Environmental Sustainability Studies


THEME 5: South African environmental politics



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THEME 5: South African environmental politics

In this section of the module we turn our attention to South Africa exclusively. We apply what we have learned about environmental politics generally to South Africa specifically and ask the following critical questions:




  1. What is the nature of politics in South Africa?

  2. Is the environment a policy problem in SA? Identify environmental policy issues and discuss nuclear power as an environmental policy issue in particular.

  3. Is there support for green political thought in SA?

  4. Is there an environmental movement in SA? Identify and classify environmental groups in SA

These questions will be addressed in the lectures through interactive discussions, guest lectures, audio-visual material and articles that will be supplied on ikamva.




Endnotes:

1 C.P. Loubser, (ed.), Environmental Education: Some South African Perspectives (Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers, 2011), p. 1.

2 Sources used for the paragraphs on the Industrial Revolution:

- Academic Kids Encyclopedia: the Scientific Revolution; the Digital Revolution

- Britannica Online Encyclopædia: the Neolithic Revolution; the Scientific Revolution

- Joseph A. Montagna, “The Industrial Revolution” URL:



http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1981/2/81.02.06.x.html, Accessed: 15.07.2012

- Howard Margolis, It Started With Copernicus: How Turning the World Inside Out Led to the Scientific



Revolution (Martinsburg, McGraw-Hill: 2002).

- Wikipedia: the Neolithic Revolution; the Industrial Revolution; the Digital Revolution



3 Desta Mebratu, ‘Sustainability and sustainable development: Historical and conceptual review’, Environmental Impact Assessment Review, Vol. 18, Issue 6, 1998, pp. 493–520, p. 495

4 UN-HABITAT, State of the World’s Cities 2012/2013, p. 28

5 UN-HABITAT, State of the World’s Cities 2008/2009: Harmonious Cities (London: Earthscan, 2008), p. x

6 UN-HABITAT, State of the World’s Cities 2012/2013, p. 28

7 UN-HABITAT, State of the World’s Cities 2008/2009, p. xi

8 Martin Medina, ‘Waste picker cooperatives in developing countries’, paper prepared for WIEGO/Cornell/SEWA Conference on Membership-based Organizations of the Poor, Ahmedabad, India (2005), p. 1

9 UN-HABITAT, State of the World’s Cities 2012/2013, p. 78

10 Martin Medina, ‘Waste picker cooperatives in developing countries’, p. 2

11 UN-HABITAT, State of the World’s Cities 2012/2013, p. 78

12 Ibid.

13 Ibid., p. 250

14 Timothy Doyle and Doug McEachern, Environment and Politics (Routledge Introductions to Environment Series), (London and New York: Routledge, 1998), pp. 12-13

15 Ibid. p. 19

16 Ibid. p. 29

17 David Held, Models of Democracy, (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2006), p. 2

18 Neil Carter, The Politics of the Environment. Ideas, Activism, Policy, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), p. 3

19 Hallowes and Munnik, Wasting the Nation, p. 33

20 Ibid., p. 49

21 Ibid.

22 Ibid.

23 Polokwane Declaration

24 Hallowes and Munnik, Wasting the Nation, p. 52

25 Constitution of the Republic of South Africa of 1996

26 Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA), A user friendly guide to the National Environmental Management: Waste Act, 2008, (Pretoria: DEA Pollution & Waste Management, 2011), p. 8

27 Hallowes and Munnik, Wasting the Nation, p. 71

28 DEA, A user friendly guide to NEMWA, p. 8

29 Ibid., p. 11

30 DEA, Baseline Report, p. 1

31 DEA, A user friendly guide to NEMWA, p. 18

32 DEA, Baseline Report, p. 1f.

33 DEA, National Waste Information Baseline Report, p. iii

34 Ibid.

35 Urban Earth, South African Waste Snapshot 2013, p. 8

36 A Sustainable Energy Outlook for South Africa, p. 8

37 Jaques Ellul, ‘Technology and Democracy’, in: Winner, Langdon (ed.), Democracy in a Technological Society (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992), pp. 35-50, here: p. 37

38 Robyn Eckersley, ‘Green Theory’, in: Dunne, Tim / Kurki, Milja / Smith, Steve, International Relations Theories. Discipline and Diversity, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010), pp. 247-265, here: p. 250f.

39 Andrew Heywood, Political Ideologies: An Introduction (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), p. 266

40 Ibid., p. 266f.

41 Andrew Dobson, Green Political Thought, 3rd ed. (London: Routledge, 2000), p. 2

42 cf. Dobson, Green Political Thought

43 Heywood, Political Ideologies, p. 271

44 Ibid., p. 267

45 Ibid., p. 268

46 Ibid.

47 Ibid., p. 269

48 Ibid., p. 271

49 Ibid., p. 275

50 Ibid., p. 276

51 Ibid., p. 277

52 Ibid., p. 279

53 Ibid., p. 279ff.

54 Ibid., p. 282

55 Ibid.

56 The richest national environmental organisations in the USA have been called the ‘Big Ten’ or the ‘Dirty Dozen’;

see Doyle and McEachern, Environment and Politics (London and New York: Routledge, 1998), p. 93



57 Leslie Paul Thiele, “Environmental Movements: The History of the Environmental Movement, Public Support and Prospects for the Future, nongovernmental organizations.”

URL: http://www.libraryindex.com/pages/3265/Environmental-Movements.html

Accessed: 14.07.2011


58 Doyle and McEachern, Environment and Politics (London and New York: Routledge, 1998), p. 66

59 Doyle and McEachern, Environment and Politics (London and New York: Routledge, 1998), p. 115

60 Ibid., p. 112

61 Wolfgang Roth, “Grüne in Deutschland: Republik mit Grünstich”, in: Sueddeutsche Zeitung (09.01.2010).

URL: http://www.sueddeutsche.de/politik/378/499653/text/9/, Accessed: 09.01.2010



62 Stefan Schultz, “Boom bei Wind und Solar: Ökostrom verdrängt Atomenergie in Rekordzeit”, in: Spiegel Online (09.01.2010).

URL: http://www.spiegel.de/wirtschaft/soziales/0,1518,690440,00.html, Accessed: 23.04.2010



63 Global Greens: Green Parties Worldwide

URL: http://www.greens.org/, Accessed: 25.04.2010



64 John Hickman and Sarah Bartlett, “Global Tragedy of the Commons at COP 6”, in: Synthesis/Regeneration, Vol. 24, 2001.

URL: http://www.greens.org/s-r/24/24-26.html, Accessed: 19.02.2011



65 p. 245

66 Carter, The Politics of the Environment, p. 241

67 p. 244f.

68 Unknown author, “A brief history of sustainable development” (2002).

69 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: Background and Facts

URL: http://unfccc.int/essential_background/items/2877.php and http://unfccc.int/press/fact_sheets/items/4978.php

Accessed: 20.02.2011


70 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: Kyoto Protocol

URL: http://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/items/2830.php, Accessed: 03.03.2011



71 Ibid.
Bibliography:


  • Carter, Neil, The Politics of the Environment. Ideas, Activism, Policy, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007).

  • Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA), A user friendly guide to the National Environmental Management: Waste Act, 2008, (Pretoria: DEA Pollution & Waste Management, 2011).

  • Department of Environmental Affairs, National Waste Information Baseline Report, (Pretoria: Department of Environmental Affairs, 2012).

URL: http://www.sawic.org.za/documents/1732.pdf, Accessed: 21.06.2013

  • Dobson, Andrew, Green Political Thought, 3rd ed. (London: Routledge, 2000).

  • Doyle, Timothy and McEachern, Doug, Environment and Politics (Routledge Introductions to Environment Series), (London and New York: Routledge, 1998).

  • Ellul, Jaques, ‘Technology and Democracy’, in: Winner, Langdon (ed.), Democracy in a Technological Society (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992), pp. 35-50.

  • Fromm, Erich The Art of Loving (New York: Harper & Row, 1956).

  • Eckersley, Robyn, ‘Green Theory’, in: Dunne, Tim / Kurki, Milja / Smith, Steve, International Relations Theories. Discipline and Diversity, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010), pp. 247-265.

  • Eckersley, Robyn, The Green State: Rethinking Democracy and Sovereignty, (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2004).

  • GreenFacts Glossary, URL: http://www.greenfacts.org/glossary/index.htm

  • Hallowes, David and Munnik, Victor, Wasting the Nation: Making trash of people and places (Pietermaritzburg: groundWork, 2008).

  • Held, David, Models of Democracy, (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2006).

  • Heywood, Andrew, Political Ideologies: An Introduction (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003).

  • LaFerrière, Eric and Stoett, Peter J., International Relations Theory and Ecological Thought: Towards a Synthesis, (London: Routledge, 1999).

  • Loubser, C.P. (ed.), Environmental Education: Some South African Perspectives (Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers, 2011).

  • Mebratu, Desta, ‘Sustainability and sustainable development: Historical and conceptual review’, Environmental Impact Assessment Review, Vol. 18, Issue 6, 1998, pp. 493–520.

  • Medina, Martin, ‘Waste picker cooperatives in developing countries’, paper prepared for WIEGO/Cornell/SEWA Conference on Membership-based Organizations of the Poor, Ahmedabad, India (2005).

  • Thiele, Leslie Paul, “Environmental Movements: The History of the Environmental Movement, Public Support and Prospects for the Future, nongovernmental organizations.”

URL: http://www.libraryindex.com/pages/3265/Environmental-Movements.html

Accessed: 14.07.2011



  • UN-HABITAT, State of the World’s Cities 2008/2009: Harmonious Cities (London: Earthscan, 2008).

  • UN-HABITAT, State of the World’s Cities 2012/2013: Prosperity of Cities (Nairobi: UN-HABITAT, 2012).

  • Unknown author, “A brief history of sustainable development” (2002).






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