Emerging infectious diseases: Infectious diseases that have newly appeared in a population



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Emerging infectious diseases: Infectious diseases that have newly appeared in a population.

  • Emerging infectious diseases: Infectious diseases that have newly appeared in a population.

  • Global :

  • Regional:

  • Re-emerging Diseases: Diseases’ incidence in human has increased during the last 20 years or threatens to increase in the near future.

  • Global:

  • Regional:





1973 Rotavirus Enteritis/Diarrhea

  • 1973 Rotavirus Enteritis/Diarrhea

  • 1976 Cryptosporidium Enteritis/Diarrhea

  • 1977 Ebola virus VHF

  • 1977 Legionella Legionnaire’s dz

  • 1977 Hantaan virus VHF w/ renal flr

  • 1977 Campylobacter Enteritis/Diarrhea

  • 1980 HTLV-1 Lymphoma

  • 1981 Toxin prod. S.aureus Toxic Shock Synd.

  • 1982 E.coli 0157:H7 HUS

  • 1982 HTLV-II Leukemia

  • 1982 Borrelia burgdorferi Lyme disease



1983 HIV AIDS

  • 1983 HIV AIDS

  • 1983 Helicobacter pylori Peptic ulcer dz

  • 1988 Hepatitis E Hepatitis

  • 1989 Hepatitis C Hepatitis

  • 1990 Guanarito virus VHF

  • 1991 Encephalitozoon Disseminated dz

  • 1992 Vibrio cholerae O139 Cholera

  • 1992 Bartonella henselae Cat scratch dz



1993 Sin Nombre virus Hanta Pulm. Synd.

  • 1993 Sin Nombre virus Hanta Pulm. Synd.

  • 1994 Sabia virus VHF

  • 1994 Hendra virus Respiratory dz

  • 1995 Hepatitis G Hepatitis

  • 1995 H Herpesvirus-8 Kaposi sarcoma

  • 1996 vCJD prion Variant CJD

  • 1997 Avian influenza (H5N1) Influenza

  • 1999 Nipah virus Encephalitis

  • 1999 West Nile virus Encephalitis

  • 2001 BT Bacillus anthracis Anthrax

  • 2003 Monkeypox Pox

  • SARS-CoV SARS

  • H5N1 Avian Influenza







I-Ecological changes and Agricultural development.

  • I-Ecological changes and Agricultural development.

  • Placing the people in contact with a natural reserviour or host of a hitherto unfamiliar, but usually already present,



Example 1 :

  • Example 1 :



Example 2 :

  • Example 2 :





Example 3:

  • Example 3:



Example 4:

  • Example 4:



High dam in Egypt

  • High dam in Egypt

  • Slowed water flaw

  • allowed snails to go south

  • introduced S. mansoni in Upper Egypt

  • Increased its occurrence in Nile Delta.

  • Senegal Dam

  • Lakes in Mauritania

  • Rift Valley Fever outbreak 1987.





Higher ocean temps increase Vibrio parahaemolyticus (shellfish)

  • Higher ocean temps increase Vibrio parahaemolyticus (shellfish)

  • Some soil pathogens carried by dry dusty winds (Coccidiodes)



Inflation of population size

  • Inflation of population size

  • Insufficient infrastructures

  • Use open containers for water

  • Breading mosquitos

  • Dengue fever in Asia







III-International travel and Commerce.

  • III-International travel and Commerce.

  • 365 days to circumnavigate the globe…now it takes 36 hours

  • -used to quarantine ships, but 36 h faster than disease incubation

  • 400 million people per year travel internationally

  • increased incidence of both Tuberculosis and Influenza transmission on long flights



-Transportation of products is an increased concern.

  • -Transportation of products is an increased concern.

  • -rapid transport of disease harboring fresh products.

  • -transport of livestock facilitates movements of viruses and arthropods (especially ticks)

  • Travel and HIV/AIDS.

  • -Silk route and plague.

  • -Slaves trade and yellow fever.

  • -Migration to new world and smallpox.

  • Cholera and Hajj.



Modern mass production increased the chance of accidental contamination and amplifies the effect of such contamination.

  • Modern mass production increased the chance of accidental contamination and amplifies the effect of such contamination.

  • -Contamination of hamburger meat by E.coli strains causing haemolytic uraemic syndrome.

  • -Feeding cattle by byproducts of sheep causing bovine spongiform encephalitis.



Concentrating effect of blood and nasocomial infections e.g. Ebola fever by contaminated hypodermic apparatus.

  • Concentrating effect of blood and nasocomial infections e.g. Ebola fever by contaminated hypodermic apparatus.

  • New diagnostic technology lead to identification of previously unknown microbes for known diseases e.g. Helicobacter pylori and peptic ulcer, human herpes virus 6 and roseola.

  • Medical technology

  • People living longer, but have weaker immune systems.

  • Blood & organ transplantation transmit infections.





Increased antibiotic resistance with increased use of antibiotics in humans and food animals (VRE, VRSA, penicillin- and macrolide-resistant Strep pneumonia, multidrug-resistant Salmonella,….)

  • Increased antibiotic resistance with increased use of antibiotics in humans and food animals (VRE, VRSA, penicillin- and macrolide-resistant Strep pneumonia, multidrug-resistant Salmonella,….)

  • Increase virulence (Group A Strep?)

  • Jumping species from animals to humans (avian influenza, HIV?, SARS?)









-Decrease in choline in water supplies lead to rapid spread of cholera in South America.

  • -Decrease in choline in water supplies lead to rapid spread of cholera in South America.

  • Non functioning water plant in Wisconsin, USA lead to outbreak of waterborne cryptosporidium.



Inadequate vaccinations and Diphtheria in former USSR independent countries.

  • Inadequate vaccinations and Diphtheria in former USSR independent countries.

  • Discontinued mosquito control efforts and dengue and malaria re-emergence.





1981 -- > 4,000,000 cases

  • 1981 -- > 4,000,000 cases

  • 1986 -- 3,500,000 cases

  • 1989 -- 890,000 cases

  • 1992 -- 374,000 cases

  • 1995 -- 129,000 cases

  • 1998 -- 79,000 cases (61%, Sudan)

  • 1999 – 80,000 cases (70%, Sudan)

  • 2000 -- 70,000 cases (73%, Sudan)

  • 2001 -- 60,000 cases (78%, Sudan)

  • 2002 -- 50,000 cases (74%, Sudan)

  • 2003 -- 31,000 cases (62%, Sudan; 27%, Ghana)

  • 2004 -- 16,026 cases (45%, Sudan; 45%, Ghana)

  • 2005 -- 10,715 cases vs. 14,418 in 2004 (Jan-Oct)(61%, Sudan; 29%, Ghana)

  • [Down from 20 to 10 countries; 5 of them had fewer than 100 cases in 2005]





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