Guar gum as biosourced building block to generate highly conductive and elastic ionogels with poly(ionic liquid) and ionic liquid.
Biao Zhang,^{a} Guillaume Sudre,^{b} Guilhem Quintard,^{ a} Anatoli Serghei,^{b }Laurent David,^{b} Julien Bernard,^{a*} Etienne Fleury^{a}* and Aurélia Charlot^{a*}
^{a }Univ Lyon, INSA Lyon, UMR CNRS 5223, IMP, 17 avenue Jean Capelle, F69621 Villeurbanne, France.
^{b} Univ Lyon, Université Lyon 1, UMR CNRS 5223, IMP, 15 Bd. A. Latarjet, F69622 Villeurbanne, France.
Fax: +33 (0)4 72 43 85 27; Tel: +33 (0)4 72 43 63 38; Email: julien.bernard@insalyon.fr, etienne.fleury@insalyon.fr, aurelia.charlot@insalyon.fr
Electronic supporting information
C*
Fig. S1. (Left) Evolution of viscosity versus shear rate of PIL_{100K}/IL for different PIL concentrations, (Right) Concentration dependence of zero shear viscosity. C* indicates the overlap concentration.
Fig. S2. Frequencydependence of G’ (filled symbols) and G’’ (open symbols) moduli of Guar_{58K }(5 %)/PIL(10 %)/IL, with 3 different samples (□), (△) and (◊) at 25 ^{°}C.
Fig. S3. Frequencydependence of G’ (filled symbols) and G’’ (open symbols) moduli of Guar_{58K}(5 %)/PIL_{25K} (20 %)/IL, one sample tested two times (□), (△) without time interval.
Fig. S4. TGA thermograms of Guar_{58K} (a), Guar_{58K}(5 %)/BMIMCl (b) and Guar_{58K}(5 %)/PIL_{100K} (10 %)/BMIMCl (c).
Fig. S5. SAXS pattern of Guar_{58K }(5 %)/PIL/IL before (black) and after (red) a thermal treatment.
Fig. S6. Frequencydependence of G’(filled symbols) and G’’(open symbols) moduli of Guar_{566K}(5 %)/IL (□) and Guar_{566K}(5 %)/PIL (10%)/IL (△) at 25 ^{O}C.
Fig. S7. (A) Frequencydependence of G’(filled symbols) and G’’(open symbols) moduli of Guar_{58K }(5 %)/PIL (10 %)/IL at 10 °C (□), 25 °C (◊), 35 °C, 45 °C (△), and 60 °C (□); (B) Master curves of G’ and G” as a function of reduced frequency (25 °C is the reference); (C) Evolution of ln(a_{t}) versus temperature, where a_{t} is the horizontal temperaturedependent shift factor.
The slope of Fig. S7 (C) can be used to calculate the apparent activation energy (E_{a}) at T= T_{ref} from a_{t} = exp [()], where R is the ideal gas constant, T is temperature in °K and T_{ref} the reference temperature.
Fig. S8. WAXS pattern of BMIMCL and Guar_{58K} (5 %)/PIL(10 %)/IL at 25°C.
Fig. S9. CryoSEM images of a crosssection of Guar_{58K }(5 %)/PIL(10 %)/IL ternary blend
Fig. S10. Evolution of ’ of Guar_{58K }(5 %)/PIL (10 %)/IL as a function of frequency for temperatures ranging from  90 to 30 °C before any thermal treatment.
With decreasing temperature, the values of _{DC} decrease due to a reduction in the mobility of the polymer chains. Thus, by approaching the glass transition temperature, the value of the conductivity progressively decreases until the plateau of ’ is not any longer measurable in the frequency window of our instrument. At frequencies lower than the characteristic frequency f_{EP}, the conductivity decreases as a result of electrode polarization effects. At frequencies higher than f_{E}, the experimental time becomes smaller than the hopping time of the charge carriers, and thus the electrical response is dominated by local charge fluctuations corresponding to the subdiffusion regime.
Table S1
Table 1
Main features of the synthesised PIL.
Sample

[AEMIBr]:[CTA]:[Initiator]

Time of reaction (h)

Conv(%)^{a}

M_{n,theo}
(g/mol)^{a}

M_{n,SEC}
(g/mol)^{b}

Đ^{ b}

PIL

400:1:0.2

9

98

102200

159700

1.27

Conditions : AEMIBr = 40 wt. %, H_{2}0 as solvent at 70°C.
^{a} M_{n,theo }= ([AEMIBr]/[CTA]×conv)×M_{ILM} + M_{CTA}, where M_{ILM} and M_{CTA} are the molar masses of AEMIBr (ILM as ionic liquid monomer) and CTA for chain transfert agent, respectively.
^{b} Determined by SEC after anion exchange of the bromide counterions by bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide lithium salt (LiTfSI) (in DMF/LiTfSI, PS standards).
Table S2
VFT parameters for the ternary blend.
Samples

σ_{∞} (S/cm)

B (K)

T_{0} (K)

Guar_{58K}/PIL_{100K}/IL
(before thermal treatment)

12.85

1459

154

Guar_{58K}/PIL_{100K}/IL
(after thermal treatment)

1.26

902

216

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