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Sports in Some Islamic and Arab Countries



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Sports in Some Islamic and Arab Countries


We believe that women are the half of the society, any thing good for women is also good to society, and the practicing of women in sports activity to the raise of there level of fitness and the improvement of there health and capabilities to sustain effort and take care to they duties of life the fact that renders her capable to increase there productivity in work.

Sports and Women in Kuwait Country

Kuwait witnessed during the 50’s a great civilization progress in the diverse economical, urban, social, scientific and cultural life aspects, bringing the country to the level of a sovereign country having its special system and precise laws.

The signs of social change in Kuwait appeared by the start of the regular education at the beginning of the 30’s, where there was no prohibition to educate the Kuwaiti girls not for work but for care of they husband and the education for the children.

The education of girls in Kuwait started in 1938, followed by an educational explosion in the 40’s and 50’s, with the physical and sports education in Kuwait started by the beginning of the regular education established by the knowledge administration, the physical education was applied among the curriculum in the boys and female schools within the educational plan, and in 1950 the educational movement realized a progress and the school sports have gained a great importance, All the educational stages include a study of the physical education, and the responsibilities of the education continued their care in developing the physical education as well as sports in girls schools in terms of furnishing relevant equipment and apparatuses. (22:457).

Six swimming pools for women were inaugurated throughout the different Kuwait regions, moreover, the ministry of education gave care also to furnishing the different educational stages with specialized women teachers, thus appeared a need in providing women teachers for physical education, and Kuwait made a great effort in their qualification and preparation, these efforts passed by many stages, in 1972 the education teachers institute was inaugurated, and in 1978 the branch of physical education was added to the institute where women and men teachers of physical education for the elementary stage are being formed. In 1986 the institute of physical education teachers became the faculty of elementary education belonging to the general authority of applied and training education, an evidence of the interest of state in sports is its care to use the general authority of youth and sports in 1992 that distinguished the sports movement with the customs and directions of the Islamic religion through the creation of the administration “sports for all body” that works towards the practicing by half of the other society to the sports activities and the widespread of women sports and giving care to there in all sectors, they free time is being occupied in the manner that yields benefit to there life under the slogan “sports for every body”, five centers in the provinces of Kuwait were established for the practicing of women to the sports activities and to improve the level of physical fitness, moreover the administration worked to organize training courses for the preparation of women cadres in the field of sports for every body. (22:458)

It is worth to mention that Kuwait has many sports clubs for youths that appeared at the beginning of 70’s attempting to create women clubs inside these clubs in basket ball hand ball volley ball that was in contradiction to the customs and traditions of the Kuwaiti society thus they were cancelled and a decision is issued stipulating the non-practicing of women to sports inside these clubs, and thus “Al-fatal” Girl club was created in 1974, the club opened its door to every women desiring to participate in a sports activity, this club was thereafter transformed from an association to a sports club in 1993 where the women can practice different sports activities such as tennis, table tennis, basket ball, tae Kwan do, aerobic, fencing, squash.

The club participated by its different clubs in many local championships, in addition to the participation among the Arab nations in tennis in Tunis in 1994 and in the Arab junior championships in Cairo in 1995.

Kuwait works towards the process to accompany of development and the great care given by the world to the practice of walking sports that is considered an important factor in the renew of vitality and activity after the effort of work regardless of age and sex, and despite the fact that the climate of Kuwait is non-natural in summer however the general authority of youth and sports provided a walkway in each region in Kuwait to give the opportunity to all the individuals of society, men and women, to practice the walking sports in an open air of freedom and joy, so women embarked to the practicing of walking sports, this is confirmed by her participation in the races of walking and running organized by the administration of sports for every body at the authority. (22:459).



Sports and Women in Jordan State

Women got into sports world in a later time, this field was closed before they effect of social and cultural ideas that were governing the society until the 60’s. In 1968 encouraging start points began through the formation of women clubs in table tennis and basket ball in the clubs of Ahli, Orthodoxy and Aljabal Aljadid. In the year 1969 appeared the first national women team in basketball, table tennis, and in 1970 appeared four new teams in hand ball In Amman, Irbid, Madia and Zarqa.

Notwithstanding these encouraging data, the social factors, in particular the control of men on the Jordan sports decision, played a role in rendering these women clubs just seasonal clubs in their structure and form, appearing and disappearing by unjustified decisions, this fact lead to a total absence of an organized women sports in the 70’s, except for a unique case that is table tennis.

At the beginning of 80’s and maybe as a response to non local needs, the participation of women in sports was encouraged, and women clubs were created in the clubs of Ahli, Almadina Arriyadia, furtherome national teams were formed in table tennis, volley ball, gymnastics and athletics. (22:461).


The participation of Jordan Woman in the international sports activities:
Table Tennis


1966

Fourth Arab Tournament

Amman – Jordan

1966

International Tournament

Stockholm – Sweden

1969

World championships

Munich – Germany

1973

Friendship Championships

Peking – China

1978

Spain, Africa, Latin America




1978

Sixth Arab Championships

Tripoli – Libya

1979

World championships

Pyng Yang – North Korea

1983

Arab Championships

Morocco

1983

Asian championships

Jakarta – Indonesia

1984

Ninth Arab Championships

Amman – Jordan

1987

World championships

India

1988

Asian Championships

Japan

1991

Twelfth Arab Championships

Syria

1992

Olympic games

Barcelona – Spain

1992

Thirteenth Arab championships

Cairo – Egypt




  1. Basket ball




1968

First Women Championships

Amman

1970

Amicable matches

Damascus – Syria

1972

Women Championships

Amman

1983

Arab Tournament

Amman

1985

Saddam Championships

Iraq

1992

Women Championships

Amman




  1. Volleyball

1968

First Women Championships

Amman

1981

Arab Games

Tunis

1983

Amicable Tournament

Iraq

1983

Amicable Tournament

Morocco

1988

Arab Championships

Alexandria – Egypt




  1. Athletics




1985

Egyptian friendship tournament

Egypt

1986

Asian Games

Seoul – Korea

1988

Olympic Games

Seoul – Korea

1992

Amicable Championships

Irbid – Jordan



  1. Tae Kwan do




1990

World Championships

Athens – Greece

1991

Kingdom Championships

Amman

1992

Kingdom Championships

Amman


  1. Handball




1970

Local Championships

Jordan

1989

Clubs Championships

Baghdad – Iraq

1990

Clubs matches

Damascus – Syria

1991

Amicable match

Baghdad – Iraq

1992

Amicable match

Baghdad – Iraq

The position of women in the Jordan Sports was not a special are, the participation of the women in the Jordan women activities is limited, Women are completely absent in the field of governmental, parliament, and juridical political activity, and is limited in the participation in the press field, this requires an activation of the role of women in the sports activity and a political effort and support to allow them in interacting and participating in all activities of the society, such as the sports activity. (22:465).

Some researchers suggest other conditions to allow women to practice sports activity, in addition to the social factors, some suggest that the mental and interacting images linked to sports are images linked to the male world, sports are a power, endurance, courage, competitiveness and discipline, whereas women are a weakness, complaint, vigilance, submission and surrender, These two worlds are different, however this idea if it is true, reflects a social state not a biological state, or reflects a temporary state not a real state, this idea does not look at sports in its global notion that its is a developmental construction movement, Sports is not only a sports of competition, and the sports of competition does not rely on strength only and therefore we can say that: sports is a cooperation, undertaking and beauty in movement and performance, precisions, love, principles and ethics, and if sports is so, the sports world is the world of women and men together, and The justifications of the participation of women in sports are the same justifications of the participation of men, however there are supporting conditions favoring the participation of women even in the current social conditions, women has in general the sufficient time more than men, sports needs time and since women stays at home they needs recreation and interaction with others, sports realizes this and women needs physical fitness and health as a result of pregnancy and parturition, Sports realizes that, and the general social development and the increase of learning rate of women and the improvement of the social and economical conditions of the society will certainly lead to an increase of the participation of women in sports activity and this needs time to wait, the encouragement of the participation of women in sports requires an initiative and courage of women. (22:466).


Sports and Women in Bahrain

The women activity is distinguished in the programs of the sports movement in all the world countries except for a limited number of Islamic countries, such as the Countries of the Arab Gulf.

The participation of women in the continental, international and Olympic championships and game has progressed covering the majority of games and sports fields that are practiced by men including football and weightlifting, and the rule in force is the necessity that the program of each continental, international or Olympic sports games shall include special contests for women and men in all the games recognized for both sexes. (22:467)

Through these championships and games appeared many women sports stars in different sports games in particular swimming, gymnastics and athletics, volleyball. and the participation of women in the sports games became a decisive factor and affecting the determination of the positions and ranks of the countries participating in these games, no doubt that the participation of women in the programs of sports activities is considered one of the aspects of civilization modernity in any society, moreover this is considered one of the women rights in the society given that the sports activity has positive effects recognized to affect the general health, the physical and psychological fitness of women, and the reflection of these effects on the family and society as a whole through the role of women in family and society. (22:468)

In Bahrain, where the number of women represents 49% of the total population, and despite the aspects of retardation of the women sports movement from the world development stage in this domain, however the facts indicate a relative development of the women sports through many programs and activities and trials to give this domain a greater role by establishing specialized bodies and setting up programs that are appropriate with the general state of the Bahraini society, The programs of the women sports activity in Bahrain started in girls schools belonging to the ministry of education and the physical education course still represent a part of the components of the study curriculum in all the stages of education for women in Bahrain, Furthermore, and in addition to the methodological activity of the physical education the ministry organizes special programs of sports activity outside the curriculum that includes many sports contests and tournaments of the girls schools in the different sports games.

(465: 22).

Bahrain is a pioneer within the countries of Arab Gulf in giving the women sports a special importance. Bahrain has participated for the first time in the scholar an Arab game that was held in Alexandria in 1975 with a volleyball team formed by schools female students among the Bahraini delegation of the students to participate in these games, and has thus set a precedent event in advance to all the Gulf countries. (22:470).

Outside the frame of scholar sports, the sports federations of basket ball, volley ball, table tennis and badminton have organized contests tournaments for women clubs in Bahrain, and this was at the beginning an active experience attracting a significant number of women, and some clubs started the formation of sports women teams to represent them in these tournaments. (22:471).

In the domain of the participation of women of Bahrain in the foreign non-scholar sports tournaments, women sports teams have participated in the following foreign tournaments:


  • In 1977, women team of basketball had participated in amicable contest in Kuwait.

  • In 1984, women team of table tennis had participated in the Arab championships in Jordan and this team has obtained the gold medal of this championships.

  • In 1985, women team of table tennis had participated in the Arab games in Morocco and had obtained the gold medal in the individual and double contests.

Notwithstanding these active initiatives, this boom did not last long facing a number of difficulties and negatives related mainly to the social and familial customs in addition to some financial and technical difficulties, this lead to the stopping of the women sports activity in the clubs and sports federations at the middle of 80's, while the sports activity continued inside the girls schools, and within the repeated trails and the continuous efforts spent by the state represented in the general institution of youth and sports, and its trial to have a greatest participation of activities in the sports programs. It has issued a decision to form the Bahraini committee of sports for every body having among its duties and programs the encouragement of the individuals of the Bahraini society from both sexes and for all ages to practice sports, on the basis of the importance of sports and its relation to the health of individual and to increase its productivity, thus a new type of sports activity appeared, that a non- competitive activity that attracted a great number of women through the programs of physical fitness and the programs of sports for every body and for all ages that are organized by the general institution of youth and sports in specialized centers of women sports where the number of participating women in the programs of swimming in 1993 reached 2156 women, whereas the number of women participants in the physical fitness centers reached in 1993, 1047 women, and in 1994 the number of participants in swimming reached 908 of ladies and 966 of students, and in 1995 the number of women students reached 1404, and the number of ladies participants reached 980 ladies. As regards to physical fitness in 1994 the number of participated reached 514, and in 1995 it reached 500, and aiming to realize the women sports awareness principle, the general institution for youth and sports has through the Bahraini sports institute and the sports affairs administration executed a number of preparation courses to qualify the leaders of the women sports activity in the fields of physical fitness and the sports for all and the sports culture. (22:472).


Sports and the Algerian Women

Despite the immense development witnessed by sports in the modern era and in many fields, whether scientific or practical, this development remained for a long time confined to man, and women could not practice sports activities until a very recent time due to many reasons, mainly the customs that were commonly widespread at that time, and when women was introduced to the world of sports nobody could imagine the great success that They will achieve in this domain, in particular in some types of sports where They competed with men. (10: 474).

The Algerian women, like the other women of the world, did not stay behind the convoy rather she could enter into sports by its large door and has imposed her presence in the sports field despite her regency, the drift of the Algerian women towards sports was great, where they showed good capabilities and strong willingness believing strongly in their legal right to practice sports activities, The Algerian women have confirmed in many occasions there ability and have proved that they are entitled for sports, and they can realize good performance not only inside the country but also abroad. (10:474)

The stages progressed by the women sports are not an outcome of separate chance, rather it was the result of a global policy, having clear landmarks that aims to integrate women in society and to give them a suitable position.

And despite the fact that there were modest results achieved by the women sports at the beginning given that it was isolated from the convoy due to the lack of the material and human capacities that are necessary for its continuity (10:475).

It is noticed a qualitative and quantitative increase in the number of women practicing sports between 1978 and 1988, this is due to the sports reform witnessed by Algeria in that period that stipulates the compulsory of the practicing of sports in schools, In this way women sports started to witness a boom and has realized considerable results, many women participated in the African games organized by Algeria in 1978 where women of hand ball and volley ball teams obtained the gold medal. The results of the sportswomen progressed when the athlete Sakina Boutamine was the first Algerian women to participate in an Olympic games in 1980 in Moscow, and mainly the result of the athlete Hassiba Boulmerka in the 1500 meter distance where they could mount on the highest podium, at the Arab and African level and also at the world level in Tokyo 1991, Barcelona 1992 and Gothenburg in 1995, in addition to the athlete of Judo Salima Souakri in the Olympic games of Barcelona 1992, and a third place in the world championships of under 21 years in Argentina . In addition to the results of the women karateka Fadila Abdelhafid who was ranked fifth in the world cup that was organized by Algeria in 1993, as well as the athlete of Sambo Nuria Belbashir who was ranked fifth in the world championships of Omsk – Siberia, and other athletes who have realized good results at the African and Arab levels. (10:479)


The main results of the Algerian sports women:

1982 – First Arab championships of hand ball in Tunis, second place for the Algerian Women.

1985 – The Arab games of Rabat – Morocco, Golden medal for the basket ball team.

1986 – Second Arab championships in hand ball in Syria, first place for the Algerian women.

1986 – First African championships of Volley ball in women, first place for Algeria.
The best Algerian sportswomen

1977 – Sakina Boutamine (Athletics) first place

1980 – Zaza Affane (Swimming) first place

1986 – Yasmina Azizi (Athletics), second place

1994 – Hassiba Boulmerka (Athletics)
The international honoring of the Algerian sportswomen

1980. Sakina Boutamine (Athletics) best African sportswomen.

1995. Hassiba Boulmerka (Athletics) best African, Arab and International sports women.

World championships

1991 – Hassiba Boulmerka, Tokyo, gold medal

1992 – Nuria Belbashir, Siberia, fifth place

1993 – Fadila Abdelhafid, Algeria, fifth place. (10:484)



Olympic Games

1992 – Barcelona, gold medal, Hassiba Boulmerka

1992 – Barcelona, fifth place, Salima Souakri. (10:484)

Sports and the Egyptian women

Speaking about the women is pleasant and interesting due to the successes them realized in all domains, this is very clear in the role played by the Egyptian women in the legal, juridical and educational fields as well as the field of illiteracy combating, no doubt that women participate now in all fields of life all over the world even if they role differs, increasingly or decreasingly, from one society to another. Knowing that the main role of women are concretized in the family care and its duties in order to educate a good citizen, however with the development of life women started to contribute in the construction of the political, social and economical society, where they gained a positive and effective role in the different fields that were specific to men only in the past eras, women did not suffice with this role rather they continued them fight to obtain there physical right and the right to compete in the different sports, it is enough for us in the last world championships of athletics in Sweden that we see the introduction of the games triple jump and pole vault to women, realized better results as compared to those realized by men in the past. In general the women have to try to participate in all activities and to prove there presence besides men, moreover the principle of sports is a human principle, that the men are the same as the women, and any thing related to human is also related to women. (35:487)


The academic sides, i.e. sports education faculties

The higher institute of sports education for men in Alharam was established in 1937, next the higher institute of physical education for women was established in 1937, and then in 1954 the higher institute of sports education was established. These institutes were affiliate to the ministry of higher education. And in 1974 these institutes of sports education were transferred to colleges and were affiliated to the modern university of Helwan, after that many sports colleges were established, in the number of 6 colleges, and in order for these colleges of sports education to contribute in pushing the development cycle of women in the different fields such as training, administration, education, entertainment, and presence in all levels, These colleges aim currently to develop by-laws allowing these colleges to have main role in the graduation of (the trainer, the instructor, the administrator, the entertainment and leisure specialist) covering all the specializations of sports education in the country, and therefore earning the yields of these institutes in the majority of the fields, The faculty of physical education for men in Alharam was a pioneer in this domain, and next the faculties of sports education to women developed their by-laws allowing women to cover all the specializations of sports education. (35:488).




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