Draft Import Risk Analysis Report for Fresh Apple Fruit from the People’s Republic of China



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Distribution

Presence in Australia: no record found.

Presence in China: Beijing, Fujian, Guangdong, Hong Kong, Hunan, Inner Mongolia, Xizhang, Zhejiang (CAB International 2008).

Presence elsewhere: Afghanistan, Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Brazil, Canada, Canary Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Indonesia, Iran, Italy, Japan, Kampuchea, Kazakhstan, Madeira Islands, Malaysia, Mexico, Northern Mariana Islands, Russia, Saint Helena, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, United States of America, Uzbekistan, Vietnam (Ben-Dov 2005b).


Quarantine pest

Adoxophyes orana (Fischer von Röeslerstamm, 1834)

Synonyms

Tortrix orana Fischer von Röeslerstamm 1834

See Yasuda (1998) for list of more synonyms.



Common name(s)

summer fruit tortrix moth, smaller tea tortrix, summer fruit tortrix moth.

Main hosts

Adoxophyes orana is polyphagous, with hosts in more than 50 different plant species from multiple families (CAB International 2008; Davis et al. 2005; Zhou and Deng 2005). Although many hosts are un-cultivated, A. orana often feeds on apple, pear and other rosaceous hosts (Davis et al. 2005; INRA 2006).

Hosts include: Acer campestre (common maple), Alnus spp. (alder), Arachis hypogaea, Beta sp. Betula spp. (birch), Camellia sinensis (tea), Carpinus betulus (European hornbeam), Castanea crenata, Castanopsis fissa, Citrus sp., Corylus sp. (Carter 1984), Corylus avellana, Crataegus spp., Cydonia oblonga (quince), Diospyros kaki, Eriobotrya japonica, Fagus sylvatica (common beech), Forsythia suspensa, Glycine max, Gossypium herbaceum (Arabian cotton), Humulus spp, Laburnum anagyroides (laburnum), Ligustrum spp. (privet), Litchi chinensis (lychee), Lithocarpus glaber, Lonicera periclymenum, Lonicera xylosteum (fly honeysuckle), Malus baccata, Malus pumila (apple) Medicago spp., Morus alba, Pistacia lentiscus (mastic tree), Populus spp. (poplar), Prunus armeniaca (apricot), Prunus avium (cherry), Prunus domestica (plum), Prunus padus (bird cherry), Prunus persica (peach), Prunus triloba (flowering almond), Pyrus communis (European pear) (Carter 1984), Quercus acutissima, Ribes nigrum (blackcurrant), Ribes rubrum (red currant), Ribes uva-crispa (gooseberry), Rosa spp. (rose), Rosa canina (dog rose), Rubus sp., Rubus fruticosus (blackberry), Rubus idaeus (raspberry), Salix caprea (great sallow), Salix schwerinii (basket willow) (Carter 1984), Solanum dulcamara, Symphoricarpos albus (common snowberry), Syringa vulgaris (lilac), Tilia spp., Ulmus minor (European field elm), Vaccinium spp. (blueberry). (Carter 1984; Davis et al. 2005; Robinson et al. 2004) (Cross 1997)



Distribution

Presence in Australia: no record found.

Presence in China: all parts of China except Tibet (Carter 1984; Cheng et al. 1998; Feng et al. 1988; Fu and Huang 1990; He et al. 1996; Ma 2006; Qiu et al. 1999; Wan et al. 2006; Wang 1983; Wu et al. 1999).

Presence elsewhere: Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, England (Carter 1984), Finland, France, Georgia (Republic), Germany (CAB International 2008), Greece (Milonas and Savopoulou-Soultani 2004), Hong Kong, Hungary, Italy, Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku) (Carter 1984; Sakamaki and Hayakawa 2004; Yasuda 1998), Korea (Republic), Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Serbia and Montenegro, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom (CAB International 2008; Carter 1984; Cross 1997), Yugoslavia (former) (Injac 1983).


Quarantine pest

Carposina sasakii Matsumura, 1900

Synonyms

Carposina niponensis Walsingham 1900 [misidentification]

The peach fruit moth causing damage to rosaceous fruit in the Asian Far East has been known as C. niponensis in some recent literature (EPPO/CABI 1996; Savotikov and Smetnik 1995). However, it appears that C. niponensis has been confused with Carposina sasakii but actually has no known economic consequences (Diakonoff 1989). Carposina niponensis has two subspecies: C. niponensis confined to the Asian Far East on Rosaceae, and C. niponensis ottawana confined to Canada on Cornus and Ribes (Davis 1968).

All references to C. niponensis as 'peach fruit moth' should be attributed to C. sasakii, which was treated as a synonym of C. niponensis in EPPO/CABI (1996).


Common name(s)

peach fruit borer, peach fruit moth

Main hosts

Carposina sasakii occurs on a wide range of hosts, particularly from the Rosaceae, but also from other families. It is possible that the published host range to a certain extent confuses C. sasakii with authentic C. niponensis (CAB International 2008).

Hosts include: Aronia arbutifolia (red chokeberry), Chaenomeles japonica (Japanese quince), Cydonia oblonga (quince), Eriobotrya japonica (loquat), Malus (ornamental species), Malus domestica (apple), Malus micromalus, Malus toringo, Phoenix dactylifera (date-palm), Prunus armeniaca (apricot), Prunus avium (cherry), Prunus domestica (plum), Prunus dulcis (almond), Prunus mume (Japanese apricot), Prunus persica (peach), Prunus salicina (Japanese plum), Pyrus (pear), Pyrus communis (European pear), Pyrus pyrifolia (Oriental pear), Ziziphus jujuba (common jujube), Cornus mas (Cornelian cherry), Crataegus spp., Rosa (rose), Sorbus aucuparia (mountain ash) (CAB International 2008).



Distribution

Presence in Australia: no record found.

Presence in China: Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Jiangsu, Jilin, Liaoning, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi and Zhejiang (AQSIQ 2005; CIQSA 2001a; CIQSA 2001c).

Presence elsewhere: USSR (former), Japan, South Korea (CAB International 2008).


Quarantine pest

Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus, 1758)

Synonyms

Phalaena pomonella Linnaeus, 1758,

Carpocapsa pomonella (Linnaeus, 1758),

Carpocapsa pomonana (Treitschke, 1830),

Enarmonia pomonella (Linnaeus, 1858),

Laspeyresia pomonella (Linnaeus, 1858).

Common name(s)

codling moth

Main hosts

Castanea dentata (chestnut) (Hely et al. 1982), Citrus sinensis (orange), Crataegus laevigata (hawthorn), Cydonia oblonga (quince), Diospyros kaki (persimmon), Juglans regia (walnut), Malus domestica (apple), Malus sylvestris (crab apple), Prunus armeniaca (apricot), Prunus avium (cherry) (Moffitt et al. 1992), Prunus damson (plum), Prunus domestica (plum) (Yokoyama and Miller 1988), Prunus persica (peach), Prunus persica var. nucipersica (nectarine), Punica granatum (pomegranate) and Pyrus communis (pear) (CAB International 2008).

Distribution

Presence in Australia: New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania and Victoria (CAB International 2008), but not in Western Australia (Poole 2008).

Presence in China: Xinjiang and some areas in neighbouring Gansu Province (AQSIQ 2008).

Presence elsewhere: Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Argentina, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Libya, Lithuania, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Pakistan, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Uruguay, USA, Uzbekistan, and Yugoslavia (former) (CAB International 2008).


Quarantine pest

Euzophera pyriella Yang, 1994

Synonyms

None

Common name(s)

pyralid moth

Main hosts

Malus spp. (apple), Pyrus spp. (pear), Ficus spp. (fig), Zizyphus mauritiana (Chinese date), Prunus armeniaca (apricot), Prunus persica (peach) and Populus adenopoda (poplar) (AQSIQ 2008; Lu and Deng 2003).

Distribution

This species was newly described as a pest of pear in China in 1994 (AQSIQ 2008; Lu and Deng 2003).

Quarantine pest

Grapholita inopinata (Heinrich, 1928)

Synonyms

Cydia inopinata (Heinrich, 1928)

Laspeyresia prunifoliae (Kozhanchikov, 1953)

Grapholita cerasana Kozhanchikov, 1953

(CABI/EPPO 2005)



Common name(s)

Manchurian fruit moth

Main hosts

Cydonia oblonga (quince) Malus domestica (apple), Malus pallasiana, Prunus persica (peach), Prunus sp., Pyrus (pear) and P. communis (European pear) (CAB International 2008; CABI/EPPO 2005).

Distribution

Presence in Australia: no record found

Presence in China: Heilongjiang, Hebei, Henan, Jilin, Liaoning, Shaanxi and Shandong provinces (Ma 2006).

Presence elsewhere: Japan, Korea, Russia (CABI/EPPO 2005; Ma 2006).


Quarantine pest

Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916)

Synonyms

Laspeyresia molesta Busck, 1916;

Cydia molesta (Busck, 1916);

Carpocapsa molesta (Busck, 1916).

Common name(s)

Oriental fruit moth

Main hosts

Cotoneaster, Crataegus laevigata (hawthorn), Cydonia oblonga (quince), Eriobotrya japonica (loquat), Malus (ornamental species apple), M. domestica (apple), Prunus (stone fruit), P. amygdalus (almond), P. armeniaca (apricot), P. avium (cherry), P. domestica (plum), P. dulcis (almond), P. persica (peach), P. persica var. nucipersica (nectarine), Pyrus (pear), P. communis (European pear) and Vitis vinifera (grapevine) (CAB International 2008).

Distribution

Presence in Australia: New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania and Victoria (CAB International 2008), but not Western Australia (Poole 2008).

Presence in China: Yes (AQSIQ 2005).

Presence elsewhere: Argentina, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Croatia, Czech Republic, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, South Korea, Malta, Mauritius, Moldova, Morocco, New Zealand, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, USA, Uzbekistan, Yugoslavia (former) (CAB International 2008).


Quarantine pest

Spilonota albicana (Motschulsky, 1866)

Synonyms

Grapholita albicana Motschulsky, 1866

Common name(s)

white fruit moth, large apple fruit moth

Main hosts

Cerasus pseudocerasus, C. tomentose, Corylus heterophylla, Cotoneaster melanocarpus, Crataegus pinnatifida (hawthorn), C. dahurica, C. maximowiczii, Larix leptolepis, L. gmelini, Malus pumila (apple), M. sieboldii, M. mandshurica, M. pallasiana, Photinia glabra, Pyrus sp. (pear), Prunus armeniaca (=Armeniaca vulgaris) (apricot), P. persica (=Amgdalus persica) (peach), P. salicina (plum), P. serrulate var. sponanea, Sorbus amurensis (Hua and Wang 2006; Zhang and Li 2005).

Distribution

Presence in Australia: no record found.

Presence in China: Fujian, Gansu, Guizhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Tianjin and Zhejiang (Zhang and Li 2005).

Presence elsewhere: Japan, South Korea, Russian Federation (Hua and Wang 2006; Zhang and Li 2005).


PATHOGENS




Quarantine pest

Diplocarpon mali Y. Harada & Sawamura

Synonyms

Marssonia coronaria (Ellis & Davis) Davis

Common name(s)

marssonina blotch, apple leaf brown rot

Main hosts

Malus spp. (apple) and Chaenomeles spp. (flowering quince) (Farr et al. 2008)

Distribution

Presence in Australia: no record found.

    Presence in China: Shandong (CIQSA 2001c) and Gansu (Zhuang 2005) provinces.

Presence elsewhere: Japan, South Korea (Farr et al. 2008) .

Quarantine pest

Gymnosporangium yamadae Miyabe

Synonyms

None

Common name(s)

Japanese apple rust

Main hosts

Juniperus spp., Malus spp., Pyrus spp., Sabina spp. (Farr et al. 2008) (CAB International 2008)

Distribution

Presence in Australia: no record found.

Presence in China: all major apple production areas in China (Ma 2006).

Presence elsewhere: Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu), North Korea, South Korea (Farr et al. 2008).


Quarantine pest

Monilinia fructigena (Aderh. & Ruhland) Honey

Synonyms

Monilia fructigena (Schumach)

Sclerotinia fructigena (J. Schröt.) (Norton)

Stromatinia fructigena (J. Schröt.) (Boud)

See Farr et al (2008) for more synonyms of this fungus.



Common name(s)

apple brown rot

Main hosts

Amelanchier canadensis (thicket serviceberry), Berberis spp., Capsicum spp., Cornus mas (Cornelian cherry), Corylus avellana (hazel), Cotoneaster spp., Crataegus laevigata, Cydonia oblonga (quince), Diospyros kaki (persimmon), Eriobotrya japonica (loquat), Ficus carica (fig), Fragaria spp., F. ananassa (strawberry), Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato), Malus domestica (apple), Mespilus germanica (medlar), Prunus spp., P. armeniaca (apricot), P. avium (cherry), P. cerasus (sour cherry), P. domestica (plum), P. persica (peach), P. dulcis (almond), P. spinosa (blackthorn), Psidium guajava (guava), Pyrus spp. (pear), P. communis (European pear), Rhododendron spp., Rosa (roses), Rubus (blackberry, raspberry), R. occidentalis (black raspberry), Sorbus spp., Vaccinium spp., Vitis vinifera (grapevine) (CAB International 2008; Ma 2006).

Distribution

Presence in Australia: no record found.

Presence in China: Anhui, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan and Zhejiang provinces (AQSIQ 2005; CIQSA 2001a; CIQSA 2001c; Ma 2006).

Presence elsewhere: Afghanistan, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Chile, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, India, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Montenegro, Morocco, Nepal, North Korea, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States of America, Uruguay Uzbekistan, Yugoslavia (former) (CAB International 2008).


Quarantine pest

Neonectria ditissima (Tul. & C. Tul.) Samuels & Rossman

Synonyms

Nectria galligena Bres.

Cylindrocarpon heteronema (Berk. & Broome) Wollenw (Anamorph)

See Farr et al (2008) for more synonyms of this fungus.



Common name(s)

European canker

Main hosts

Acer circinatum (vine maple); Acer macrophyllum (bigleaf maple), Acer pensylvanicum, Acer rubrum (red maple), Acer saccharum (hard maple), Acer spicatum (mountain maple), Aesculus sp. (horse-chestnut), Alnus incana (grey alder), Betula papyrifera (paper birch), Betula pendula (European white birch), Betula lenta (sweet birch), Betula nigra (river birch), Betula populifolia (grey birch), Carpinus betulus (common hornbeam), Carya cordiformis (Bitternut hickory), Carya glabra (pignut hickory), Carya illinoinensis (pecan), Carya ovata (shagbark hickory), Carya tomentosa (mockernut hickory), Cornus nuttallii (Pacific dogwood), Corylus avellana (hazel), Fagus grandifolia (American beech), Fagus sylvatica (European beech), Frangula alnus (Alder buckthorn), Fraxinus excelsior (common ash), Fraxinus nigra (black ash), Juglans cinerea (butternuttree), Juglans nigra (black walnut tree), Liriodendron tulipifera (yellow poplar), Malus domestica (apple), Nyssa sylvatica (blackgum), Populus grandidentata (bigtooth aspen), Populus tremuloides (trembling aspen), Prunus serotina (black cherry tree), Pyrus communis (pear), Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta (Oriental pear), Quercus alba (white oak), Quercus bicolor (swamp white oak), Quercuscoccinea (scarlet oak), Quercus garryana (Oregon white oak), Quercus laurifolia (laurel oak), Quercus rubra (Northern red oak), Quercus velutina (black oak), Rosa spp. (rose), Rhus typhina (staghorn sumac), Salix alba (white willow), Salix amygdaloides (peachleaf willow),Sorbus aucuparia (rowan tree), Tilia americana (American basswood), Ulmus americana (American elm), Ulmus glabra (mountain elm) (CAB International 2008).


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