Ethnic Militias and Sub-Nationalism in Nigeria: a comparative Study of massob and opc



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Conferences Papers

Anifowose, Remi (2001) Urban Violence in Nigeria: The Case of the Oodua People’s Congress (OPC0 Militia” Being a papper presented at the Faculty of Social Science Conference on ‘Industrisation Urbanization and Development in Nigeria,1950-1999 and Beyond’ University of Lagos NN15-16.


Bach, Daniel (2004) “Nigeria: Towards a Country without a state?” paper presented at the Conference on Nigeria: Maximizing Pro-poor Growth; Regenerating Socio-economic Database organised by overseas Development Institute & Nigeria Economic Summit Group London June 16-17.
Jinadu, Adele (2004) “Explaining and Managing Ethnic Conflict in Africa: Towards A Cultural Theory of Democracy” Uppsala University Forum for International & Area Studies Lecture February 5.
Kaur, Sarabjit (2002) “Challenges of Democratic Sustenance in Nigeria” A paper presented at the Center for Democracy and Development Lagos July 8 under the auspices of the South-South Exchange Program.
Obi, Cyril (2004) “Nigeria Democracy on trial” paper presented at a seminar organised by the Swedish Development Forum. Stockholm September 14.
Obianyo, Nkolika (2007) “Citizenship and Ethnic Militia Politics in Nigeria-Marginalization or Identity Question? The Case of MASSOB”. Paper presented at the 3rd Global Conference on Pluralism, Inclusion and Citizenship at Salzburg, Austria, November 18-19.
Ojeifa Innocent A. (2004) “The Nigerian State and the Niger Delta Question” A paper for the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association of Third World Studies,Americus Georgia USA.
Oyediran, Oyeleye (1989) “Background to Nationalism: Thirty Years After” paper presented at James Smart Coleman Memorial Lecture University of California May 11.
Oyelaran, Olasope (1988) “Obafemi Awolowo, the end of an era?” Selected papers from the National Conference on Obafemi Awolowo, the end of an era? Held at OAU, Ile-Ife from 4th to 8th October, 1987 Ile-Ife: OAU Press.

Periodicals

Adeyemo, Wola (2004) “The Igbo Dilemma” Tell Magazine No41 October 11.p.16-22.

Adeyemo, Wola (2004) “Biafra or Presidency: What Do Igbos Want” Tell Magazine No 41, October 11p.16-22.
Ajanaku, Idowu (2004) “Police Summon Faseun,Adams over OPC clash” The Guardian,March 9.
Ani, Lawrence (2010) “After the War,Is the Reintegration Complete?” Thisday Online September 9. Available at http://www.thisdayonline.com
Awodiya, Muyiwa (2006) “The Challenge of Ethnic Nationalism” in Vanguard Newspaper Online, January 25. Available at http://www.vanguardngr.com.
CWIS (2006) “2006: Open International Support for Biafra has started, CWIS (Centre for World Indigenous Studies) leads the way”. May 10.

Emmanuel, Hosiah (2006) “The Niger Delta Question: Incubating the future of Suicide Bombers of Nigeria”. Available at http://www.nigerworld.com/article/2006/jan/243.htm.


Huntington, Samuel (2001) “The Age of Muslim Wars”, Newsweek December 17 pp 42-48.

Ige, Ise-Oluwa “Uwazurike throws Abuja Court into Confusion” in Saturday Vanguard Online May 6. Available at http://www.vanguardonline.com.


Jason, Pini (2006) “Niger Delta: From Military to Insurgency” Vanguard, Friday January 27.

Madunagu, Edwin (2000) “Further Reflections on Armed Politics” The Guardian Newspapers January 13.


Nkwopara, Chidi (2007) “MASSOB Strike hits Onitsha, Owerri” VanguardOnline Tuesday, May 15.Available at http://www.vanguardngr.com.
Obinor Francis & Oghogho Obayuwana (2006) ‘I’ M Good for Nothing” Guardian Online, March 30. Available at http://www.ngrguardiannews.com.
Okoli, Anayo (2007) “MASSOB appoints Ohiagu, new leader” in Vanguard Online Tuesday February 6. Available at http://www.vanguardngr.com.
Okoli, Anayo & Timitota Onoyume (2007) “Two expartriates,one Nigerian abducted in Nnewi”. Vanguard Online March 19. available at http://www/vanguardonline.com.
Omole, Remi (2005) “OPC,police besiege hotel over workers protest”. Nigerian Tribune,March 24.
Orivri, Hope A (2009) “Congo Integrate rebels into army” Nigerian Compass Online January 3. Available at http://www.compassnewspaper.com/NC/index.php.
Osezua, Theophilus (1999) Nigeria-die Wahrheit der Maske der Demokratie. Available at http://www.materialien.org/worldwide/africa/nigeria.html.
Osuji,Goddy(2007) “Biafra bombs recovered,as police foil attack” in Daily Sun South East Report Wednessday 27 February.p.35.
Ramsome-Kuti, Beko (1999) “The Niger Delta Crisis and Nigeria’s Future” in Nigeria die wahrheit unter de maske der Demokratie. Available at http://www.materialism.org/worldwide/africa/nigera.html.
Udenwa, Achike (2005) “The Future of Nigeria’s Federalism” Politics in Vanguard Online December 15. Available at http://www.vanguardngr.com.
Unese, Amby (2007) “Uwazurike is still our leader-MASSOB” in Thisday Online February 16. Available at http://www.thisdayonline.com.
Ukpakareports (2007) “Ralph Uwazuzike talks with Ukpakareports” Ukpakareports October 29. Available at http://www.ukpakareports.com.
Uwazurike, Ralph (2005) “Biafra: SSS told me Nigeria will break up in 2006” exclusive Interview in Insider Weekly No37 September 19 p.17-23.
VOBI (2006) News Analysis on Voice of Biafra International Washington DC January 27
Research Reports

Adebanwi, Wale (2002) “The Carpenters revolt: youth identity and the Democratic paradox in Nigeria” Report on the African Youth in Global Age Felowship for the Social Science Research Council New York.


Agbu, Osita (2004) Ethnic Militia and the threat to Democracy in Post-Transition Nigeria. Nordiska Afrikainstutet Research Report No127 Uppsala.
Alemika,Etannibi E. & Innocent C. Chukwuma(2005) Criminal Victimization and Fear of Crime in Lagos Metropolis,Nigeria. CLEEN Foundation Monograph Series. Lagos: CLEEN Foundation.
Barro, Robert (1999) “Inequality, Growth and Investment”. NBER Working Papers 7038. National Bureau of Economic Research.
Chabal Patrick and Jean-Pascal.Daloz (1999) “Africa Works: Disorder As Political Instrument”. International African Institute & James Currey.
CDC (1997) Report of the Constitutional Drafting Committee. Lagos FGN.

Collier Paul and Anke Hoeffler (1998) On the Economic Causes of Civil War, Oxford Economic Papers.


Documentos Y. 1979-1981 18 Vols. Sans Sebastian: Hordago.

Fearon, James D. & David D. Laitin (2006) Nigeria: Random Narrative on Civil War Onset. Stanford University.


Freedon House (2007) Freedom in the World,Nigeria Country Report. Washington DC: Freedom House Inc.
Guichaoua Yvan (2005) “The Making of an Ethnic Militia. The Oodua People’s Congress in Nigeria”. Oxford: Centre for Research in Inequality, Human Security and Ethnicity (CRISE).
Guichaoua, Yvan (2006) “Why do Youths Join Ethnic Militias? A Survey of the Oodua People’s Congress in South-western Nigeria”. Oxford: CRISE.
Guichaoua, Yvan (2007) “Who Joins Ethnic Militia? A Survey of the Oodua People’s Congress in South Western Nigeria” Oxford: Centre for Research on Inequality, Human Security and Ethnicity, University of Oxford.
Human Right Watch (2003) “The Oodua People’s Congress: Fighting Violence with violence”. Washington: Human Rights Watch.

Human Right Watch (2005) “Youth, Poverty and Blood: The Lethal Legacy of West Africa’s Regional Warriors” Human Right Watch: Washington.


Humphrey, Macartan and Jeremy M. Weinstein (2004) “Demobilization and Reintegration: What the Fighters Say”. Center for Globalization and Sustainable Development working paper Number 46.
Ibrahim, Jibrin (2003)”Democratic Transition in Anglophone West Africa”. CODESRIA Monograph Series. Dakar: Council for the Development of Social Sciences.
International Crisis Group (2002) Indonesia Background: How The Jemaah Islamiyah Terrorist Network Operates: International Crisis Group Asia Report No.43. Jakarta: International Crisis Group.
International Crisis Group (2003) Jemaah Islamiyah In South East Asia: Damaged But Still Dangerous: International Crisis Group Asia Report No 63. Jakarta: International Crisis Group.
International Crisis Group (2007) Indonesia: Jemaah Islamiyah’s Current Status: International Crisis Group Asia Briefing No 63. Jakarta: International Crisis Group.
IDEA (2000) Democracy in Nigeria: Continuing Dialogue for Nation Building. Capacity Building Series Number 10, Stockholm: International IDEA.
National Population Commission (2000) “Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 1999” 23 Calverton, Maryland: National Population Commission and ORC/Macro.
PARAN (2006) “Casualty Toll on MASSOB between 2000–February 2006. A Compilation by member of People Against Right Abuses in Nigeria.
Ploughshare (2004) Armed Conflict Report: Nigeria (1990- First Combat death). Waterloo Ontario Project Ploughshare.
Sala-i-Martin Xavier & Arvind Subramanian (2003) Addressing the Natural Resource Curse: An Illustration from Nigeria. National Bureau of Economic Research working paper 9804.
Udeh, Chinedu (2002) “Ethnic Militias and Vigilante Phenomenon in South east Nigeria: A Study of the Bakassi Boys” Report of field survey on Ethnic Militias and Related Phenomena in Nigeria. Centre for Peace Research and Conflict.
Field Work

Adams, Gani (2008) Excerpts of interview with Chief Gani Adams conducted at the OPC Office in Mushin Lagos on September 22.


Anayo, Chukwudi (2007) Excerpts of an Interview conducted at the Freedom House Headquarters of MASSOB in Okwe near Okigwe Imo state September 20.
Faseun, Fredrick (2008) Excerpts from an interview with Dr Fredrick Faseun at his office at Century Hotel, Ago Palace Way, Okota-Lagos on September, 19.
Njemanze, Emmanuel (2007) Excerpts of an Interview with Eze Emmanuel Njemanze (The OzurigboV of Owerri) at his palace at Njemanze Street, Owerri on September 13.
Okoronkwo Emmanuel, (2007) Excerpts of Interview with Eze Okonkwo, Paramount ruler of Okwe near Okigwe at the Freedom House headquarters of MASSOB on September 6.
Onuegbu, Benjamin (2008) Excerpt of Interview with Mr Onuegbu at the MASSOB Southwest Regional Headquarters Ajedidun Street Ijeshatedo-Lagos, November 10.
Uwazurike,Ralph (2008) Excerpt of Interview with Chief Ralph Uwazurike at the Freedom House Headquarters of MASSOB at Okwe near Okigwe Imo State. August 27.

APPENDIX ONE

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

AD – Alliance for Democracy

APC – Arewa Peoples Congress

APP – All Peoples Party

ASUU – Academic Staff Union of Universities

BHR – Biafra Human Right

BIAMUBS – Biafra Must Be Society

BLF – Biafra Liberation Foundation

BLM – Biafra Liberation Mandate

CD – Campaign for Democracy

CDC – Constitutional Drafting Committee

COBLIG – Coalition for Biafra Liberation Groups

CODESRIA – Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa

CRISE – Centre for Research on Inequality, Human Security and Ethnicity

CWIS – Centre for World Indigenous Studies

EMU – Eastern Mandate Union

EPC – Eastern Peoples Congress

ESF – Eastern Solidarity Forum

ETA – Euzkadi Ta Askatasuna

FARC – Fuezzas Armadas Revolutionairies de Colombia

HFG – Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation

HRW – Human Rights Watch

MASSOB – Movement for the Actualization of Sovereign State of Biafra

MEND – Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta

MOSOP – Movement for the Survival of Ogoni People

MID – Movement for Igbo Defence

NADECO – National Democratic Coalition

NARTO – National Association of Road Transport Owners

NBA – Nigerian Bar Association

NDPVF – Niger Delta Peoples Volunteer Force

NLC – Nigerian Labour Congress

NLP – National Labour Party

NPC – National Population Commission

NRC – National Republican Convention

NUJ – Nigerian Union of Journalists

NYCOP – National Youth Council of Ogoni People

ICG – International Crisis Group

ING – Interim National Government

IRA – Irish Revolutionary Army

JACON – Joint Action Committee of Nigeria

JI - Jamaah Islamiya

LGA – Local Government Area

OSS – Oodua State Security

OPC – Oodua Peoples Congress

PA – Provisional Administrator

PARAN – People Against Right Abuses in Nigeria

PDP – Peoples Democratic Party

PFDIL – Popular Front for Development of Igboland

PKK – Kurdistan Nationalist Movement

PNV – Partido Nacionalista Vasco

SALW – Small and Light Weapons

SAP – Structural Adjustment Programme

SDP – Social Democratic Party

SNCSovereign National Conference

VAT – Value Added Tax

VOBI – Voice of Biafra International

3Rs – Reconciliation, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction

APPENDIX TWO

Sample of Research Questionaire for OPC

Department of Political Science

College of Business &Social Sciences

Covenant University, Ota

Ogun State

1st July, 2008.


Dear Sir/Madam,
Research Questionnaire

I am a PhD student undertaking my Dissertation titled “Ethnic Militias and the Subnationalism in Nigeria: A Comparative study of OPC and MASSOB

I would appreciate your sincere response to the under listed questions.

To make it easy for you to complete, the questions are in simplified forms. Most of the questions are close ended though there are few open-ended questions.


You are to encircle the option you choose as answers to the close ended questions as appropriate.

I crave for your full cooperation and thank you for your positive response

All information supplied will be treated with utmost confidentiality.
Thanks once again and may God bless you.
Yours sincerely,
Duruji, Moses.


Section A: Personal Bio-Data

1. What is your gender?

(A) Male (B) Female

2. How old are you

(A) 15-30 (B) 31- 45 (C) 46-60 (D) 60 – Above

3. What is your educational attainment?

(A) No School (B) Primary (C) Secondary (D) Above Secondary?

4. If Primary, what level?

(A) Some Primary (B) Completed Primary

5. If Secondary, What Level?

(A) Some Secondary (B) Completed Secondary

6. What is your economic status/occupation?

(A) Unemployed (B) Employed (C) Others

7. If Unemployed

(A) Jobless (B) Student (C) Retiree

8. If Employed

(A) Paid Employee (B) Unpaid Employee (C) Unprotected Paid Employee

9. If Self Employed

(A) Trader (B) Artisan (C) Farmer/Fisherman
Section B: Family Data

10. Are you married?

(A) Yes (B) No

11. Do you have Children?

(A) Yes (B) No

12. What are the statuses of your children?

(A) From Wedlock (B) Out of Wedlock

13. Is your family settled?

(A) Settle Home (B) Homeless

14. What is the status of your apartment?

(A) Rented (B) Family House (C) Owner Occupier
Section C: Community Data

15. What part of town is your apartment located

(A) Dense (B) Sparse (C) Isolated

16. Do people in your neighbourhood know you as an OPC member?

(A) Yes (B) No (C) Unsure?

17. Why did you join the OPC?

(A) Personal Event (B) Political Event

18. When joining the OPC, did you expect that your new situation could…?

(A) facilitate your access to cash (B) increase your chance to get a better job (C) facilitate your contact with opposite sex (D) Improve the way you are considered in the neighbourhood (E) grant you new power to defend yourself and your family (G) expand your political awareness
Section D OPC Member and the OPC Organization

19. What is your impression of the OPC?

(A) Well organized (B) neat behaviour (C) political project (D) better for business (E) more protective

20. Who influenced or facilitated your joining the OPC?

(A) friends/neighbours (B) patronage (C) spontaneous application

21. Are you financially committed to the OPC?

(A) Yes (B) No

22. If yes, what type of contribution do you make to the organization?

(A) Dues (B) Levies (C) Freewill donations (D) Registration fee

23. What kind of reward do you get either before or after operation from the OPC?

(A) Cash (B) Food (C) Non-medical/juju

24. Who gives you immediate assistance in case of problem?

(A) Family (B) OPC (C) Nobody

25. If it is your family, state who?

(A) Spouse/partner (B) Parents (C) Brother/Sister (D) Other Relatives

26. If it is an OPC member, state who?

(A) Local OPC leader (B) Other OPC member (C) Non-OPC friends

27. Rank six sources of help in terms of problems

……………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………....

……………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………

28. Does the OPC help in case of injury in operation?

(A) Yes (B) No

29. Does the OPC help in case of illness?

(A) Yes (B) No

30. Do the OPC help when you have urgent needs?

(A) Yes (B) No

31. Does you have any business relations with other OPC members?

(A) Yes (B) No

32. What is your expectation on joining the OPC?

(A) Cash (B) Job (C) Sex (D) Respect (E) Powers (F) Political Awareness

33. What were the promises made to you on joining the OPC?

(A) Political promise (B) Protection promises (C) Material Promise

34. Which kind of activities do you and other members of OPC mostly engage?

(A) Cultural (B) Political discussion (C) Spiritual (D) Political demonstration (E) Crime fighting (F) Security (G) Action against other groups (H) Dispute settlement

35. What has the OPC brought to your life?

(A) Psychological benefit (B) No more problem (C) Greater protection (D) Better economic situation.

36. State the daily average number of hours you devote to OPC activities

…………………………………………………………….

37. What type of training have you received since joining the OPC?

(A) Use of traditional means of protection (B) unarmed combat (C) armed combat

38. Do you believe that the Country has been fair to your tribe?


  1. Yes (B) No

39. Would an Oduduwa republic favour the Yoruba?

(A) Yes (B) No

40. Do you think that resources and opportunity in this country are equitably distributed among all ethnic groups in Nigeria? 

(A) Yes (B) No

41. Do you think that there are Federal Government policies that are against your ethnic group? 

(A)Yes (B) No

 42. What are they?

………………………………………….

………………………………………….

………………………………………….

………………………………………….

APPENDIX THREE
Sample of Research Questionaire for MASSOB.

Department of Political Science

College of Business &Social Sciences

Covenant University, Ota

Ogun State

1st July, 2008.


Dear Sir/Madam,

Research Questionnaire

I am a PhD student undertaking my Dissertation titled “Ethnic Militias and the Subnationalism in Nigeria: A Comparative study of OPC and MASSOB

I would appreciate your sincere response to the under listed questions.

To make it easy for you to complete, the questions are in simplified forms. Most of the questions are close ended, though there are few open-ended questions.


You are to encircle the option you choose as answers to the close ended questions as appropriate.

I crave for your full cooperation and thank you for your positive response

All information supplied will be treated with utmost confidentiality.
Thanks once again and may God bless you.
Yours sincerely,
Duruji,Moses.


Section A: Personal Bio-Data

1. What is your gender?

(A) Male (B) Female

2. How old are you

(A) 15-30 (B) 31- 45 (C) 46-60 (D) 60 – Above

3. What is your educational attainment?

(A) No School (B) Primary (C) Secondary (D) Above Secondary?

4. If Primary, what level?

(A) Some Primary (B) Completed Primary

5. If Secondary, What Level?

(A) Some Secondary (B) Completed Secondary

6. What is your economic status/occupation?

(A) Unemployed (B) Employed (C) Other

7. If Unemployed

(A) Jobless (B) Student (C) Retiree

8. If Employed

(A) Paid Employee (B) Unpaid Employee (C) Unprotected Paid Employee

9. If Self Employed

(A) Trader (B) Artisan (C) Farmer/Fisherman
Section B: Family Data

10. Are you married?

(A) Yes (B) No

11. Do you have Children?

(A) Yes (B) No

12. What are the statuses of your children?

(A) From Wedlock (B) Out of Wedlock

13. Is your family settled?

(A) Settle Home (B) Homeless

14. What is the status of your apartment?

(A) Rented (B) Family House (C) Owner Occupier
Section C: Community Data

15. What part of town is your apartment located

(A) Dense (B) Sparse (C) Isolated

16. Do people in your neighborhood know you as MASSOB member?

(A) Yes (B) No (C) Unsure?

17. Why did you join the MASSOB?

(A) Personal Event (B) Political Event

18. When joining the MASSOB, did you expect that your new situation could…?

(A) facilitate your access to cash (B) increase your chance to get a better job (C) facilitate your contact with opposite sex (D) Improve the way you are considered in the neighbourhood (E) grant you new power to defend yourself and your family (G) expand your political awareness
Section D: MASSOB Member and the MASSOB Organization

19. What is your impression of the MASSOB?

(A) Well organized (B) neat behavior (C) political project (D) better for business (E) more protective

20. Who influenced or facilitated your joining the MASSOB?

(A) friends/neighbors (B) patronage (C) spontaneous application

21. Are you financially committed to the MASSOB?

(A) Yes (B) No

22. If yes, what type of contribution do you make to the organization?

(A) Dues (B) Levies (C) Freewill donations (D) Registration fee

23. What kind of reward do you get either before or after operation from the MASSOB?

(A) Cash (B) Food (C) Non-medical/juju

24. Who gives you immediate assistance in case of problem?

(A) Family (B) MASSOB (C) Nobody

25. If it is your family, state who?

(A) Spouse/partner (B) Parents (C) Brother/Sister (D) Other Relatives

26. If it is MASSOB member, state who?

(A) Local MASSOB leader (B) Other MASSOB member (C) Non-MASSOB friends

27. Rank six sources of help in terms of problems

……………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………....

28. Does the MASSOB help in case of injury in operation?

(A) Yes (B) No

29. Does the MASSOB help in case of illness?

(A) Yes (B) No

30. Do the MASSOB help when you have urgent needs?

(A) Yes (B) No

31. Do you have any business relations with other MASSOB members?

(A) Yes (B) No

32. What is your expectation on joining the MASSOB?

(A) Cash (B) Job (C) Sex (D) Respect (E) Powers (F) Political Awareness

33. What were the promises made to you on joining the MASSOB?

(A) Political promise (B) Protection promises (C) Material Promise

34. Which kind of activities do you and other members of MASSOB mostly engage?

(A) Cultural (B) Political discussion (C) Spiritual (D) Political demonstration (E) Crime fighting (F) Security (G) Action against other groups (H) Dispute settlement

35. What has the MASSOB brought to your life?

(A) Psychological benefit (B) No more problem (C) Greater protection (D) Better economic situation.

36. State the daily average number of hours you devote to MASSOB activities

…………………………………………………………….

37. What type of training have you received since joining the MASSOB?

(A) Use of traditional means of protection (B) unarmed combat (C) armed combat

38. Do you believe that the Country has been fair to your tribe?



  1. Yes (B) No

39. Would a Biafran republic favour the Igbo?

(A) Yes (B) No

40. Do you think that resources and opportunity in this country are equitably distributed among all ethnic groups in Nigeria? 

(A) Yes (B) No

41. Do you think that there are Federal Government policies that are against your ethnic group? 

(A)Yes (B) No

 42. What are they?

………………………………………….

………………………………………….

………………………………………….

………………………………………….



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