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Guar gum as biosourced building block to generate highly conductive and elastic ionogels with poly(ionic liquid) and ionic liquid.

Biao Zhang,a Guillaume Sudre,b Guilhem Quintard, a Anatoli Serghei,b Laurent David,b Julien Bernard,a* Etienne Fleurya* and Aurélia Charlota*

a Univ Lyon, INSA Lyon, UMR CNRS 5223, IMP, 17 avenue Jean Capelle, F-69621 Villeurbanne, France.

b Univ Lyon, Université Lyon 1, UMR CNRS 5223, IMP, 15 Bd. A. Latarjet, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France.

Fax: +33 (0)4 72 43 85 27; Tel: +33 (0)4 72 43 63 38; E-mail: julien.bernard@insa-lyon.fr, etienne.fleury@insa-lyon.fr, aurelia.charlot@insa-lyon.fr

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C*


Fig. S1. (Left) Evolution of viscosity versus shear rate of PIL100K/IL for different PIL concentrations, (Right) Concentration dependence of zero shear viscosity. C* indicates the overlap concentration.





Fig. S2. Frequency-dependence of G’ (filled symbols) and G’’ (open symbols) moduli of Guar58K (5 %)/PIL(10 %)/IL, with 3 different samples (□), (△) and (◊) at 25 °C.



Fig. S3. Frequency-dependence of G’ (filled symbols) and G’’ (open symbols) moduli of Guar58K(5 %)/PIL25K (20 %)/IL, one sample tested two times (□), (△) without time interval.

Fig. S4. TGA thermograms of Guar58K (a), Guar58K(5 %)/BMIMCl (b) and Guar58K(5 %)/PIL100K (10 %)/BMIMCl (c).


Fig. S5. SAXS pattern of Guar58K (5 %)/PIL/IL before (black) and after (red) a thermal treatment.



Fig. S6. Frequency-dependence of G’(filled symbols) and G’’(open symbols) moduli of Guar566K(5 %)/IL (□) and Guar566K(5 %)/PIL (10%)/IL (△) at 25 OC.






Fig. S7. (A) Frequency-dependence of G’(filled symbols) and G’’(open symbols) moduli of Guar58K (5 %)/PIL (10 %)/IL at 10 °C (□), 25 °C (◊), 35 °C, 45 °C (△), and 60 °C (□); (B) Master curves of G’ and G” as a function of reduced frequency (25 °C is the reference); (C) Evolution of ln(at) versus temperature, where at is the horizontal temperature-dependent shift factor.

The slope of Fig. S7 (C) can be used to calculate the apparent activation energy (Ea) at T= Tref from at = exp [(-)], where R is the ideal gas constant, T is temperature in °K and Tref the reference temperature.







Fig. S8. WAXS pattern of BMIMCL and Guar58K (5 %)/PIL(10 %)/IL at 25°C.




Fig. S9. Cryo-SEM images of a cross-section of Guar58K (5 %)/PIL(10 %)/IL ternary blend



Fig. S10. Evolution of ’ of Guar58K (5 %)/PIL (10 %)/IL as a function of frequency for temperatures ranging from - 90 to 30 °C before any thermal treatment.

With decreasing temperature, the values of DC decrease due to a reduction in the mobility of the polymer chains. Thus, by approaching the glass transition temperature, the value of the conductivity progressively decreases until the plateau of is not any longer measurable in the frequency window of our instrument. At frequencies lower than the characteristic frequency fEP, the conductivity decreases as a result of electrode polarization effects. At frequencies higher than fE, the experimental time becomes smaller than the hopping time of the charge carriers, and thus the electrical response is dominated by local charge fluctuations corresponding to the sub-diffusion regime.



Table S1
Table 1

Main features of the synthesised PIL.



Sample

[AEMIBr]:[CTA]:[Initiator]

Time of reaction (h)

Conv(%)a

Mn,theo
(g/mol)a

Mn,SEC
(g/mol)b

Đ b

PIL

400:1:0.2

9

98

102200

159700

1.27

Conditions : AEMIBr = 40 wt. %, H20 as solvent at 70°C.



a Mn,theo = ([AEMIBr]/[CTA]×conv)×MILM + MCTA, where MILM and MCTA are the molar masses of AEMIBr (ILM as ionic liquid monomer) and CTA for chain transfert agent, respectively.

b Determined by SEC after anion exchange of the bromide counter-ions by bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide lithium salt (LiTfSI) (in DMF/LiTfSI, PS standards).

Table S2

VFT parameters for the ternary blend.



Samples

σ (S/cm)

B (K)

T0 (K)

Guar58K/PIL100K/IL

(before thermal treatment)



12.85

1459

154

Guar58K/PIL100K/IL

(after thermal treatment)



1.26

902

216





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