
This weevil lays eggs and larvae develop inside fruit. Both adults and larvae are capable of overwintering in cold climates (Booth et al. 1990). The hosts of this species are not limited to apples.
This weevil is a serious pest of apple and other fruit in Russia, Siberia, Europe and Asia, including China (Khairushev 1970). Adults feed on all plant parts and destroy numerous buds and fruitlets (INRA 2006; Plotnikov 1914).
Korean pear weevil
This weevil feeds on multiple plant species (USDA 1958a). Adults and larvae are capable of overwintering (Hanson 1963; USDA 1958a).
This weevil is considered one of the most serious pests of fruit in China, with adults feeding on all plant parts (Hanson 1963). Economic impacts would occur primarily as a result of restrictions imposed on fruit from areas where Korean pear weevil becomes established.
Oriental fruit fly
This fruit fly has a wide host range (Allwood et al. 1999; Tsuruta et al. 1997) and disperses via both infected fruit and adult flight.
Adults occur throughout the year and can live up to 12 months (CAB International 2008). A total of 150–200 eggs are laid per female (Srivastava 1997).
Primary economic impact would result from quarantine restrictions imposed by important domestic and foreign export markets. This species is a very serious pest of a wide variety of fruit and vegetables, and damage levels can be anything up to 100% of unprotected fruit (CAB International 2008).
In Nauru, before its eradication, B. dorsalis infested up to 95% of mangoes and 90% of guavas (SPC 2002).
Oystershell scale has a wide host range, mainly on deciduous trees. Host plants have been reported from 41 genera in 18 families. Many of these hosts are widespread in Western Australia.
Oystershell scale is widely distributed in Palaearctic and Nearctic regions and has been introduced into Australia, Argentina, Canada and New Zealand (CAB International 2008). Modelling studies in Western Australia suggest that there are regions within Western Australia suitable for the establishment of this pest.
Oystershell scale is a major scale pest of apple and pear (CAB International 2008).
pear white scale
Lopholeucaspis japonica has been reported from 25 families, 43 genera and at least 58 species or subspecies of host plants (Ben-Dov et al. 2006), including citrus, apples pears, teas.
Lopholeucaspis japonica has been reported from Asia, North and South Americas and Russia (Ben-Dov et al. 2006). This indicates the species has the ability to adapt to new environments. Climatic conditions in many parts of Australia are similar to the areas where L. japonica currently occurs.
Lopholeucaspis japonica is a main pest of Citrus species and also feeds on many other horticultural crops such as apple and pears and ornamental and amenity plants (Ben-Dov et al. 2006; CABI/EPPO 2007b).
Phenacoccus aceris is a highly polyphagous species that has been recorded on apple, cherry, pear, plum, apricot, filbert, grape, currant, gooseberry, maple, oak, birch, willow, ash, linden, elm, hawthorn, quince and various ornamentals (Beers 2007; Ben-Dov 2006c). These hosts are widely available in Australia
Apple mealybug is thought to be European in origin, but currently its distribution is cosmopolitan (Beers 2007). Climatic conditions in Australia would be suitable for its establishment and spread.
Apple mealybug is a pest of apple, cherry, pear, plum, apricot, fruit and ornamental trees (Beers 2007; Ben-Dov 2006c).
Apple mealybug is also reported as the vector of little cherry virus (Beers 2007).
Citrophilus mealybug is a highly polyphagous species that has been recorded on 40 plant families, including many commercial and nursery plants such as apple, pear, grape, stone fruit, potato, hibiscus and rose (Ben-Dov 2005b). These hosts are widespread in Western Australia.
Citrophilus mealybug is considered to be native to eastern Australia and now also occurs in the USA, South America, New Zealand, South Africa and Europe as well as China. Conditions in Western Australia will be suitable for its establishment.
Citrophilus mealybug is reported as a pest of citrus and grapevine and can occasionally be serious (CAB International 2008).
Comstock’s mealybug is known to damage several agricultural crops including banana, peach, pear, lemon, apricot, cherry, catalpa and mulberry (CAB International 2008). It has been reported that this species infests over 300 plant species.
Comstock’s mealybug is believed to be of Asian origin, possibly indigenous to Japan. It has been recorded from a number of countries throughout the world, indicating it has the ability to adapt to new environments (CAB International 2008).
Comstock’s mealybug is a pest of apples, peach and citrus in Asia and Europe, and can occasionally cause serious damage (CAB International 2008).
summer fruit tortrix moth
Adoxophyes orana is a polyphagous species that feeds on more than 50 different plant species from multiple families. Economically important hosts include apple, apricot, plum, cherry and other fruit crops, although A. orana also feeds on many other wild plants (CAB International 2008; Davis et al. 2005; Zhou and Deng 2005).
Host plants of A. orana are distributed commonly and widely throughout Australia.
Adoxophyes orana is known to have established and spread outside its native range in areas where it has been introduced, for example, Greece and Britain (Carter 1984; Milonas and Savopoulou-Soultani 2004).
Adoxophyes orana is a major pest of fruit tree crops in China and elsewhere in the world. It has been reported to cause up to 50% crop loss over large areas (Davis et al. 2005).
The polyphagous nature of A. orana indicates the potential for consequences across a wide range of fruit growing industries, as well as for wild plants.
peach fruit borer
The hosts of C. sasakii are mainly rosaceous fruit such as apple, pear and stone fruit, although it also feeds on wild and cultivated plants in several other plant families (CAB International 2008). Host plants are available in Australia.
Carposina sasakii is found throughout many areas of China (CAB International 2008; EPPO 2005b) that have similar climates to those available in Australia.
Carposina sasakii is known to have established and spread outside its native range in areas where it has been introduced. In Russia, internal quarantine measures are employed in an attempt to control the spread of C. sasakii (CAB International 2008).
In its current distribution, C. sasakii is a very serious pest of fruit, causing up to 100% damage to apple and pear crops (CAB International 2008; Gibanov and Sanin 1971; Sytenko 1960).
Carposina sasakii causes significant economic consequences in its current range and would potentially also do so in Australia. Consequences would include crop loss as well as quarantine restrictions on trade, both within Australia and internationally to areas where C. sasakii is not present.
The main hosts of codling moth are apple and pear. Its larvae are known to be polyphagous and, apart from apple and pear, they can also feed on cherry, nectarine, prune and walnut (CAB International 2008). Codling moth hosts are widespread in Western Australia.
Codling moth has been reported from New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania and Victoria. However, several codling moth outbreaks have occurred in Western Australia and have been successfully eradicated, indicating that climatic conditions are suitable for its establishment in Western Australia.
Codling moth is a well known pest of apples (CAB International 2008).
The main hosts of this species in China are apple and pear. It has also been recorded damaging figs (Song et al. 1994).
This species has not been reported in Australia or outside China. Suitable hosts are present in Australia as apple and pear are grown commercially in south west WA and in the south eastern states.
This moth species has threatened the apple and pear industries in Xinjiang, China (Song et al. 1994).
Manchurian fruit moth
The recorded host plants of Manchurian fruit moth are apple, quince, pear, and host plants such as apples are available in Australia.
Manchurian fruit moth is found in China, ranging from Guangdong in the South and Jilin in the North, and also in Far East Russia (CAB International 2008), and this distribution covers a wide range of climate conditions. Climate conditions in many parts of Australia are similar to these areas.
Grapholita inopinata is rather similar in terms of pest characteristics to the widely distributed Cydia pomonella. Both species occur in Far East Russia, where C. pomonella damages a larger proportion of apples than does G. inopinata, though the latter remains a significant pest, damaging up to 11% of apple crops. Damage from G. inopinata can reach 100% on apples (CAB International 2008).
Oriental fruit moth; Oriental peach moth
The principal economic hosts of G. molesta are peach, apricot, nectarine, almond, apple, quince, pear, plum and cherry (CAB International 2008). Late ripening peach cultivars are particularly vulnerable to this pest. Some of these host species are widespread in the PRA area.
Oriental fruit moth is already reported from New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania and Victoria.
The previously eradicated incursion of Oriental fruit moth in Western Australia indicates that areas with a suitable environment for the establishment of this pest occur in Western Australia.
Oriental fruit moth is mainly a pest of summerfruit (CAB International 2008).
It would have significant potential for consequences if this species were to be introduced into Western Australia.
white fruit moth
The recorded host plants of white fruit moth are apple, pear, peach and plum, with these hosts being widely available in Australia.
White fruit moth is found from the southwest to northeast regions of China (Hua and Wang 2006), which covers a wide range of climate conditions. Climate conditions in many parts of Australia are similar to these areas.
Spilonota albicana is a pest of apple, pear, hawthorn, peach, plum, apricot and cherry. It has become an important pest in China in untreated orchards because of the planting of large numbers of hawthorn plants (Hua and Wang 2006). In such orchards, up to 50% of fruit may be infested.
Alternaria malorum was reported in Canada, China, Japan, Lebanon, South Africa and Syria (Farr et al. 2008).
Some Alternaria species are established in Australia (APPD 2008), suggesting that climate conditions of some parts of Australia are suitable for Alternaria species to establish and spread.
It was reported that Alternaria malorum is capable of producing decay of ripe apples when inoculated at 20-25° C for 14 days (Ruehle 1931). However, at 0° C, the fungus develops very feebly on the apple, producing small spots at the points of inoculation, which do not spread to cause decay. After 5 months incubation at 0° C, the spot lesions on inoculated apples did not advance beyond 10 mm.
Despite this historical report, lack of further reports suggests that it is not an economically significant storage rot of apple.
Aspergillus spp. are rapidly growing filamentous fungi or moulds that are ubiquitous to the environment and found worldwide. They commonly grow in soil and moist locations and are among the most common moulds encountered on spoiled food and decaying vegetation, in compost piles and in stored hay and grain.
Both species are widely present in Australia except Western Australia (APPD 2008).
Many other species of this genus are present in Western Australia (APPD 2008).
Almost all Aspergillus spp. are saprophytes, but can also affect stored fruit and tubers, act as opportunistic pathogens, and damage and subsequently grow on living tissues (Huber 1930).
Under cold-storage conditions (about 0° C), none of the Aspergillus species caused decay within the 12 weeks of storage (Huber 1930).
Although this historical report shows association with apples (Huber 1930), lack of further reports suggests that it is not an economically significant storage rot of apple.
Butlerelfia eustacei grows fastest at 18–25ºC (Rosenberger 1990). It is a saprophyte fungus which primarily lives on dead or dying tissue. Suitable hosts are present in Australia.
Fisheye rot caused by B. eustacei is rare in modern storage facilities and appears primarily in apples that have been held late into the storage season. It is considered to be a minor postharvest disease. (Rosenberger 1990).
Many Cylindrosporium spp. are present in Australia (APPD 2008), suggesting that C. mali may establish and spread in Australia.
Although it was included as a pathogen of apple in Gansu and Ningxia (Zhuang 2005), no further reports on this pathogen were found, suggesting that this pathogen is not an economically important fungi.
marssonina blotch, apple leaf brown rot
Natural hosts of D. maliare limited to Malus and Chaenomeles spp. (Farr et al. 2008). These host plants are grown in Australia.
Marssonina blotch caused by D. mali occurs commonly in Shandong province (CIQSA 2001c) and is also reported on apples in Gansu (Zhuang 2005).
The disease has become the most important disease in apple growing areas in Korea (Lee et al. 2006). It is also an important apple leaf disease in Canada, Italy, Japan and Rumania (Takahashi and Sawamura 1990). Environments with climates similar to these areas exist in various parts of Australia suggesting that D. mali has the potential to establish and spread in Australia.
Marssonina blotch is an important leaf disease of apple in India, Korea and Japan.
In India, it caused up to 50 % defoliation of apple trees from July to September, when fruits were still hanging on the defoliated branches and rendered the trees barren in the following years. In recent years, marssonina blotch has become the most important disease in apple growing areas in Korea (Lee et al. 2006).
Many Fusicladium spp. are present in Australia (APPD 2008), suggesting that F. swnsriticum may establish and spread in Australia.
Although it was included as a pathogen of apple trees in Ningxia (Zhuang 2005), no further reports on this pathogen were found, suggesting that this pathogen is not an economically important fungi.
Japanese apple rust, apple rust
Japanese apple rust is widely distributed in all major apple production areas of China (Guo 1994) and was also reported in Japan, North Korea and South Korea (Wang and Guo 1985). The climate conditions in many parts of Australia are similar to these countries.
Japanese apple rust has a restricted host range, including Malus species and alternate host Juniperus species (Ma 2006; Wang and Guo 1985). These host plants are grown in Australia.
Under natural conditions, basidiospores and aeciospores are dispersed by wind (Guo 1994).
Apple rust is one of the major diseases of apple in China (Guo 1994) and Japan (Tanaka 1922).
Gymnosporangium yamadae infects leaves and stems of juniper, and leaves, stems and immature fruit of apples (Ma 2006). G. yamadae causes damage by defoliation. Infection of young fruit causes fruit drop and a reduction in apple fruit yield and quality (Guo 1994).
Monilinia fructigena can infect many fruit crops include apple, pear, plum, quince, peach, apricot, nectarine and hazel (Byrde and Willetts 1977). These host plants are grown in Australia.
Monilinia fructigena is widely distributed throughout Europe, China, India, North Africa and South America (Mordue 1979). The climatic conditions in many parts of Australia are similar to these countries.
Other species of this genus including M. fructicola and M. laxa are present on fruit in Australia (Byrde and Willetts 1977).
The spores of this fungus can be spread from one orchard to another through the air (Byrde and Willetts 1977; Jones 1990).
Apple brown rot caused by M. fructigena is an important disease causing damage to apple trees and fruit in Shandong, Shaanxi, Liaoning and other major apple growing areas in China (AQSIQ 2005; CIQSA 2001a; CIQSA 2001c; Ma 2006).
Monilinia fructigena causes significant yield losses both before and after harvest. In Europe, losses of 7-36% were reported in individual orchards (Jones 1990).
Brook’s fruit spot
Mycosphaerella pomi is reported in USA, Canada, New Zealand and Ningxia in China. The climatic conditions in many parts of Australia are similar to these countries.
Mycosphaerella pomi can infect fruit crops including apple, pear and quince (Farr et al. 2008). These host plants are grown in Australia.
Brooks fruit spot caused by Mycosphaerella pomi is a minor disease in the north-eastern and mid-Atlantic apple growing regions of the USA.
The pathogen is found in most apple-growing areas of New Zealand but only occasionally. It is of no economic importance in New Zealand (Atkinson 1971).
Mycosphaerella pomi does not appear to be a pest of economic significance in the Southern Hemisphere including New Zealand and the State of New South Wales of Australia where it is reported. Based on this it is not considered a potential quarantine pest for Australia (Biosecurity Australia 2006a).
The disease occurs sporadically in part of Shaanxi, Guansu, Shanxi, Hebei and Henan provinces (Ma 2006).
Common hosts of this fungus include tree species in the genera Acer, Aesculus, Alnus, Betula, Carya, Cornus, Corylus, Fagus, Fraxinus, Julans, Liriodendron tulipifera, Malus, Populus, Prunus, Pyrus, Quercus, and Salix. These host plants are widely available in Australia.
Neonectria ditissima is widely distributed throughout Europe, Asia, North Africa and South America, New Zealand. The climate conditions in many parts of Australia are similar to these countries. The disease was present in Tasmania from 1954 but it was eradicated from Tasmania (Ransom 1997).
The disease can be severe enough to necessitate the replacement of trees, ranging from 10% of trees (Lovelidge 1995) to the whole plantation (Grove 1990). Losses of 10–60% of fruit crops caused by rot from European canker have been recorded in various parts of the world (Swinburne 1975). Damage to host species used for timber, through reduction in the quality and quantity of marketable logs, particularly in North America has been reported (CAB International 2008), although there is no estimate of the magnitude of this loss.
Sanitation (that is, removal and burning of cankered limbs or trees and spraying with fungicides) is the only feasible control measure.
apple blotch, apple leaf round spot
The hosts of P. arbutifolia are restricted to apples and Crataegus spp.(Gardner 1923; Ma 2006). These hosts are widely available in Australia.
Apple blotch is widely distributed in all major apple production areas in China (Ma 2006), and was also reported in Japan and many other countries (Gardner 1923). The climate conditions in many parts of Australia are similar to these countries.
The radius of infection in wind-blown rain from a 10 m tree was estimated to be 80 m, with 100% infection occurring within 12 m of the infected trees (Ma 2006), suggesting that this pathogen has the potential to rapidly establish and spread in Australia.
Phyllosticta arbutifolia causes a serious blotching of apples, which reduces fruit quality and yield (Ma 2006).
The disease also causes damage on leaves, buds, twigs and branches of susceptible cultivars (Yoder 1990), causing defoliation of leaves and development of cankers on twigs and branches (Yoder 1990).
Apple cited as the host of R. fenzeliana in Shaanxi of China (Farr et al. 2008) referring to a book edited by Zhuang (2005). The climate conditions in parts of Australia are similar to those of Shaanxi.
Apple cited as the host of R. fenzeliana in Shaanxi of China (Farr et al. 2008) referring to a book edited by Zhuang (2005).
Literature search of the databases including the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI: www.global.cnki.net) found no publications of R. fenzeliana associated with apple fruit. Lack of reports on R. fenzeliana as a disease of apple suggested that this pathogen is not an economically significant pest of apple trees.
apple scab, black spot
Venturia inaequalis is present in Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jining, Shandong, Henan, Sichun, Yinnan, Guangshu, Ningxia and Liaoning provinces of China (Sun et al. 1991; Wang et al. 1987).
Apple scab is widespread in the eastern states of Australia where the disease is managed. The occurrence of several small outbreaks of scab in Western Australia in the past indicates that the disease can spread in the natural environment when conditions are conducive (MacHardy 1996).
The health of the plant is affected directly by lowering the fruit quality, and indirectly by affecting the vigour of plant growth (Biggs 1990). Fruit with scabby growth is not acceptable to consumers and is unsaleable, and mature fruit with ‘pin-point’ lesions may develop fruit rot symptoms after storage. Such fruit will be discarded.
Large numbers of apple trees have been destroyed during previous outbreaks in WA (MacHardy 1996) and significant crop losses (70% or more) have been reported elsewhere when environmental conditions are favourable for this pathogen (Biggs 1990).
Fungi associated with sooty blotch and flyspeck complex (SBFS):
sooty blotch and flyspeck diseases
Sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) caused by a group of fungi are late-season blemishes on the cuticle of apples and pears in humid regions worldwide (Batzer et al. 2008; Zhang 2006; Zhang 2007). Environments with climates similar to these areas exist in various parts of Australia suggesting that fungi associated with SBFS have the potential to establish and spread in Australia.
Schizothyrium pomi which causes flyspeck on apples and pears is widely established in Australia (Letham 1995).
Some fungi of the SBFS have very wide range of hosts. For example, the host plants of Z. jamaicensis include 120 species in 44 families of seed plants including Malus throughout temperate and tropical regions (Zhang 2006; Zhang 2007).
Sooty blotch and flyspeck are two of the most common diseases of pome fruits in many moist, temperate growing regions of the world caused by a group of fungi.
In the United States, the diseases are most severe on apples in the southeast, but they occur throughout the apple growing regions in the east and midwest. Although the diseases do not result in a yield loss, they cause considerable economic loss to growers of fresh market because of reduced fruit quality (Sutton 1990; Williamson and Sutton 2000). In the southeastern United States, virtually all of the apple crop would be affected each year if fungicides were not applied. Even with the use of fungicides, losses of 25% or more are reported in individual orchards in some years.
In China, the diseases also cause significant loss to growers. In extreme years, the loss can be up to 90% in some orchards (Zhang 2007).
Apple scar skin viroid
apple dimple, pear rusty skin disease
Apple scar skin viroid is present in main apple production areas in China. It is also present in other countries in Asia, Europe and North America. The climate conditions in many parts of Australia are similar to these countries.
It is generally agreed that the means of transmission of Apple scar skin viroid is by grafting and contaminated pruning equipments (Grove et al. 2003; Han et al. 2003).
A recent paper suggested Apple scar skin viroid can be transmitted from infected seeds to the seedlings germinated from these seeds, with a 7.7% transmission rate (Kim et al. 2006).
Apple scar skin caused by Apple scar skin viroid is one of the most destructive diseases in Korea (Kim et al. 2006).
According to surveys conducted in the 1950s in China, in some counties of Shanxi, Hebei and Shaanxi provinces, more than 50% of apple trees were affected with this disease (Han et al. 2003).