Draft Import Risk Analysis Report for Fresh Apple Fruit from the People’s Republic of China



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1 A pest is any species, strain or biotype of plant, animal, or pathogenic agent injurious to plants or plant products (FAO 2007b).

2 In earlier qualitative IRAs, the scale for the impact scores went from A to F and did not explicitly allow for the rating ‘indiscernible’ at all four levels. This combination might be applicable for some criteria. In this report, the impact scale of A-F has changed to become B-G and a new lowest category A (‘indiscernible’ at all four levels) was added. The rules for combining impacts in Table 2.4 were adjusted accordingly.

3 Semi-quantitative method used in the previous assessment.

4 Semi-quantitative method used in the previous assessment.

5 Remedial action (depending on the location of the inspection) may include: treatment of the consignment to ensure that the pest is no longer viable; withdrawing the consignment from export to Australia; re-export of the consignment from Australia; or destruction of the consignment.

6 http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/standardsdevelopment/

7 In responding to the issues paper for the IRA for apples from China, NSWDPI (2008) note that “the recently released draft IRA report for unshu mandarins from Japan mentions Nezara viridula as attacking shoots and fruitlets of apples in China” but was not listed in the pest list for apples from China. The species and the information referred to were mismatched and it is most likely that DPINSW was referring to Nezara antennata because the reference for its occurrence in China is for N. antennata in the draft IRA report for unshu mandarins from Japan (page 108 of Biosecurity Australia (2008b)). Close examination revealed that the reference cited in the draft IRA report for unshu mandarins (Li et al. 2001) does not provide a scientific name for the species involved. The Chinese common name used in the article title is 绿盲蝽-[green mirid]. Biosecurity Australia now believes that the paper (Li et al. 2001) cited is the study of Lygus lucorum. The mistake in that report will be corrected for the final IRA report for unshu mandarins from Japan.

8 Botryosphaeria berengeriana De Not. f.sp. pyricola Kogan. & Sakuma was reported by CIQSA (2001c) to occur on apples in China. Previously the fungus had been considered in the IRA for Ya pears from China (AQIS 1998b). The name B. berengeriana has been a source of taxonomic confusion. Using pathological, morphological and molecular evidence, Ogata et al. (2000) concluded that B. berengeriana in Japan comprised two distinct species, one of which was identified as B. dothidea (Moug.: Fr.) Ces. & De Not. Subsequently it was confirmed by Slippers et al. (2004; 2008) that the type specimen of B. berengeriana was a synonym of B. dothidea. Furthermore, all the forma speciales of B. berengeriana are synonyms of B. dothidea. The second species referred to by Ogata et al. (2000) has been identified as Botryosphaeria parva Pennycook & Samuels (Slippers et al. 2008). Recently, Barber et al. (2005) have shown that B. dothidea also forms a Dichomera synanamorph.

9 The Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing is responsible for human health aspects of quarantine.

10 http://www.mincos.gov.au/pdf/pimc_res_01.pdf


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