Draft Import Risk Analysis Report for Fresh Apple Fruit from the People’s Republic of China


Additional data for quarantine pests



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  1. Additional data for quarantine pests

ARTHROPODS




Quarantine pest

Amphitetranychus viennensis (Zacher, 1920)

Synonyms

Tetranychus (Epitetranychus) viennensis Zacher, 1920.

Tetranychus crataegi Hirst, 1920

Apotetranychus longipenis Ugarov and Nikolskii, 1937,

Apotetranychus virginis Ugarov, 1937

See Bolland et al. (1998) for complete list of synonyms.



Common name(s)

hawthorn spider mite

Main hosts

Amelanchier canadensis (thicket serviceberry), Arachis hypogaea (groundnut), Chaenomeles (flowering quince), Corylus avellana (hazel), Crataegus azarolus, Crataegus monogyna (hawthorn), Cydonia oblonga (quince), Deutzia, Ficus carica (fig), Fragaria (strawberry), Gossypium (cotton), Malus domestica (apple), Malus toringo, Mespilus, Plumeria (frangipani), Prunus avium (cherry), Prunus cerasus (sour cherry), Prunus campanulata, Prunus cerasifera (myrobalan plum), Prunus divaricata, Prunus domestica (plum), Prunus dulcis (almond), Prunus mume (Japanese apricot), Prunus persica (peach), Prunus pseudocerasus, Prunus salicina (Japanese plum), Prunus spinosa (blackthorn), Prunus yedoensis, Pyrus (pear), Pyrus communis (European pear), Pyrus pyrifolia (Oriental pear), Quercus mongolica ssp. mongolica, Rubus idaeus (raspberry), Sorbus aucuparia (mountain ash), Tilia sp. (linden) (CAB International 2008).

Distribution

Presence in Australia: no record found.

Presence in China: Anhui, Gansu, Henan, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Ningxia, Shandong, Taiwan, Xinjiang (AQSIQ 2005; CAB International 2008).

Presence elsewhere: Austria, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia (Republic), Germany, Hungary, Iran, Japan, North Korea, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Uzbekistan (CAB International 2008).


Quarantine pest

Cenopalpus pulcher Canestrini and Franzago

Synonyms

Brevipalpus pulcher

Brevipalpus pyri

Caligonus pulcher

Cenopalpus oudemansi

Cenopalpus pyri

Tenuipalpus oudemansi

Brevipalpus oudemansi (Geijskes 1939)

(USDA-APHIS 2000b)



Common name(s)

flat scarlet mite

Main hosts

Cydonia oblonga (quince), Malus sp. (apple), Prunus domestica (prune), Pyrus communis (pear), Eriobotrya sp. (loquat), Juglans sp.(walnut), Plantanus orientalis (Oriental sycamore), Salix sp. (willow) (Pritchard and Baker,1958), Prunus armeniaca (apricot), Punica granatum (pomegranite) (USDA-APHIS 2000b)

Distribution

Presence in Australia: No record found.

Presence in China: Yes (Wang 1981)

Presence elsewhere: United States of America, Egypt, Turkey, England, Denmark, The Netherlands, Portugal, Austria, Bulgaria, Libya, India, Iraq, Iran, Syria, Germany, Italy, Sicily, Cyprus, Lebanon, Algeria, Israel, Afghanistan, Georgia, USSR, Crimea, Transcaucasia and Soviet Central Asia (USDA-APHIS 2000b)


Quarantine pest

Rhynchites auratus (Scopoli, 1763)

Synonyms

Curculio auratus Scopoli, 1763;

Epirhynchites auratus (Scopoli, 1763).

Common name(s)

Korean pear weevil, apricot weevil, pear attelabid.

Main hosts

Malus (apple), Prunus avium (cherry) (Booth et al. 1990; CAB International 2008; Korchagin 1987; Kutinkova and Andreev 2004; Zaitsev 1984), Prunus domestica (plum) (Booth et al. 1990), Prunus padus (Leather 1996), Prunus spinosa (blackthorn) (INRA 2006), Pyrus (pear) (Bashkatova et al. 1983).

Distribution

Presence in Australia: no record found.

Presence in China: Xinjiang (AQSIQ 2008; Su and Sun 1999).

Presence elsewhere: Bulgaria (Kutinkova and Andreev 2004), Former USSR (CAB International 2008), Italy (unconfirmed) (CAB International 2008), Siberia (Bashkatova et al. 1983; Booth et al. 1990), United Kingdom (Leather 1996).


Quarantine pest

Rhynchites heros Roelofs, 1874

Synonyms

Rhynchites foveipennis (Fairmaire, 1888)

Rhynchites coreanus, (Legalov 2004; Podleckis 2003).

Common name(s)

Japanese pear weevil, fruit weevil, peach weevil, peach curculio.

Main hosts

Cydonia oblonga (quince), Eriobotrya japonica (loquat) (USDA 1958a), Ficus carica (fig) (Nomura and Hirano 2005; Podleckis 2003; USDA 1958a), Malus pumila (apple) (CIQSA 2001c; Podleckis 2003; USDA 1958a; Wan et al. 2006; Wan et al. 2006), Prunus persicae (peach) (Podleckis 2003), Prunus spp. (stone fruit) (Podleckis 2003), Pyrus spp. (pear) (Nomura and Hirano 2005; Podleckis 2003; USDA 1958a).

Distribution

Presence in Australia: no record found.

Presence in China: Beijing, Fujiang, Hebei, Helongjiang, Hubei, Jilin, Liaoning, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Zhejiang, Yunnan (Chao and Lee 1966), Henan (Wan et al. 2006).



Presence elsewhere: Japan (Lee and Morimoto 1988; Yoshizawa 1985), Korea (Hanson 1963; USDA 1958a).

Quarantine pest

Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel, 1912)

Synonyms

Dacus dorsalis Hendel, 1912

Bactrocera conformis Doleschall, 1858 (preocc.)

Chaetodacus dorsalis (Hendel, 1912)

Chaetodacus ferrugineus dorsalis (Hendel, 1912),

Chaetodacus ferrugineus okinawanus (Shiraki, 1933),

Musca ferruginea (Fabricius, 1794).

Musca ferruginea Fabricius, 1794 (preocc.),

Strumeta dorsalis (Hendel, 1912).

Common name(s)

Oriental fruit fly

Main hosts

Aegle marmelos (bael fruit), Anacardium occidentale (cashew), Annona reticulata (bullock’s heart), A. squamosa (sugar apple), Areca catechu (betelnut palm), Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit), A. heterophyllus (jackfruit), Capsicum annuum (bell pepper), Chrysophyllum cainito (caimito), Citrus maxima (pummelo), C. reticulata (mandarin orange), Coffea arabica (arabica coffee), Cucumis melo (melon), C. sativus (cucumber), Dimocarpus longan (longan), Ficus racemosa (cluster fig), Litchi chinensis (lychee), Malus pumila (apple), Mangifera foetida (bachang mango), M. indica (mango), Manilkara zapota (sapodilla), Mimusops elengi (Asian bulletwood), Momordica charantia (bitter gourd), Muntingia calabura (Jamaican cherry), Musa sp. (banana), Nephelium lappaceum (rambutan), Persea americana (avocado), Prunus armeniaca (apricot), P. avium (gean), P. cerasus (sour cherry), P. domestica (plum, prune), P. mume (Japanese apricot), P. persica (peach), Psidium guajava (guava), Punica granatum (pomegranate), Pyrus communis (pear), Syzygium aqueum (water apple), S. aromaticum (clove), S. cumini (jambolan), S. jambos (rose apple), S. malaccense (Malay apple), S. samarangense (wax apple), Terminalia catappa (Indian almond), Ziziphus jujuba (jujube), Z. mauritiana (Chinese date) (Allwood et al. 1999; Tsuruta et al. 1997).

Distribution

Presence in Australia: no record found.

Presence in China: the northernmost border of B. dorsalis distribution is 30 (± 2) degrees north latitude in China (CAB International 2008; Drew and Hancock 1994; Wu 2005).

Presence elsewhere: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, Guam, Japan, Laos, Myanmar, Nauru, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, United States (California, Florida and Hawaii), Vietnam (CAB International 2008; Drew and Hancock 1994; Waterhouse 1993).


Quarantine pest

Diaspidiotus ostreaeformis (Curtis, 1843)

Synonyms

Aspidiotus ostreaeformis Curtis, 1843

Aspidiotus betulae Baerensprung, 1849

Aspidiotus hippocastani Signoret, 1869

Aspidiotus ostreaeformis oblongus Goethe, 1899

Aspidiotus oxyacanthae Signoret, 1869

Quadraspidiotus williamsi Takagi. 1958.

See Ben-Dov (2006a) for complete list of synonyms.



Common name(s)

oystershell scale

Main hosts

Acer spp. (maple), Aesculus spp. (chestnut), Alnus spp. (alder) (Zahradnik 1990); Betula spp. (birch), Carpinus betulus (European hornbeam), Fagus sylvatica (beech), Fraxinus spp. (ash), Malus domestica (apple), Populus spp. (poplar), Prunus amygdalus (almond), Prunus avium (cherry), Prunus domestica (European plum), Prunus persica (peach), Prunus persica var. nucipersica (nectarine), Prunus salicina (Japanese plum), Pyrus communis (pear), Quercus spp. (oak), Salix spp. (willow), Sorbus spp. (ash), Tilia spp. (linden), Ulmus spp. (elm) (Poole et al. 2001).

Distribution

Presence in Australia: limited distribution, present in South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria (CAB International 2008), but not in Western Australia (Poole 2008).

Presence in China: Anhui, Heilongjiang, Liaoning, Nei Menggu, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Xinjiang (CAB International 2008).

Presence elsewhere: Africa, Asia, Europe, New Zealand, North and South America (CAB International 2008).


Quarantine pest

Lopholeucaspis japonica (Cockerell, 1897)

Synonyms

Leucaspis japonicus Cockerell, 1897

Leucaspis japonica darwiniensis Green, 1916

Lopholeucaspis menoni Borchsenius, 1964

For complete list see Ben-Dov et al (2006).



Common name(s)

pear white scale, Japanese maple scale

Main hosts

The species has been reported from 39 genera and 58 species of host plant, including:

Acer sp.(maples), Alnus sp. (alders), Citrus sp.(citrus), Cytisus sp. (common broom), Diospyros kaki (persimmon), Ficus sp. (fig), Magnolia souleana, Ligustrum sp. (privet), Malus sp. (apple), Poncirus trifoliata (trifoliate orange), Prunus sp., Pyracantha sp. (firethorn), Pyrus serotina (Chinese pear),

Rhododendron sp.,Rosa sp., Tilia miqueliana (linden), Ulmus sp. (elm), Vitus vinifera (grape).

For complete list see Ben-Dov et al (2006).



Distribution

Presence in Australia: Reported in Northern Territory many years ago, but not established (CABI/EPPO 2007b).

Presence in China: Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Zhejiang (CAB International 2008).

Presence elsewhere: United States of America, Afghanistan, Iran, Japan and Russia (CABI/EPPO 2007b).


Quarantine pest

Phenacoccus aceris (Signoret, 1875)

Synonyms

Pseudococcus mespili Signoret, 1875

Pseudococcus aceris Signoret, 1875

Pseudococcus aesculi Signoret, 1875

Pseudococcus hederae Signoret, 1875

Pseudococcus platani Signoret, 1875

Pseudococcus ulicis Douglas, 1888

Pseudococcus ulmi Douglas, 1888

Pseudococcus quercus Douglas, 1890

Pseudococcus socius Newstead, 1892

Dactylopius vagabundus Reh, 1903

Phenacoccus polyphagus Borchsenius, 1949

Phenacoccus gorgasalicus Hadzibejli, 1960

Phenacoccus prunicola Borchsenius, 1962

(Ben-Dov 2006c)



Common name(s)

apple mealybug, polyphagous tree mealybug.

Main hosts

Cydonia sp. (quince), Crataegus sp. (hawthorn), Malus sp. (apple), Prunus communis (plum), Pyrus communis (pear), Salix sp. (willow), Vitis vinifera (grape), Ulmus sp. (elm), Ficus carica (fig), Prunus persica (peach), Prunus spinosa (blackthorn) (Ben-Dov 2006c)

For complete list of host plants refer to Ben-Dov (2005b).



Distribution

Presence in Australia: no record found.

Presence in China: Shanxi (Ben-Dov 2006c)

Presence elsewhere: Canada, United States of America, Russia, Bulgaria, Corsica, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Kazakstan North Korea, South Korea (Ben-Dov 2006c).

For complete list refer to Ben-Dov (2005b).



Quarantine pest

Pseudococcus calceolariae (Maskell, 1879)

Synonyms

Dactylopius calceolariae Maskell, 1879,

Erium calceolariae (Maskell, 1879)

Dactylopius similans Lidget, 1898

Pseudococcus fragilis Brain, 1912

Pseudococcus citrophilus Clausen, 1915

Pseudococcus gahani Green, 1915.

See Ben-Dov (2005b) for complete list of synonyms



Common name(s)

citrophilus mealybug, currant mealybug, scarlet mealybug

Main hosts

Abutilon spp. (maple), Aeonium balsamiferum (cactus), Aguilegia spp. (columbine), Arachis hypogaea (peanut), Brachychiton spp. (flame tree), Brassica spp. (cabbage), Buddleja madagascariensis (smoke bush), Ceanothus spp. (lilac), Chenopodium spp. (goosefoot), Choisya ternala (Mexican orange blossum), Citris paradisi (grapefruit), Citrus cedra (cedrat lemon), Coprosma australis (raurekau), Crataegus spp. (hawthorn), Cydonia oblonga (quince), Daucus carota (carrot), Digitalis spp. (foxglove), Dodonaea viscose (varnish leaf), Eugenia spp., Exocarpos spp., Ficus spp. (fig), Fragaria spp. (strawberry), Geranium spp. (geranium), Grevillea banksii (grevillea), Hedera helix (common ivy), Helianthus spp. (sunflower), Heliotropium arborescens (fragrant heliotrope), Hibiscus spp. (hibiscus), Juglans regia (walnut), Kalanchoe beharensis (kalanchoe), Laburnum spp. (laburnum), Lavandula stoechas (French lavender), Ligustrum spp. (privet), Lolium spp., Malus pumila (apple), Malva spp. (mallow), Melilotus spp. (melilot), Nerium oleander (oleander), Pelargonium spp. (geranium), Pinus radiata (pine), Pisum sativum (garden pea), Pittosporum tobira (mock orange), Polyscias spp. (ming aralia), Prunus spp. (stone fruit), Pyrus communis (pear), Rheum rhaponticum (rhubarb), Rhododendron spp. (rhododendron), Ribes sanguineum spp. (red-flowering currant), Rosa spp. (rose), Rubus spp. (berry), Schinus molle (California pepper tree), Sechium edule (chayote), Solanum tuberosum (potato), Sophora microphylla (weeping kowhai), Theobroma cacao (cacao), Vitis vinifera (grapevine), Welwitschia mirabilis (tree tumbo) (Ben-Dov 2005b).

Distribution

Presence in Australia: New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania and Victoria (Ben-Dov 2005a), but not in Western Australia (Poole 2008).

Presence in China: Taiwan and southeastern parts of China (AQSIQ 2008; Tang 1992). Pseudococcus gahani, a synonym of P. calceolariae, was reported in southern and northern China, including Hebei and Henan provinces (Wang 1985).



Presence elsewhere: Africa, Asia, Europe, New Zealand, North and South America (Ben-Dov 2005a).

Quarantine pest

Pseudococcus comstocki (Kuwana, 1902)

Synonyms

Dactylopius comstocki Kuwana, 1902

Common name(s)

Comstock’s mealybug

Main hosts

Aesculus spp. (horse chestnut), Aglaia odorata (Chinese perfume tree), Alnus japonica (Japanese alder), Amaryllis vittate, Artemisia, Buxus microphylla (littleleaf boxwood), Camellia japonica (camellia), Castanea (chestnut), Catalpa (northern catalpa), Celtis willdenowiana (enoki), Cinnamomum camphorae (camphor tree), Citrus (citrus), Crassula tetragona (miniature pine tree), Cydonia oblonga (quince), Cydonia sinensis (Chinese quince), Deutzia parviflora typical (gaura), Dieffenbachia picta (dumb cane), Erythrina indica (rainbow eucalyptus), Euonymus alatus (winged euonymus), Fatsia japonica (Japanese aralia), Ficus carica (fig), Fiwa japonica, Forsythia koreana (forsythia), Gardenia jasminoides (gardenia), Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo), Hydrangea (hydrangea), Ilex cornuta (Chinese holly), Ilex crenata microphylla (Korean gem), Krauhnia, Lagerstroemia indica (crepe myrtle), Ligustrum ibota angustifolium, Lonicera (honeysuckle), Loranthus (mistletoe), Malus pumila (paradise apple), Malus sylvestris (crab apple), Masakia japonica (Japanese euonymus), Monstera deliciosa (monstera), Morus alba (white mulberry), Musa (bananas), Nephelium lappaceum (rambutan), Opuntia dillenii (prickly pear), Orixa japonica (Japanese orixa), Pandanus (screwpines), Persica vulgaris (peach), Pinus thunbergiana (Japanese black pine), Populus (poplar), Prunus mume (Japanese apricot), Punica granatum (pomegranate), Pyrus communis (European pear), Pyrus serotina culta (black cherry), Rhamnus (buckthorn), Rhododendron mucronulatum (Korean Rhododendron), Sasamorpha (bamboo), Taxus (yew), Torreya nucifera (Japanese torreya), Trema orientalis (nalita), Viburnum awabucki (acacia confuse), Zinnia elegans (zinnia) (Ben-Dov 2005b).


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