Empowering destitute people towards transforming communities



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Empowering destitute people towards Shalom


A Contextual Missiological Study

by

Gerrit Johannes Nieuwenhoudt Roux


submitted in accordance with the requirements

for the degree of


DOCTOR OF THEOLOGY
in the subject
MISSIOLOGY
at the

UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AFRICA


Promotors: Dr. Stephan de Beer; Prof. Annalet van Schalkwyk
August 2007

Student number: 3433 – 807 – 1


I declare herewith that EMPOWERING DESTITUTE PEOPLE TOWARDS SHALOM - A CONTEXTUAL MISSIOLOGICAL STUDY” is my own work and that I have indicated all sources that I have used by means of full references.
.............................. ………………………

SIGNATURE DATE

Rev. G.J.N. Roux

Summary
This thesis proposes that the destitute people of South Africa, and specifically Tshwane, comprise an often neglected group of people that can and must be helped by means of missions with the destitute to experience growing degrees of SHALOM. Part of this would include a drive to re-integrate the destitute into society as functioning members of that society.


This is undertaken through developing a proposed model that strives to empower destitute people in a variety of ways, using a variety of “movements” and strategies. A model such as this is necessary in the light of the seeming inability of helpers (including churches, CBO’s and other non-religious organizations), to come to grips with the complex problem of destitution in our country, and in Tshwane specifically. This perceived inability is addressed by exploring the problem of destitution, in the process seeking a better understanding of a complex problem, followed by considering the responsibility of the church as missiological agent of social healing and ministry.

Missiologically, SHALOM is perceived as the aim/ goal of missions with the destitute, where SHALOM refers to wellbeing, justice, relational, completeness, whole-being, peace, etc.

The model is intended to serve as a viable strategy in the arsenal of churches that take the missiological call towards social healing seriously, and to provide a comprehensive, holistic approach when dealing with the destitute.

It is postulated that the church, more than any other organization, should enjoy an advantage when it comes to social ministry, because of two reasons, namely (1) a strong missiological point of departure as a motivation to be involved in social ministry, where we see the church as a partner in the Missio Dei, and (2) a strong missiological aim, namely SHALOM, which transcends mere charity or welfare, but seeks to empower people holistically.

Key Terms

Contextualizing missions to the destitute

Continuum of empowering care

Destitute

Empower


Helpers

Internal and external factors (contributing to destitution)

Missions with…

Public church

SHALOM

Social ministry, social healing



Systemic approach

Acknowledgements

I am indebted to both my study leaders for their input into my life. You have changed my theology, my way of doing missions, and eventually also my convictions. Words cannot express the depth of my gratitude for this.
I owe a huge debt of gratitude to my wife – you sacrificed greatly in terms of time, and your personal efforts to support me in doing this study made a world of difference. You are truly a partner to walk the river with.
My mother – you encouraged me greatly every time I wanted to quit.
My children Ruvon and Shian – you are still very young, but you unknowingly sacrificed time with me so that I could study
To God, who works in us to will and to act according to His good purpose. Ultimately this study happened because the love of God empowered me, may my life manifest a strive to love God in the same way.
Johan Roux (2007)

Table of Contents



Summary




4

Acknowledgements




6

Table of Contents




7










Chapter 1 – Introduction







  1. My journey with destitute people – becoming aware…




17

  1. The purpose of this study – some personal thoughts




19

  1. Posing the problem




23

  1. Hypotheses




25

  1. Research questions




26

  1. Method of research




27

    1. A contextual theological approach




28

    1. Specific Contextualization




30

    1. Using the praxis cycle




30

6.3.1. Insertion




31

6.3.2. Analysis




31

6.3.3. Reflection




31

6.3.4. Planning (Pastoral Planning for action




32

    1. An interdisciplinary study




32

  1. Terminology – a closer look at the theme




33

    1. “Empowering”




33

    1. Destitute




35

    1. People




36

    1. Towards




37

    1. SHALOM




37

  1. Introduction to thesis




38

  1. Sources




42










Chapter 2 – Why Are People Destitute?







  1. Introduction




43

  1. Exploring causes for destitution




44

    1. Morse: Destitution as the result of different categories of causal factors




44

    1. Lewis: Destitution as the result of “The culture of poverty”




47

    1. Destitution as the result of a dysfunctional “economic ethos”




49

    1. Destitution as the result of personal irresponsibility




50

    1. Christian: Destitution as the result of a complex framework of disempowerment




50

    1. Chambers: Destitution as the result of the “Poverty Trap”




52

    1. Theories about destitution as the result of marginalization




52

  1. Making sense of the different viewpoints and theories about the causes of destitution



54


    1. Looking deeper than just immediate needs for the causes of destitution



54


    1. The causes of destitution as a two-sided coin




54

    1. A model of possible causes for destitution




57

  1. Exploring the “Inside - out” issues




60

    1. Physical problems




60

      1. Substance abuse and addictions




61

      1. Poor physical health and illness




61

      1. Mental illness




63

      1. Physical handicaps




63

    1. Emotional problems




63

      1. Negative childhood experiences or dysfunctional family experiences



64


      1. Abuse and domestic violence




64

      1. Trauma




66

      1. Overwhelming negative feelings




67

      1. Lack of belonging/ connectedness




67

      1. Continued rejection by people and systems (leading to distrust and self-ostracization



68


    1. Personal development problems




68

      1. Lack of education, knowledge and skills




69

      1. Lack of access to knowledge and information




70

      1. Lack of meaning and identity




70

      1. Lack of access to culture (including cultural values)




71

      1. Wrong worldview




72

      1. Generational carry over of “culture of poverty” tendencies




73

      1. Adaptation to life on the streets




73

    1. Spiritual problems




73

      1. Spiritual poverty




73

      1. Personal sin and spiritual blindness




74

  1. Exploring “Outside – in” issues




74

    1. Cultural problems




74

      1. Racism, racial discrimination and racial prejudices (Apartheid)




74

      1. Public apathy




75

      1. Gender inequality




76

    1. Institutional problems




77

      1. State failure




77

      1. Lack of appropriate social services and assistance




78

      1. Difficulty accessing systems of help




79

    1. Global society problems




80

      1. Poverty




80

      1. Dysfunctional economic ethos




83

      1. Famine and hunger




85

      1. Disasters




85

      1. Urbanization




85

    1. Micro-societal problems




87

      1. Poverty in SA




87

      1. Lack of affordable housing




91

      1. Lack of employment




93

      1. Urban redevelopment policies and displacement




95

      1. Violence and crime




96

      1. Fertility rates, mortality rates




97

      1. Illegal immigration




98

        1. Employment problems




98

        1. Depressing effect on wages




99

        1. Escalating crime




99

        1. Overloading of education, health, housing and pension services



99


        1. Escalating Government expenditure




100

  1. Conclusion




100










Chapter 3 – Missions with the Destitute: Theological Perspectives







  1. Introduction




102

  1. Missions with the destitute flow from the Missio Dei




105

    1. Mission as “Church with others”




108

    1. Mission as mediating comprehensive salvation




109

    1. Mission as the quest for justice




110

    1. Mission as evangelism




111

    1. Mission as liberation




113

    1. Mission as hope in action




115

    1. Missions as prophetic dialogue




116

  1. Missions with the destitute as contextual mission




117

    1. Understanding different ways of doing contextual theology with the destitute



119


    1. Applying these models towards contectualizing missions with the destitute



121


Kataloq: 2015
2015 -> Dərs vəsaiti, Bakı, Çaşoğlu -2003 A. M. Qafarov Standartlaşdırmanın əsasları
2015 -> Azərbaycan Respublikası Kənd Təsərrüfatı Nazirliyi Azərbaycan Respublikası Təhsil Nazirliyi Azərbaycan Dövlət Aqrar Universiteti
2015 -> AZƏrbaycan əraziSİNDƏ İBTİDAİ İcma quruluşU
2015 -> АзярбайжАН РЕСПУБЛИКАСЫ ТЯЩСИЛ НАЗИРЛИЙИ азярбайжан дювлят игтисад университети
2015 -> Mühazirə Mövzu: Sertifikasiyanın mahiyyəti və məzmunu. Plan əsas terminlər və anlayışlar
2015 -> Mühazirəçi: T. E. N., Prof. İ. M.Əliyev FƏNN: avtomatikanin əsaslari mühazirə 15
2015 -> Ali təhsil müəssisəsinin Nümunəvi Nizamnaməsi"nin və "Azərbaycan Respublikası Nazirlər Kabinetinin dəyişiklik edilmiş bəzi qərarlarının siyahısı"nın təsdiq edilməsi haqqında Azərbaycan Respublikasının Nazirlər Kabinetinin Qərarı
2015 -> AZƏrbaycan respublikasi təHSİl naziRLİYİ azərbaycan döVLƏT İQTİsad universiteti
2015 -> Mühazirəçi: T. E. N., Prof. İ. M.Əliyev FƏNN: avtomatikanin əsaslari mühazirə 22 MÖvzu: telemexanik sistemləR

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