Draft report for the non-regulated analysis of existing policy for table grapes from India

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Draft report for the non regulated analysis of existing policy for table grapes from India

July 2015

© Commonwealth of Australia 2015

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Unless otherwise noted, copyright (and any other intellectual property rights, if any) in this publication is owned by the Commonwealth of Australia (referred to as the Commonwealth).

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All material in this publication is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia Licence, save for content supplied by third parties, photographic images, logos and the Commonwealth Coat of Arms.

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia Licence is a standard form licence agreement that allows you to copy, distribute, transmit and adapt this publication provided you attribute the work. A summary of the licence terms is available from creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au/deed.en. The full licence terms are available from creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au/legalcode.

Inquiries about the licence and any use of this document should be sent to copyright@agriculture.gov.au.

This publication (and any material sourced from it) should be attributed as: Australian Government Department of Agriculture 2015, Draft report for the non-regulated analysis of existing policy for table grapes from India CC BY 3.0

Cataloguing data

Australian Government Department of Agriculture 2015, Draft report for the non-regulated analysis of existing policy for table grapes from India, Department of Agriculture, Canberra.

This publication is available at agriculture.gov.au.

Australian Government Department of Agriculture

GPO Box 858 Canberra ACT 2601

Switchboard: +61 2 6272 3933 or 1800 900 090

Facsimile: +61 2 6272 3307

Email: plant@agriculture.gov.au


The Australian Government acting through the Department of Agriculture has exercised due care and skill in preparing and compiling the information and data in this publication. Notwithstanding, the Australian Government Department of Agriculture, its employees and advisers disclaim all liability, including liability for negligence and for any loss, damage, injury, expense or cost incurred by any person as a result of accessing, using or relying upon any of the information or data in this publication to the maximum extent permitted by law.

Stakeholder submissions on draft reports

This draft report has been issued to give all interested parties an opportunity to comment on relevant technical biosecurity issues, with supporting rationale. A final report will then be produced taking into consideration any comments received.

Submissions should be sent to the Australian Government Department of Agriculture following the conditions specified within the related Biosecurity Advice, which is available at: agriculture.gov.au/ba/memos


Acronyms and abbreviations viii

Summary 1

1Introduction 3

1.1 Australia’s biosecurity policy framework 3

1.2 This import risk analysis 3

Method for pest risk analysis 6

1.3 Stage 1 Initiation 6

1.4 Stage 2 Pest risk assessment 7

1.5 Stage 3 Pest risk management 14

India’s commercial production practices for table grapes 16

1.6 Assumptions used in estimating unrestricted risk 16

1.7 India’s table grape production areas 16

1.8 Climate in production areas 16

1.9 Pre-harvest 21

1.10 Harvesting and handling procedures 27

1.11 Post-harvest 27

1.12 Export capability 31

Pest risk assessments for quarantine pests 33

1.13 Kanzawa spider mite 36

1.14 Fruit flies 37

1.15 Spotted wing drosophila 41

1.16 Grapevine phylloxera 43

1.17 European fruit lecanium 44

1.18 Mealybugs 45

1.19 Large grape plume moth 46

1.20 Leaf rolling moth 47

1.21 Thrips 51

1.22 Grapevine bacterial canker disease 52

1.23 Bitter rot 61

1.24 Black rot 67

1.25 Brown rot 68

1.26 Fruit rot 69

1.27 Grapevine leaf rust 75

1.28 Phomopsis cane and leaf spot 76

1.29 White rot 77

1.30 Tobacco necrosis viruses 83

1.31 Tomato black ring virus 88

1.32 Pest risk assessment conclusions 98

Pest risk management 103

1.33 Pest risk management measures and phytosanitary procedures 103

1.34 Operational system for the maintenance and verification of phytosanitary status 111

1.35 Responsibility of competent authority 115

1.36 Uncategorised pests 115

1.37 Review of processes 115

1.38 Meeting Australia’s food standards 116

Conclusion 117

Appendix A Initiation and categorisation for pests of table grapes from India 118

Appendix B Biosecurity framework 190

Glossary 195


Figure 1 Diagram of grapes vii

Figure 2 Monthly mean maximum (—♦—) and minimum (—■—) temperatures (degrees Celsius) and monthly mean rainfall (millimetres) (—▲—) in the table grape producing districts of Nashik, Pune, Gulberga, Bangalore, Anantapur, Hyderabad, Madurai, Hisar and Bhatinda in India, based on average monthly weather data from 1901 to 2000 19

Figure 3 A grape bunch covered with a paper bag 22

Figure 4 Grapes being trimmed in the packing house 28

Figure 5 Grapes being packed in the packing house 28

Figure 6 Examples of labels showing trace back information on the carton 29

Figure 7 Summary of vineyard and post-harvest processes practiced in India, for table grapes for export 31

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