Draft Import Risk Analysis Report for Fresh Apple Fruit from the People’s Republic of China

Yüklə 2,59 Mb.
ölçüsü2,59 Mb.
1   ...   32   33   34   35   36   37   38   39   40
4, 24-34.

Wang ZQ (1985) 'Identification Manual for Common Scale Insects'. ( 3rd Edition) (Science Press, Beijing, China). 252 pp.

Washington WS and Nancarrow RJ (1983) 'List of diseases recorded on fruit and vegetable crops in Victoria before June 30, 1980. Technical Report No. 66'. (Department of Agriculture, Victoria, Australia). 54 pp.

Waterhouse DF (1993) 'The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia'. (Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR), Canberra, Australia). 141 pp.

Watson GW (2005) Arthropods of Economic Importance: Diaspididae. http://nlbif.eti.uva.nl/bis/diaspididae.php?, Accessed: September 2008.

Wei XD (1990) Control of pear borer, Chreonoma fortunei (Col.: Cerambycidae) with Scleroderma guani (Hym.: Bethylidae). Chinese Journal of Biological Control 6, 116-117.

Welsh MF and Van der Meer FA (1989) 'Virus and Viruslike Diseases of Pome Fruit and Simulating Noninfectious Disorders'. (Cooperative Extension, Washington State University, Washington, USA). 127 pp.

Weresub LK and Illman WI (1980) Corticium centrifugum reisolated from fisheye rot of stored apples. Canadian Journal of Botany 56, 137-146.

White IM and Elson-Harris MM (1992) 'Fruit flies of economic significance: their identification and bionomics'. (CAB International, London).

Willetts HJ and Harada Y ( 1984) A review of apothecial production by Monilinia fungi in Japan. Mycologia 76, 314-325.

Williamson SM and Sutton TB (2000) Sooty blotch and flyspeck of apple: etiology, biology, and control. Plant Disease 84, 714-724.

Wormald H (1954) The Brown Rot Diseases of Fruit Trees. Technical Bulletin of the Ministry of Agriculture No. 3. HMSO, London, UK.

WTO (1995) Agreement on the application of sanitary and phytosanitary measures. World Trade Organization, Switzerland. 13 pp.

Wu BG, Liu E, Trachtenberg E and Beckman C ( 2007) The People's Republic of China. Fresh Deciduous Fruit. Annual 2007. http://www.fas.usda.gov/gainfiles/200711/146292990.pdf GAIN Report, CH7085. U.S. Embassy, Beijing, China. 24 pp.

Wu SY, Fu WJ, Qiu HG and Liu GH (1999) Hybridization experiments with two strains of Adoxophyes orana and study on their esterase isozymes. Entomological Journal of East China 8, 81-84.

Wu XB and Guo XL (1987) Primary study on control of powdery mildews by ladybugs. Journal of Northeast Forestry University 15, 13-17.

Wu YF (2005) Geographical distribution model of Oriental fruit fly. Journal of Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University (Natural Science Edition) (In Chinese with English abstract) 34, 168-171.

Xin YC (1996) Study on valsa canker of apple. China Fruits 3, 15-16.

Xu QG and Hua BZ (2004) RAPD analysis on the speciation in host races of Carposina sasakii Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae). Acta Entomologica Sinica 47, 379-383.

Yaginuma K and Takagi K (1987) Use of entomogenous fungi for the control of the peach fruit moth, Carposina niponensis Extension Bulletin No. 257 (25), ASPAC Food and Fertilizer Technology Center for the Asian and Pacific Region, Taiwan, Kyushu, Japan.

Yago M and Ishikawa H (1936) Ecological notes and methods of controlling the pear fruit borer, Carposina sasakii Mats. Bulletin Shizuoka Ken. Agricultural Experimental Station 39, 27.

Yamaguchi, Kiritani K, Matsuhira K and Fukuda K (2001) The influence of unusual hot weather on the occurrence of several arthropod crop pests. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology 45, 1-7.

Yang DL, Song WH and Din CW (2000) Efficacy of five fungicides on garlic leaf blight (Pleospora herbarum) control. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica 3, 282.

Yang J (1994) Description of a new pear pest from Kurla (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Journal of Huazhong Agricultural University 13, 560-562.

Yang P, Carey JR and Dowell RV (1994) Temperature influences on the development and demography of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in China. Environmental Entomology 23, 971-974.

Yang QL, Zhang MC, Wang GM and Zhang HP (2005) Effectiveness of using 8% cypermethrin for control of Apriona germarii. China Fruits 1, 54.

Yang S, Tulake T and Li J (2005) Occurrence and infestation of pest insects on apricot in Xinjiang, China. Xinjiang Agricultural Sciences 42, 363-365.

Yang YL and Tian ZJ (1988) Studies on causes and control of dieback of spruces in the Xiaojin region, Sichuan. Forest Pest and Disease 4, 1-2.

Yang YN (1994) Integrated management in newly planted orchards. Bulletin of Agricultural Science and Technology 4, 27.

Yao IL, Cao MD and Xia XM (1993) Analysis of some mold strains by pyrolysis gas chromatography. Journal of Instrumental Analysis 12, 42-44.

Yasuda T (1998) The Japanese species of the genus Adoxophyes Meyrick (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae). Transactions of the Lepidopterological Society of Japan 49, 159-173.

Yin RG, Zhou BR, Zhang LS and Chen QL (1998) Study on control of apple fruit moth by sex attractant. China Fruits 3, 9-11.

Yoder KS (1990) Blotch. In 'Compendium of Apple and Pear Diseases'. (Eds AL Jones and HS Aldwinckle) (American Phytopathological Society, St Paul, Minnesota, USA): 26-27.

Yokoyama VY and Miller GT (1988) Laboratory evaluations of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) oviposition on three species of stone fruit grown in California. Journal of Economic Entomology 81, 568-572.

Yoshizawa E (1985) Biology and control of peach curculio, Rhynchites heros Roelofs. I. Seasonal prevalence of occurrence (in Japan) and death of hibernated adults. Proceedings of the Kanto Tosan Plant Protection Society 32, 197-198.

Yu TF (1940) A list of important crop diseases occurring in Kiangsu Province (1934-1937). Lingnan Science Journal 19, 67-78.

Yu TF and Fang CT (1948) Fusarium diseases of broad bean. II. Further studies on broad bean wilt caused by Fusarium avenaceum var. fabae. Phytopathology 38, 331-342.

Yuan HB, Liu Y, Shen DS, Mao YW and Shi SS (2004) Observations on morphological and biological characters on Actias selene ningpoana. Journal of Jilin Agricultural University 26, 431-433.

Yukita K (2003) Development of the twig lesions caused by apple blotch Dipcocarpon mali and significance of conidia as possible source of primary infection. Japanese Journal of Phytopathology 69, 263.

Zaher MA, Soliman ZR and El-Safi GS (1974) Biological studies on Cenopalpus pulcher (Canestrini and Fanzago) (Acarina:Tenuipalpidae). Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d' Egypte 58, 367-373.

Zahradnik J (1990) 'Other forests. In Armoured scale insects, their biology, natural enemies and control. World Crop Pests'. ( vol. 4B) (Elsevier, Amsterdam, the Netherlands).

Zaitsev EF (1984) Protection of stone fruits. Zashchita Rasteni 4, 54-55.

ZDCBIC (2005) Noctuidae; Calyptra genus. http://zd1.brim.ac.cn/specieslist.asp?x_genus=Calyptra&z_genus=LIK, Accessed: 20 October 2008.

Zeitner R (2006) China’s apple and pear industry. Economic Consultants Group, Western Growers Association, USA. 19 pp.

Zhang AH and Li HH (2005) Catalogue of Eucosmini from China (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Shilap Revista de Lepidopterologia 33, 265-298.

Zhang GX, Qiao GX, Zhong TS and Zhang WY (1999) 'Fauna Sinica Insecta Volume 14 - Homoptera Mindaridae and Pemphigidae'. (Science Press, Beijing, China). 380 pp.

Zhang M (2006) Diversity of fungi of sooty blotch and flyspeck of apple in China. 'Thesis for Masters degree.,' Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University.

Zhang R, Zhang Z, Zhai X, Zhang M, Sun G and Gleason ML (2007) A new species of Dissoconium from China colonizing apples. Mycotaxon 101, 165-172.

Zhang Z (2007) Pathogen diversity of fungi of sooty blotch and flyspeck. 'Thesis for Masters degree.,' Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University.

Zhao Y and Niu J (2008) Apricot is a new host of Apple scar skin viroid. Australasian Plant Disease Notes 3, 98-100.

Zhao YJ (2001) Study on the causal organisms of wheat fusarium blight and its pathogenicity in eastern Qinghai. Plant Protection 27, 17-19.

Zherikhin VV and Gratshev VG (1995) A comparative study of the hind wing venation of the superfamily Curculionoidea, with phylogenetic implications. In 'Biology, Phylogeny and Classification of Coleoptera: Papers Celebrating the 80th Birthday of Roy A. Crowson'. (Eds J Pakaluk and SA Slipinski) (Muzeum i Instytut Zoologii PAN, Warszawa): 633-777.

Zhou HJ, Li JH, Zhao LF, Han J and Yang XJ (2004) Study on main microbes on quality formation of yunnan puer tea during pile-fermentation process. Journal of Tea Science 24, 212-218.

Zhou ZS and Deng GR (2005) Preliminary study on the host plants of leaf rollers on longan and litchi. Kunchong Zhishi 42, 639-642.

Zhu HF, Chu HF and Wang LY (1997) 'Fauna Sinica Insecta Volume 11 - Lepidoptera Sphingidae'. (Science Press, Beijing, China). 410 pp.

Zhu XQ, Chen XY, Luo Y and Guo LY (2005) 1st report of Monilinia fructicola on peach and nectarine in China. British Society for Plant Pathology, New Disease Reports 10, 575.

Zhuang WY (2001) 'Higher Fungi of Tropical China.'. (Mycotaxon, Ltd., Ithaca, NY). 485 pp.

Zhuang WY (2005) 'Fungi of northwestern China.'. (Mycotaxon Ltd., Ithaca, NY). 430 pp.

Zvierezomb ZE (1919) Review of the Pests of Agriculture. Report on the Work of the Don Bureau for the Control of Pests of Agricultural Plants for 1918.

1 A pest is any species, strain or biotype of plant, animal, or pathogenic agent injurious to plants or plant products (FAO 2007b).

2 In earlier qualitative IRAs, the scale for the impact scores went from A to F and did not explicitly allow for the rating ‘indiscernible’ at all four levels. This combination might be applicable for some criteria. In this report, the impact scale of A-F has changed to become B-G and a new lowest category A (‘indiscernible’ at all four levels) was added. The rules for combining impacts in Table 2.4 were adjusted accordingly.

3 Semi-quantitative method used in the previous assessment.

4 Semi-quantitative method used in the previous assessment.

5 Remedial action (depending on the location of the inspection) may include: treatment of the consignment to ensure that the pest is no longer viable; withdrawing the consignment from export to Australia; re-export of the consignment from Australia; or destruction of the consignment.

6 http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/standardsdevelopment/

7 In responding to the issues paper for the IRA for apples from China, NSWDPI (2008) note that “the recently released draft IRA report for unshu mandarins from Japan mentions Nezara viridula as attacking shoots and fruitlets of apples in China” but was not listed in the pest list for apples from China. The species and the information referred to were mismatched and it is most likely that DPINSW was referring to Nezara antennata because the reference for its occurrence in China is for N. antennata in the draft IRA report for unshu mandarins from Japan (page 108 of Biosecurity Australia (2008b)). Close examination revealed that the reference cited in the draft IRA report for unshu mandarins (Li et al. 2001) does not provide a scientific name for the species involved. The Chinese common name used in the article title is 绿盲蝽-[green mirid]. Biosecurity Australia now believes that the paper (Li et al. 2001) cited is the study of Lygus lucorum. The mistake in that report will be corrected for the final IRA report for unshu mandarins from Japan.

8 Botryosphaeria berengeriana De Not. f.sp. pyricola Kogan. & Sakuma was reported by CIQSA (2001c) to occur on apples in China. Previously the fungus had been considered in the IRA for Ya pears from China (AQIS 1998b). The name B. berengeriana has been a source of taxonomic confusion. Using pathological, morphological and molecular evidence, Ogata et al. (2000) concluded that B. berengeriana in Japan comprised two distinct species, one of which was identified as B. dothidea (Moug.: Fr.) Ces. & De Not. Subsequently it was confirmed by Slippers et al. (2004; 2008) that the type specimen of B. berengeriana was a synonym of B. dothidea. Furthermore, all the forma speciales of B. berengeriana are synonyms of B. dothidea. The second species referred to by Ogata et al. (2000) has been identified as Botryosphaeria parva Pennycook & Samuels (Slippers et al. 2008). Recently, Barber et al. (2005) have shown that B. dothidea also forms a Dichomera synanamorph.

9 The Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing is responsible for human health aspects of quarantine.

10 http://www.mincos.gov.au/pdf/pimc_res_01.pdf

Yüklə 2,59 Mb.

Dostları ilə paylaş:
1   ...   32   33   34   35   36   37   38   39   40

Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur ©muhaz.org 2020
rəhbərliyinə müraciət

    Ana səhifə