Fakulta sportovnich studlI



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Results discussion

It is evident from the table (1) the inconsiderable concern has generally an impact on the clubs disconcert of forming girls gymnastic teams .60% were agreed on it, 32%were not sure, 8% weren't agree. And the value of was 40.73, that index at moral level 0.01.

From the same table you can recognize that 63% of the sample answered that the media do not work for propagation of female gymnastics in clubs14% were agree 23% were not sure. Also 45% did not agree that the media in default with respect to following up female gymnastic competitions and championships 31% were agree, and 24% were not sure 65% of the sample said that the media do not concern broadcasting of gymnastic championships in equal footing with other sports 14% agree, and 21% were not sure. 48% to respondents agreed that the inconsiderable fame of gymnastic female players a causative for non-practice of this sport, 20% were not agree, and 23% were not sure. 48% agreed that the people has ignorance of female gymnastic and its competitions led to non-practice of this sport,12% did not agree, and 40% were not sure. 17% were agreed that the journal or magazine published by the clubs and gives concern to female gymnastic games, 10% did not agree, and 43%were not sure. 16% were agreed that the attitude of clubs members has towards female gymnastics resulted in non-practice and non-spread of this sport,16% did not agree, and 68% were not sure 9% were agreed that the extent of media is concern to highlight Arab and international female gymnastic competitions, 55% did not agree, and 36% were not sure, 7% were agreed that the media has got a certain concept for how to propagate female gymnastics as a sport39% did not agree, and 54% were not sure.

In the table (2), 28% were agreed that the disability of the officials undertaking organization and planning in gymnastics Association a reason for non-formation of female teams17%did not agree, and 55%were not sure. 30% agree that the Association has got plans for managing female gymnastic competitions, 7% did not agree, and 63% were not sure. 21% agreed that the role of the Association end by adopting the plans, without follow up and assessment, 17% did not agree, and 62% were not sure. 36% agreed that the Association used has to announce seasonally the dates of female competitions and the clubs do not abide by that, 10% did not agree, and 54% were not sure. 21%agreed that the gymnastics Association contribute in provision of financial support and incentives to the clubs that have female gymnasium teams 9% did not agree, and 70 were not sure. 29% agreed that the Association adopt the female talents in gymnastics and form special groups for participation in social events 10% did not agree, and 61% were not sure. 22%agreed that the Association has adopted a certain administrative policy that obstructs formation of gymnastic teams in different clubs 17% did not agree, and 61% were not sure. 43% agreed that the club's financial supports consider the necessity and significance of formation of female gymnastic teams 13% did not agreed, and 44% were not sure.

In the table (3) 38% agreed that the club concern formation of a female gymnastic team, 5%did not agree, and 57% were not sure. 22% agreed that the Association board sufficiently consider the difficulties that confront trainers and officials responsible of female gymnastics, 18% did not agree, and 60% were not sure. 15% agreed that the club’s administration contribute to provision of financial support for forming female gymnastic teams 26%did not agree, and 59%were not sure. 15% agreed that the club adopted a future plan for forming female gymnastic team 12% did not agree, and 73% were not sure. 28% agreed that there is exist coordination between the club in using gymnastic distinguished halls for training, 12%did not agree, and 60%were not sure 47%agreed that the non-enlisting of gymnastic competitions in the club’s plan and plans of Gymnastics Association leads to non-formation of female gymnastic team 13%didn't agree, and 40% were not sure. 18% agreed that the members encourage the idea of forming a female gymnastic team in the club 21%didn't agree, and 61% not sure. 19% agreed that there is an existing plan for qualifying and promoting the standard of gymnastics trainers, 10% didn't agree, and 71%were not sure.

In the table (4) 48% agreed that the non-existence of gymnastics sport in clubs leads to non-formation of female gymnastics teams 11% did not agree, and 41% were not sure. 15% agreed that there is exist female cadres for training female on gymnastics sport 18% did not agree and 67% were not sure. 69% agreed that the scanty of qualified administrative gymnastics cadres stands as a cause for non-formation of female gymnastics teams 4%didnot agree, and 27% were not sure. 20% agreed that the clubs administrations full aware of the necessity of formation of female gymnastics teams in clubs, 12% did not agree, and 68% were not sure. 75% agreed that the unavailability of tools and capabilities lead to non-formation of gymnastic teams in the sporting clubs 8% did not agree, and 17% were not sure 22% agreed that the present situation of the gymnastic halls is unfit for training, 14% did not agree, and 64% were not sure. 32%agree that those special halls that are suitable for training female gymnastic teams 14% did not agree and 54% were not sure. 45% agreed that the available modern suitable devices for training, 11% did not agree, and 44% were not sure. 27% agreed that the factors of security and safety have available during females gymnastic trainings, 12% did not agree and 61 were not sure.

In the table(5) 58% agreed that the attitude of the female fathers implying that training may effect the physical build up of their daughters discourage female to join training, 22% did not agree, and 20% not sure. 66% agreed that the fathers forbid their daughters to practice this sport because they are afraid of injuries 11% did not agree, and 23% were not sure. 46% agreed that the female do not continue on training for long periods due to social reasons, such as (marriage), 23% did not agree, and 31% were not sure. 16% agreed that parent's negative attitude towards their daughters long stay outside the house is a cause for non-participation in teams, 51% did not agree, and 33% were not sure. 27% agreed that the non-practice of sports by adolescents who think that it is a blemish discourage female to practice gymnastics sport, 48%did not agree, and 25% were not sure. 59% agreed that the social habits and traditions are stand as a cause for non-practice of gymnastics by female, 18% did not agree, and 23% were not sure. 59% agree that the factor of non-existence of transport means stand as a cause for non-participation of female in gymnastics activities 21% did not agree, and 20% were not sure. 59% greed that the non-existence of friends in clubs discourages female to join such clubs, 15% did not agree, and 16% were not sure. 11% agreed that the Islamic Religion compare results with Libyan sample generally encourage female to practice sports, 41% did not agree, and 48%were not sure. 11% agreed that Islam permits female to practice gymnastics sports in absence of males, 10% did not agree, and 79% were not sure. 20% agreed that Islam prohibits female to practice gymnastics sports because of the gymnastics uniform, 6% did not agree, and 74% were not sure. 11% agreed that Islam contradicts with practice of gymnastics by female, 15% did not agree, and 74% were not sure.

It is revealed from the table (6) that the importance degree of the first topic expressions were as follows: (6) Less interest by principals in general effects the non-interest of clubs in forming women gymnastics teams, and in the second order comes the expression (1) Unconsciousness of masses towards the gymnastics for female and its competitions has led to its non-practice. It came also in the same ordering the expression (10) Non-availability of a magazine or newspapers edited by the clubs interesting in the female gymnastics competitions. While in the fourth order, it came the expression (5) the media works in spreading the gymnastics for female in the clubs, but in the fifth order it came the expression (3) Scarcity of fame of female gymnasts is a reason behind its non-practice. In the six order, it came the expression (6) Existence of insufficiency by the media in publishing and broadcasting the female gymnastics competitions and championships, and in the seventh order, it came the expression (8) Interest of the media in enlightening the Arabic and international female gymnastics competitions, where in the eight order, it came the expression (4) Ideas of the clubs members regarding the women gymnastics has led to its non-practice or participation. In the same order, it came the expression (6) Existence of a conception by the media about the manner of spreading the women gymnastics, and in the tenth order, it came the expression (9) non-interest by media in broadcasting the gymnastics championship with the same interest in other games .

It has revealed from the table (7) that the order of the second topic expression importance (Role of the Gymnastics Union) was as follows: in the First order, it came the expression (18) the instability of the principals of organization and planning in the Gymnastics Union is a reason behind the non-formation of female gymnastics teams, and in the second order, it came the expression (14) the existence of an administrative policy in the Union towards all clubs which prevent the formation of female gymnastics team, where the third order, it came the expression (12) the financial support by the clubs takes into account the necessity and importance of forming female gymnastics teams, and in the fourth order, it came the expression (16) the Union declares each season the date of the female gymnastics competitions, nor the clubs are bound thereby, and in the fifth order, it came the expression (15) the existence of plans at the Union to manage the female gymnastics competitions, while in the sixth order, it came the expression (11) the Union adopts the female talents in gymnastics, and forming special teams to participate in the social manifestations, and in the seventh order, it came the expression (17) the Union of Gymnastics contributes in providing the financial and support and incentives to the clubs having female gymnastics teams, and in the eight order, it came the expression (13) the role of the Union is not limited to the setting of such plans without following up and evaluating them.

It was shown from the table (8), related to the importance degree of the third topic expressions (Role of the Clubs Members). The expression order was as follows: In the first order, it came the expression (24) non-listing of gymnastics competitions for female, the matter that lead to the non-formation of female gymnastics teams, where the second order, it came the expression (19) the encouragement by the clubs members of the idea of forming female gymnastics team in the club, and its support. And in the third order, it came the expression (23) the existence of a plan to qualify the gymnastics woman coaches, in the fourth order, it came the expression (26) the existence of a future plan to form female gymnastics teams, then it came in the fifth order, the expression (20) interest of the club in forming female gymnastics teams, and in the sixth order, it came the expression (22) the existence of a coordination between the clubs in using distinguished gymnastics rooms for training, where in the seventh order, it came the expression (25) the club administration contributes in providing the financial support to form female gymnastics teams , and in the eighth order, it came the expression (21) the interest of the club board of directors in an enough manner in the difficulties facing the trainers and principals of female gymnastics .

It was revealed from the table (9), related to the importance degree of the fourth topic expressions (Material and human potentialities). The first order was the expression (29) the non-availability of instruments and potentialities leads to the non-formation of female gymnastics teams inside the sportive clubs, and in the second order, it came the expression (31) the gymnastics training room in their current situation are not fit for training, and in the third order, it came the expression (27) the scarcity of qualified administrative cadres for gymnastics is a reason behind the non-formation of female gymnastics, and in the fourth order, it came the expression (34) the inexistence of gymnastics in the clubs is leading to the non-formation of female gymnastics teams, and in the fifth order, it came the expression (33) the availability of legal bodies and modern during training, and in the sixth order, it came the expression (35) the availability of safety and security factors for the female players during training, where in the seventh order, it came the expression (30) the existence of female cadres for gymnastics training for female , and in the eighth order, it came the expression (32) the existence of special rooms fit for training female gymnastics teams, and in the ninth order, it came the expression (28) the existence of a total consciousness to form gymnastics for female inside the clubs.

It was revealed from the table (10), related to the importance degree of the fifth topic expressions (Society point of view). The expression order was as follows: In the first order, it came the expression (43) the Islamic religion prohibited the female to practice gymnastics because of its sportive uniform, and in the second order, it came the expression (37) the non-allowing by parents for their daughters to practice gymnastics is the fear that they become injured, and in the third order, it came the expression (41) the non-continuity in practicing the gymnastics and their earlier quit refer to the social reasons (wedding for example), and in the fourth order, it came the expression (42) the Islamic religion encourages the practice of sports in general by women, and in the fifth order, it came the expression (36) the reason of non-practice of gymnastics by female is the social traditions and customs, and in the sixth order, it came the expression (40) the non-practice of sports by adults, because they believe it is shame and that it is for young boys only, which causes the non-participation in gymnastics, and in the seventh order, it came the expression (38) the Islamic religion allows the women to practice gymnastics provided that men shall not see them, and in the ninth order, it came the expression (46) the non-coming of girls refers to the belief of parents that the training will effect their bodies, and in the ninth order, it came the expression (45) the inexistence of female friends participating in the clubs leads to the non-attraction of girls to practice gymnastics, and in the tenth order, it came the expression (47) the Islamic religion does not contradict the practice of gymnastics by female , and in the eleventh order, it came the expression (44) the inexistence of transport means is a reason in non-participation of female in the gymnastics. And in the twelfth order, it came the expression (39) the parents negative attitude towards their daughters long stay outside the house cause for non participation in teams.



Chapter 5

Results and recommendations

Results

The Role of the Media .

    1. The lack of interest from the sport authorities in general has an effect on the lack of interest of the clubs to form or create a female gymnastic team.

    2. The mass-media does not promote female gymnastic clubs.

    3. There is a lack of coverage in the mass media of competitions and championships of female gymnastics.

    4. There is not any interest from the mass media to broadcast gymnastic championships, as they do for other games.

    5. The lack of fame of the female gymnasts is a reason for the lack of practice of this sport.

    6. The lack of public awareness about gymnastics and the competitions female to the non-practice of this sport.

    7. There is a lack of interest in the mass media for covering the gymnastics games in Arab and World Competitions.


The Role gymnastics Association.

1. The lack develop a systematic strategy for the authorities in the Gymnastics Association.

2 .There is not make a unified system of administrative policies, applicable to all.

3 .The lack financial support for clubs is necessary in order to create female gymnastic teams, and using this method at every possible occasion.

4 The lack create sports schools linked to the Gymnast Association to supervise

and watch the performance in the sport.



The Role of the club members.

1. The non-scheduling of gymnastic competitions for female in club planning and in the gymnastic Association female to the non formation of a gymnastic female team.

2. The answers of the Czech sample showed uncertainty about the phrases of the club members.

The Role of Social awareness to formation female gymnastics teams.

1-The non-existence of gymnastic clubs will lead to the non-formation of female gymnastic teams.

2. The lack of skilled administrators for the sport of gymnastics is a reason for the lack of female gymnastic teams.

3. The lack of availability of equipment will lead to the non-formation of female gymnastic teams in the clubs



The Role of society view point.

1. female do not train in gymnastics due to the belief of the parents that the training will change the shape of the bodies of their daughters.

2. Parents do not allow their daughters to train in the sport due to the fear that the daughters will be injured.

3. The players do not continue on in gymnastics due to social reasons (i.e., marriage.)

4. The females do not practice gymnastics due to customs and social traditions.

5. A lack of transportation means restricts the participation of female in gymnastics.

6. Because their friends are not in the clubs, female will not be attracted to the practice of gymnastics.

7.Parents do not consent to let their daughters go long distances during the training that the female do not train in the teams.


II recommendations

  1. The Role of Media.

    1. Promotion in a soft-sell style of physiological information to the parents about the health benefits of gymnastics will have a good effect on the training in female gymnastics and on female sports in general.

    2. Encourage the authorities to show interest in creating female gymnastic teams.

    3. The publication of sports magazines and papers by the club members.

    4. Encouragement by the mass media to focus on female sports.

  1. The Role of gymnastics Association.

      1. Develop a systematic strategy for the authorities in the Gymnast Federation.

      2. Make a unified system of administrative policies, applicable to all.

      3. Financial support for clubs is necessary in order to create female gymnastic teams, and using this method at every possible occasion.

      4. Create sports schools linked to the Gymnast Association supervise and watch the performance in the sport.

  2. The Role of the Club Members

      1. Each club must have an annual schedule to inform the members about forming teams.

2. Must have plans to train and take care of the gymnast trainers.

The Role of social awareness to formation female gymnastics teams.
1-Support each and every club and support of the gymnasium and the means to instruct and train in female gymnastics.

2-Encourage each club to form female gymnastic teams.

3-Excellent training of the gymnast trainers will lead to security and health for the players.

The Role of society view point .

1. Make available closed gymnasiums in which the female may practice gymnastics.

2. Every club must determine a practice schedule for the female gymnasts.

3. Encourage the scientific research into the sport of gymnastics and solve the various social problems that the female are facing in sports in general and in gymnastics in particular.



1. Amine Anwar Alkhuli 1995: Sports and Islamic civilization, Arab Thought ouse, Cairo.

2ِِِ Aِmine Anwar Alkhuli 1999: “woman sports towards the third millennium, the philosophical, social and cultural introduction”, Extracts published in the third scientific conference magazine “woman sports and future sciences between influencing and being Influenced” faculty of sports education, University of Alexandria, 19 – 22 October 1999.

3. Abdelbaki Zidane 1977: Woman between religion and society, Annahda library, Cairo.

4. Ali Mohamed Mutawea 1999 : Dynamics of the motivations for practicing sports at the women students of the preparatory, secondary and university education stages in Tripoli – Libya, extracts published in the third scientific conference magazine “Woman sports and future sciences between influencing and being influenced”, Faculty of sports education, University of Alexandria, 19 – 22 October 1999.

5. Afaf Abdelmoneim Derwish 1998: Capabilities in physical education, Almaaref establishment, Alexandria.

6. Awadh Abdullah Eddersi 1998: Mass (Jamahirian) sports between theory and practice, National library, Benghazi, Libya.

7. Awatef Abulalaa 1972: Role of sports education in educational orientation, national house for printing, Cairo.

8. Basher Hassan Elfeki 1964: psychological health (ed.2), world of books, Cairo.

9. Bint Eshatea and Sakina Bint Elhossine 1980: Woman and religion, Arab Thought House, Beirut.

10. Boudawed Abdelyamine 1992: Causes of abstain of rural women students from practicing physical education in the Algerian secondary schools, a non-published master thesis, Algeria.

11. Charles Biutcher 1964 Bases of physical education, , Anglo Library, Cairo.

12. Issam Elhallali 1999: the issue of woman sports and sports for woman in Egypt, extracts published in the third scientific conference magazine “Woman sports and future sciences between influencing and being influenced”, faculty of sports education, University of Alexandria, 19 – 22 October 1999.

13. Fawkia Abdel Birr 1987: The problems facing volley ball women players and trainers in Egypt, a research published in magazine, number one, January, Cairo.the research and studies

14. Faruq Mohamed Eladeli and Hassan Hemmam 1979: General sociology, its theoretical principles and its applications, knowledge house, Cairo.

15. Jalal Elabbadi and others 1989: Sports sociology, Baghdad University, press.

16. Jalal Ali Hallab 1999 : Some factors affecting the drop of the level of Athletics races in Libya until 1998, a non-published master thesis, faculty of physical education, Al-Fateh Tripoli University,.

17. Hamada Othman Suleyman 1977 : The obstacles of the non-widespread of athletics in men secondary schools, a non-published master thesis, faculty of sports education for men, Cairo, Helwan University,

18. Hassan Ahmed Eshafei 1995: Phylosophy of sports education, Almaaref establishment, Cairo.

19. Hassan Ahmed Eshafei & Suzanne Morsi 1999: History of Physical Education in the Arab and International societies, second part, Almaaref House, Alexandria.

20. Ihsane Mohamed Elhassane 1979: Socialist Notion of leisure and innovation activities policy, Baghdad University Library.

21. Ihsane Mohamed Elhassane & Kamel Elwiss 1990: Bases of sports sociology, University Library, Baghdad.

22. International Conference for Sports and Woman 1995: Faculty of sports education for women, University of Alexandria.

23. Kura Brent 1999: The domain resulting from the physical culture in the context of poverty, extracts published in the third scientific conference magazine “woman sports and future sciences between influencing and being influenced”, faculty of sports education, Alexandria. University of 19 – 22 October 1999.

24. Maissa Mohamed Elbenna 1994: The social place of women students and its relation with the general sports ability and the level of performance of skills in basket ball, a non-published doctorate thesis, faculty of sports education for women, Alexandria.

25. Mohamed Elimam 1995: The theoretical introductions for the study of the role of woman, Alfath Almansura house for printing and publication,

26. Mohamed Mohamed Elhmahmi 1999: Development of educational thought in the field of education, Arab Thought Cairo House,

27. Mohamed Atef Gheith 1979: Dictionary of Sociology, Egyptian general authority for Cairo book,

28. Mohamed Hussein Khalil and others 1999: Illiteracy and the Egyptian sportswoman “refusals and means of confront”, extracts published in the third scientific conference magazine “woman sports and future sciences between influencing and being influenced”, faculty of sports education, of Alexandria University, 19 – 22 October 1999.

29. Mohamed Kutb 1983: Methodology of Islamic Education, (g. 71), Ashuruk Cairo House,

30. Mohamed Mohamed Zawiya 1986: Gymnastics for men and women (2. Ed), publications of the military women college, Tripoli.

31. Najwa Fawzi Anis 2000 : Some problems facing the formation of women teams of Basket Ball at Tripoli sports clubs, a non-published master thesis, faculty of physical education, Al-Fateh Tripoli University,

32. Samia Mohamed Fahmi 1996: Woman in Development, University knowledge house, Cairo.

33. Saad Morsi Ahmed and others 1995: Educational Thought development, (1. ed), World of Cairo books,

34. Samira Ahmed Edderdiri & Elmukhtar Saeed Milud 1999 : causes of abstain of women students of Al-fateh University from practicing sports activity, extracts published in the third scientific conference magazine “woman sports and future sciences between influencing and being influenced of Alexandria, faculty of sports education, University 19 – 22 October 1999.

35. Thanaa Fuad Amine 1987: A survey study of some factors leading to the drop of the level of gymnastics in Egypt, a research published in the magazine of Helwan University, tenth volume, Cairo.


References from non-Islamic countries

36. Coakley, J. 2001. Sport in Society. New York: Mc-Graw-Hill.

37. Connell, R. 1987. Gender and Power. Cambridge: Polity Press.

38. Dobbs, B. 1973. Edwardians at Play. Sport 1890-1914. London: Pelham Books.

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Summary

INTRODUCTION

The scientific studies had proved the existences of biologic differences between men and women. Therefore, it shall observe such differences when selecting the sportive activities for women. The scientific studies has revealed further that a women enjoyed a good health is not effected absolutely by participating in the physical effort, where its internal systems have enough prevention for these movements, and they recommended the necessity of interesting by women in there physical fitness, through regular training in practicing sports, and the importance of sports practice by women in a regular and continuous manner, which has a positive effect on the improvement of her health and her ability to support effort and to perform there duties in the live, as does the men.

Since 50 years, only some gynecologists had declared that practicing sports by women would affect the raise and amplification of her muscles and effects there internal systems and to there performance of functions related to them as women. But the gynecologists point of view has changed today, and they became supporting the practice of sports by women, and the most evidence we see today, which the practice by the women of several types of sports on local and international levels, and in the Olympic tournaments, which were not allowed to them in the past, and they had gained first scores therein. For example, in Munich Olympic tournament 1972, they have participated in the 1500m racing for the first time. The same was in Montreal tournament 1976, where the women had participated in rowing and handball also for the first time. The women practice are not restricted in just one specific type of sports, as they practices swimming, exercises, gymnastics, running with its several racings, leaping, shooting, dancing and different games (basketball – volleyball – handball – football) weapon – single fighting – Judo – Karate, but from the technical side, the girls did not practice the dangerous competition such as boxing – fighting – American Rugby.

The women still suffer from the issue of her desire in occupying her suitable position in the society, where they faces continuously a difficulty in proving them worthiness and ability in performing the requirements of the work she comes across. Such clear discrimination between their and the men are not limited in a specific society, but the women still suffer from non-esteem by the society for their potentialities, even in the communities and countries developed industrially for several reasons. Despite the change happened in this view in many of societies, but the opportunities still prevent the women from proving her worthiness, although the existence of evidences indicating the potentialities of women regarding the high performance, even in the works considered among the men monopoly.

The women in the country performs physical stressing works like the men, and in case of wars, the women were operating the factories operated usually by men, and they produced as the men do. In our Arab society, the women rushed in the work field, and proved them worthiness, but the picture set for there still standing regardless the nature of the society.
Research Problem

The individual is living in a material and social environment which does not give him all what he wish in any time. The individual in dealing with his environment tries to condition himself to such environment. The social culture aspects are the ability of the women in changing his behavior if the circumstances require so. The women are continuous conditioning to there environment agrees and disagrees. If the women succeeded in making a harmony and a concord between them and there environment, and to be content on himself, then it said they agrees, and if they e failed then they are weak in harmony. The weakness of harmony appears in the women incapacity in solving there daily different problems, insomuch as such incapacity increases over that expected by the others from they or by them from himself. The social culture aspects reaction includes the women ability in changing his behavior and habituates when facing a new standing, where there will be integration between the individual expression, his ambition, and society expectations and requirements. Every behavior shown by women is just a type of social culture aspects with the surrounding environment in trying to reach the social harmony.

The gymnastics are distinguished by the importance of availability of physical and reactive fitness elements. Therefore, it was important that the women player shall have an enough amount of ability regarding the self-control which instigates the reaction to be in harmony with the performance speed and being away from rashness and foolhardiness, so that the women player may think and choose the most appropriate responses to the changeable quick standings.

Much more Arabic and foreign studies and research were raised in the field of social reaction. Most thereof have confirmed its importance with respect to the different sportive activities, where a positive relationship was found between the social culture aspects and the sportive success for girl students. From another side, the collective games players are distinct from single games players with the feature of sociality. The sportive training, in general, and in the single games in particular, affects the social culture aspects degree and the skilled performance in each of gymnastics and exercises.

By browsing what has been above stated, it reveals the importance of the social reaction in the different activities, and departing from what has been above stated, the Researcher saw the importance of the study “The different of social culture aspect in Libya and Czech for female sport Gymnastics”, in order to reach results serving the gymnastics.


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