Empowering destitute people towards transforming communities



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    1. Missions in the context of a Biblical understanding of poverty




122

3.3.1. Poverty as the result of moral lassitude




123

3.3.2. Poverty as the result of social factors




123

3.3.3. Voluntary Poverty




124

3.3.4. Biblical perspectives on our responsibility to the poor




125

3.3.5. Conclusion




128

  1. Missions with the destitute bring about conversion




129

    1. Conversion must be both personal and corporate




130

    1. Conversion should be reciprocal




131

    1. Conversion should be an ongoing process




133

  1. Missions with the destitute discover SHALOM




134

    1. Towards an understanding of SHALOM




134

    1. Conclusion




137

  1. Missions with the destitute require a public church




139

    1. The place of the church in God’s mission




141

    1. Jesus and His meaning in the public church (Christology)




144

    1. The nature of the public church (ecclesiology)




145

      1. A public church reveals SHALOM and comprehensive salvation




146

      1. A public church invites people into a caring community




146

      1. The public church would be the “church of the poor” with the poor




147

      1. A public church respects and engages the context in which it functions




148

    1. The public church’s view of the future (eschatology)




149

    1. Comprehensive salvation in the public church




150

    1. The value of people in the public church (anthropology)




152

    1. The value of culture in the public church




153

  1. Conclusion




154










Chapter 4 – Towards Understanding Destitute People







  1. Introduction




156

  1. The destitute are people…




157

  1. The destitute are people experiencing destitution




158

    1. Dimensions of powerlessness and ill-being (as opposed to SHALOM/ Wellbeing)



162


      1. Livelihoods and assets: precarious, seasonal, inadequate.




163

      1. Places of the poor: isolated, risky, unserviced and stigmatized




164

      1. The body: hungry, exhausted, sick and in poor appearance




164

      1. Gender relations: troubled and unequal




164

      1. Social relations: discriminating and isolating




165

      1. Security: lack of protection and of peace of mind




165

      1. Behaviours: disregard and abuse by those more powerful




166

      1. Institutions: disempowering and excluding




166

      1. Organizations of the poor: weak and disconnected




166

      1. Capabilities: lack of information, education, skills and confidence.



166


    1. The challenge of powerlessness to missions with the destitute




167

  1. The destitute are people experiencing needs




168

    1. Maslow and beyond – ideas about human motivation and needs




169

    1. Principles in meeting the needs of the destitute




174

  1. The destitute are people with strengths and assets




176

    1. Why use a “strength based” approach?




176

    1. What strengths?




179

    1. Dealing with common misconceptions about strength based approaches



179


      1. If we talk about strengths, we must ignore needs




179

      1. We’ll be manipulated and duped by clients




180

      1. We’ll be wasting the expertise we’ve accumulated in learning what is wrong with people



180


      1. We’ll be seen as not holding clients accountable for their behaviour



180


    1. Conclusion




180

  1. The destitute are people trying to protect their own fragile dignity




181

    1. What is dignity?




181

    1. Understanding the ways in which destitute people try to protect their dignity



185


      1. Denial as a means of distancing




186

      1. Minimizing the situation




187

      1. Isolating the present




188

      1. “Class” distancing




188

      1. “Scapegoating” the destitute




190

      1. Conclusion




191

    1. “Missions with the destitute” means restoring human dignity




192

      1. Autonomy




192

      1. Predictability




192

      1. Self-expression




192

      1. Social solidarity




192

      1. Conclusion




192

  1. The destitute are people experiencing God




193

    1. Thembi’s story




194

    1. Lessons learned from the destitute in Popup




196

      1. Vague religiosity




197

      1. God as judge




198

      1. God as protector




199

      1. God as comforter




201

      1. God as justifier




203

      1. Lessons learned from the spiritual experiences of the destitute




206

  1. Conclusion




207










Chapter 5 – Towards a Model of Missions with the Destitute: Care with Others







  1. Introduction




209

  1. Why a model?




209

  1. Underlying principles for a model of missions with the destitute




211

    1. It must include continuous reflection and evaluation…




213

    1. It must be comprehensive and holistic…




213

    1. It must empower people




214

    1. It must enable different helpers to take a hand…




216

    1. It must allow helpers to integrate sharing faith and meeting social needs



217


      1. Explicit evangelism is not a part of the church’s outreach mission




218

      1. Evangelism is valued and practised, but not in the context of social ministry



218


      1. Little conventional social ministry is present




219

      1. No significant social action or evangelism




219

      1. Evangelism and social ministry are practised




219

      1. Conclusion




219

  1. The model




220

    1. Missionary action of three kinds




220

      1. Missionary action to prevent people from becoming destitute




220

      1. Missionary action to heal destitute people




220

      1. Missionary action to stop people from becoming destitute again




220

    1. Missionary action…




221

    1. Missions “with” the destitute




221

    1. Growth to discover and experience SHALOM more and more




221

    1. Empowerment towards SHALOM




222

    1. Empowerment from both the inside-out, and the outside-in




223

    1. Formal and informal engagement of destitute people




225

    1. Within the sphere of “God at work with people”




227

    1. Naming the model




228

  1. Conclusion




229










Chapter 6 – Missions with the Destitute from the “Inside-out”







  1. Introduction




231

  1. “Inside-out” missions as the fostering of social ties




231

    1. Destitution often means social isolation




232

    1. Destitute people also have social ties




233

    1. Conclusion




234

  1. “Inside-out” missions as outreach and engagement




235

    1. Outreach as strategy to connect helpers with destitute people




236

    1. Values and principles that should govern outreach




237

    1. The role of phasing in outreach and engagement




238

    1. Engagement as follow-up strategy to empower destitute people




239

      1. Stage 1 - Setting the stage




240

      1. Stage 2 - Initial engagement tactics




240

      1. Stage 3 – Ongoing engagement tactics




240

      1. Stage 4 - Proceeding with the outreach/maintaining the relationship




240

      1. Strategies towards respectful engagement




241

  1. “Inside-out” missions that empower people to become self motivated to change



241


    1. Understanding what motivates people




242

    1. Understanding ways to motivate people




245

      1. From external motivation to intrinsic motivation: Helping people to become self motivated.



245


      1. Using sources of intrinsic motivation towards self motivation




246

        1. Commitment to an important cause




246

        1. Feeling part of a valued group




247

        1. Developing ownership in something really worthwhile




248

        1. Having great expectations




248

      1. Using valued strategies to help people become motivated




248

        1. Generate and sustain hope




248

        1. Focus on simple short term goals




248

        1. Encourage creativity and risk-taking




249

        1. Keep everyone involved




249

        1. Give time to people




249

        1. Listen and learn




249

      1. Conclusion




249

  1. “Inside-out” missions as the healing of people’s inner pictures




250

    1. Love, position and worth




251

    1. Fear, guilty, worthless




251

    1. Aggressive, arrogant and self-exalted




252

  1. “Inside-out” missions as the development of new beliefs




253

  1. “Inside-out” missions as “giving voice” to individual destitute people




255

    1. Why does “consumer involvement” matter so much?




257

    1. Consumers as staff




258

    1. Consumer-run programmes and organizations




261

    1. Conclusion




262

  1. Fostering helpers’ competencies in order to promote empowering “inside-out” missions



263


    1. Building competency on strong values




263

      1. Pragmatism – whatever is ethical and works




264

      1. Competence – adding value




264

      1. Respect – valuing diversity and individuality




265

        1. Understand and value diversity




265

        1. Understanding and valuing the individual




265

      1. Genuineness – Beyond professionalism and phoniness




266

      1. Client self-responsibility: Non-patronizing empowerment




266

    1. Building competency on learned skills




266

    1. Improving competency by dealing with biases




268

      1. Conditioning




268

      1. The desire to dominate




268

      1. Distance




269

      1. Denial




269

    1. Greater competency for all helpers engaging the destitute




269

  1. Conclusion




269










Chapter 7 - Missions with the Destitute from the “Outside-in”







  1. Introduction




271

  1. Some principles for missions from the “outside-in”




273

    1. Missions from the “outside-in” must reconnect destitute people




273

    1. Missions from the “outside-in” must promote advocacy




275

    1. Missions from the “outside-in” must be holistic and comprehensive




275

    1. Missions from the “outside-in” must happen along a continuum of care




275

    1. Missions from the “outside-in” must be strength based




276

    1. Missions from the “outside-in” must generate hope for a better future, and then realize it.




276

    1. “Outside-in” missions must promote the means to “responsible well -being”



276


    1. “Outside-in” missions must help in ways that do no harm.




277

    1. “Outside-in” missions must combat marginalization by enlarging social power



278


  1. “Outside-in” missions as the provision of social services




280

    1. “Outside-in” missions as the connecting of destitute people to clinical services



280


      1. Problems with health care for destitute people




280

      1. What are the health problems of destitute people?




281

      1. Way to overcome “access barriers” to health services




283

        1. By making it easier to get to service delivery locations




284

        1. By scheduling services at times that would be most convenient for destitute people



284


        1. By helping with financial barriers to services




284

        1. By improving “cultural competence”




284

        1. By dealing positively with “disruptive behaviour”




285

        1. By using “multidisciplinary” teams




285

        1. Conclusion




285

    1. “Outside-in” missions as the fostering of residential stability




286

      1. Fostering residential stability requires the availability of different housing options



287


        1. Supportive housing – housing combined with services




287

        1. Transitional housing




288

        1. Towards various types of permanent housing




289

      1. Conclusion




289

    1. Outside-in missions as reconnecting people to employment




290

      1. We need a comprehensive approach, involving housing and services



292


      1. Job training and development efforts have shown mixed results



292


      1. Supported employment




293

      1. Developing affirmative businesses and in-house jobs offer market alternatives



293


      1. Job turnover is common, and even after obtaining jobs, many people remain economically vulnerable



294


    1. CTI as a social services strategy to be used as part of “outside-in” missions



294


  1. “Outside-in” missions as the empowerment of communities




296

    1. “Development” vs. “livelihoods”




297

    1. Principles for community empowerment




299

      1. Community empowerment must aim to improve livelihoods




299

      1. Community empowerment must be in line with the people of the community



300


      1. Community empowerment must promote equity and justice




300

      1. Community empowerment must handle resistance




300

      1. Community empowerment must be driven from the bottom up




300

      1. Community empowerment must foster participation




302

      1. Community empowerment must promote sustainable livelihoods




302

      1. Community empowerment must be faith based




303

      1. Community empowerment must be comprehensive




304

      1. Community empowerment must be asset based




305

        1. What assets should helpers look for?




306

          1. Human capital




306

          1. Social capital




307

          1. Natural capital




307

          1. Physical capital




307

          1. Financial capital




307

          1. Spiritual capital




308

          1. Visionary capital




308

        1. Strategies to promote asset based community empowerment



308


          1. Discover assets…




308

            1. Through outreach and engagement




308

            1. Through the collecting of stories




309

          1. Map assets…




309

            1. Identify associations (relatedness)




309

            1. Identify individual gifts, skills, and capacities



310


            1. Identify the assets of local institutions




310

            1. Identify physical assets and natural resources




310

            1. Mapping the local economy




310

            1. Building and strengthening partnerships among local assets for mutually beneficial problem solving within the community




310


          1. Mobilize assets…




311

            1. By organizing a core group




311

            1. By convening as broadly representative a group as possible to build a community vision and plan




311


            1. By mobilizing assets for community development



312


      1. Community empowerment must combat marginalization



313


    1. Community empowerment through caring for the environment




313

  1. Conclusion




315










Chapter 8 – The Way Forward







  1. Introduction




316

  1. Understand the complexity of the problems faced by destitute people




316

  1. Understand the obligation upon us as helpers




318

  1. Grow in understanding of destitute people




319

  1. Doing missions with the destitute by creating a continuum of empowering care



321


  1. Conclusion




327










Bibliography




328

Chapter 1 – Introduction

Kataloq: 2015
2015 -> Dərs vəsaiti, Bakı, Çaşoğlu -2003 A. M. Qafarov Standartlaşdırmanın əsasları
2015 -> Azərbaycan Respublikası Kənd Təsərrüfatı Nazirliyi Azərbaycan Respublikası Təhsil Nazirliyi Azərbaycan Dövlət Aqrar Universiteti
2015 -> AZƏrbaycan əraziSİNDƏ İBTİDAİ İcma quruluşU
2015 -> АзярбайжАН РЕСПУБЛИКАСЫ ТЯЩСИЛ НАЗИРЛИЙИ азярбайжан дювлят игтисад университети
2015 -> Mühazirə Mövzu: Sertifikasiyanın mahiyyəti və məzmunu. Plan əsas terminlər və anlayışlar
2015 -> Mühazirəçi: T. E. N., Prof. İ. M.Əliyev FƏNN: avtomatikanin əsaslari mühazirə 15
2015 -> Ali təhsil müəssisəsinin Nümunəvi Nizamnaməsi"nin və "Azərbaycan Respublikası Nazirlər Kabinetinin dəyişiklik edilmiş bəzi qərarlarının siyahısı"nın təsdiq edilməsi haqqında Azərbaycan Respublikasının Nazirlər Kabinetinin Qərarı
2015 -> AZƏrbaycan respublikasi təHSİl naziRLİYİ azərbaycan döVLƏT İQTİsad universiteti
2015 -> Mühazirəçi: T. E. N., Prof. İ. M.Əliyev FƏNN: avtomatikanin əsaslari mühazirə 22 MÖvzu: telemexanik sistemləR

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