Fakulta sportovnich studlI

Role of the Egyptian women in the sports domain

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Role of the Egyptian women in the sports domain

The data that will be exposed to (Olympic Committee – The Higher Counsel for Youth and Sports – Sports Federations – personal interviews with some responsibilities in these federations), it transpires the following :

  • The Egyptian women participates at the local, Arab, African and International level in the most sports activities.

  • The Egyptian women participates in a limited number of the sports federation departments.

  • The Egyptian women participate in the field of training only in volley ball, at local and international level, and in basket ball at the local level only. (35:490).

Physical education and sports in Libya
After the socialists and progresses revolution of the first of September 1969, the youth and sports administration was re-established after the cancellation of the ministry of youth and sports, many department have been affiliated to the administration, their competence have been determined as follows:
1. Department of sports and scouts affairs

It is competent in proposing the general policy to develop the sports movement and to execute what has been decided by the government in this domain, and to contribute in setting up the programs of sports education and scholars activity development, as well as the supervisions on the preparation of trainers specialized in the youth and sports affairs such as team leaders, trainers, referees, organizers and others, by coordinating with relevant bodies. This department is also competent in the supervision on the execution of laws and regulations organizing the scoots movement and to study the matters and subjects related to the organization of scoots movement that are vested to it, as well as the study of the matters and subjects related with the execution of the Olympic committee law and decisions issued accordingly, and to give its point of view in their regards.

  1. .Youth care Department

It is competent in the coordination with relevant bodies in the execution of the general policy and plans that are decided for youth services in their different stages of growth, and to find the adequate means to educate the youth with a national, social and sports education, and to form their personalities and take care with their trends. The department is also competent with the working towards the facility of holding camps, summer resorts, festivals, tournaments, sports, social and cultural trips locally and abroad by making agreements with competent bodies, as well as proposing the establishment and support the youth hostels and the supervision of their management .
3 .Sports Clubs Department

It is competent with giving authorizations to sports clubs and specialized youth establishments and to encourage them and show their activity and to supervise them and help them in the performance of their mission and coordinate the work with them.

4. Stadiums and establishments department

This department is competent in the supervision on the stadiums and sports establishment belonging to the ministry, and to preserve them and maintain them and to organize their use and supply them with the required equipment and tools; moreover this department is competent to propose such establishments and to choose their locations.

At the ministry of information, the public arts department was established, it works towards the formation of movement interpretation and public folklore teams of both sexes and to develop it and spread it between citizens, it transpired at that time that the bodies responsible and oriented towards sports in Libya are as follows:

  • The higher counsel of Youth care.

  • The Libyan Olympic committee and sports federations.

  • The general administration for youth and sports at the ministry of labor and social affairs.

  • The general administration of military education and scholar activity.

  • The administration of public arts at the ministry of information.

  • The sports office of policemen. (6:93-95)

In 1970 the sports education subject was adopted as a basic subjects along the lines of the other educational subjects at the faculty of education at the Libyan university, and for the realization of more cooperation and coordination and in confirmation to the importance of youth and sports, The revolution leadership counsel has issued in 1972 a decision stipulating the formation of the ministry of youth and social affairs that takes care with sports education and contributes in planning the care of youth bodily, psychologically, socially and spiritually. Afterwards a branch of sports education at the teachers institute in Tripoli has been established in 1974, where the studies last for four years, its mission is the formation of the physical education teacher and to qualify them to teach this subject in the elementary and preparatory stages, then similar institutes for women and men in Tripoli, Benghazi and Elbeida have imitated it.

The first intermediate institute for physical education for women were established in Tripoli in 1975, and in 1979 the first higher department for women and men was established, and in 1981 the department was transferred to the Faculty of physical education at Al-Fateh university pursuant to a request from the Libyan revolution leader, and in 1983 the Faculty of sports education for men at Azzawiya was established, and the physical education department at the Faculty of arts and education in Garyounes university, Benghazi was established in 1990, followed by the establishment of the first Faculty in Tripoli that is devoted for men and women in 1991.

The first women participation in an official tournament was on 1975 at the Arab Youth Festival in Tripoli. Whereas the first women participation in swimming was in 1977 in the Arab games in Tripoli. The second games were held in Somalia in 1979 where men and women participated. Women participated in the table tennis game, at the sixth Arab championships in Tripoli in 1978.

The first women team groups that were initiated in the field of arbitration were in 1979 in Athletics, whereas the first introduction of women in basketball arbitration was in 1976, by Mrs. Lotfia Elmeshaghab.

The first tournament for the preparation of Gymnastics women trainers was in 1982 in Jamila institute in Tripoli, Libya.

From the aforementioned it transpires that the notion of physical education in Libya and in other countries all over world has been subject to development and change that happened as a result to great efforts spent by successive generations historically linked to orientations and philosophies that were followed by peoples in different eras. (6:97).
Opinions of some students at the faculty of physical education in Tripoli about the sports state of the Libyan women.
The researcher has conducted a personal interview with a group of women students from the Faculty of physical education, and through this interview was asked a number of questions at the number of (10) in order to be acquainted with their opinions about the sports state of the Libyan women.

Q1: Do you practice sports regularly?

It transpired from the answers of the students that the most of them practice sports regularly, whether at home by carrying out some exercises or in a part of a day by running in gardens and public places, while others do not practice sports regularly.

Q 2: Is the schedule of studies at the faculty appropriate with the time of your practicing to sports?

It transpires that the great percentage of women students have a time schedule of studies in contradiction with the time of their practicing to sports, due to the great number of lessons during the academic day, they have no free or enough time to practice sports. However other students answered that their academic table is not in contradiction with the time they choose to practice sports thus allowing them to practice their favorite sports activities and games.

Q3: Is your practicing of sports in contradiction with your performance of domestic and family duties?

The answers of some women students for this questions were negative, they mentioned that sports does not affect any form of the forms of their undertaking of domestic and family duties given that these duties are a sacred work, since sports works towards the increase of energy, vitality to perform their duties. Whereas some other women students agreed that their practicing of sports affects negatively their undertaking of these duties and in particular the students who are married and mothers, they mentioned that the care devoted to their children and their education requires long time, and the coordination between university and home and the practice of sports will make things difficult to undertake their duties.

Q4: Does your practicing of sports affect the requirements of your work?

Some women students answered that their practicing of sports does not affect their undertaking of the requirements of work, because sports works towards the increase of mental health and the development of cooperation spirit in work, moreover sports works towards their supplying with energy in order to spend more effort in work the fact that help them to achieve their work with diligence. However others answered that the compromise between work and practicing of sports is a difficult matter because they make a great effort in work and that fact that affects negatively their practicing of sports.

Q5: What are the sports championships (Arab, African and World) that you have achieved in sports?

The majority of the answers of women students were that they did not participate in any championships, whether they were Arab, African or International, this is due to many reasons, such as their non-obtaining of the opportunity to participate in championships or because they think that their sports level is lower that their competitors from other countries. Such facts create thus a fear and non-desire to participate, or because they have no trust in the trainers who have high ability to bring them to the realization of championships of the non-availability of desire of some of them to reach the level of these championships.

Q6: Do the Libyan women practice sports activity with freedom and without restrictions

The answer of the students was that the Libyan women has freedom to practice sports without restrictions, participates in sports clubs and practices different kinds of sports, moreover the Libyan society is fully aware about the necessity for the Libyan women to practice sports since she is certain that this is beneficial for the development of there metal abilities and increases there vitality and effectiveness inside the society.

Q7: What are the sports achievements realized by the Libyan women?

The Libyan women have realized some sports achievements such as the first place they obtained through there participation in Jordan championships if foot-ball, Judo and Tae Kwan do, the Libyan women showed extreme courage and proved that they are able to compete and realize advanced positions in different sports games.

Q8: Is the opportunity of participation given to the Libyan women in sports and Olympic Games equal to the opportunity given to men?

The students answered that despite the participation of Libyan women in some sports and Olympic tournaments yet these participations remain limited and are not equal to the opportunity of participation given to men. This is due to the fact that the federations responsible of the women sports did not give them the opportunity of participation in these sports and Olympic tournaments, or because of the non-existence of prior readiness and planning by these federations for the participation of these women teams in sports tournaments.

Q9: Is the deprivation of men to the Libyan women from practicing sports due to his thinking that she will surpass him physically?

The answers of the students were in agreement that the deprivation of men to the Libyan women from practicing sports is not due to his thinking that they will surpass them physically, rather its is due to his supposition that sports will affect them undertaking of there duties towards them home and family, moreover it is known scientifically that men have a physical ability and endurance exceeding those of women, This do not mean the negligence of the ability of women, they have an ability that is given by Allah such as supporting the pregnancy pains for 9 months, as our Allah said “Men have authority over women because Allah made the one superior to the others, and because they spend their wealth to maintain them.”

Q10: Do you think that the practicing of the sportswomen besides men will increase her motivation to practice sports?

The answers of students is that women and in particular the Libyan women have a motivation to practice sports and to show them role and physical abilities. And this motivation does not increase they practicing of sports beside men, rather they practicing besides them will have a negative impact that decreases them motivation to practice sports and they will be limited in movement and cautious of there acts and in there performance of any exercise that may show a part of her organs or draws someone’s attention to them. Moreover they answered that the practicing of sportswomen to sports among men is prohibited in Islam.

Gymnastics and Libyan female

Gymnastics is one of the sports that exist in the Arab world since more than fifty years as a result of enrichment of foreigner experts who visited the Arab countries from time to time in order to interchange expertise and develop training method therein.

The introduction of gymnastics in Libya is dated in 1956, and in 1964 the membership of the Libyan federation of Gymnastics in the international federation of gymnastics was approved, and it becomes a full member therein, Many training courses to prepare and qualify the Libyan trainers have been organized, as well as the improvement and preparation of technical cadres in the field of supervision and organization. These visits of experts were beneficial through sending trainees to the east European countries to be acquainted and take benefits in training field.

Since its formation in 29/10/1996 the Libyan federation aims to establish the infrastructure of gymnastics, 6 centers were opened throughout Libya and it is about to open 50 halls to prepare youths by the beginning of 1999, moreover the Libyan federation is represented in African federation, and a material support was obtained from the South African federation, the French federation and the American federation consisting of some sports equipment, tapes and scientific booklets specific to gymnastics, an agreement has been concluded with the president of the international federation and the president of the committees assistant at the international federation to obtain all the technical assistance in this game. And after the widespread of gymnastics in schools, Sports institutes, universities, training centers and military colleges, the Libyan female new horizons for their sports. The first female participation 75 in an Arab youth festival, and the Libyan female patted also in Somalia in 1979; moreover Gymnastics for female level of schools was founded in 1980. (29-14:30).

Chapter 3
Procedures Research

Research approach

Research sample

Research tools

Preliminary studies

Statistical procedures

Research approach:
The Researcher has used the descriptive screening approach as it is appropriate to the nature of research and goals.
Research sample:
The research sample has included a Czech sample consisting of 100,person as well as a Libyan sample consisting of four groups, where the size of each thereof is 25.person The research sample was chosen using the random plain method, as follows:

  1. 25 Students in the fourth year in the Faculty of Physical Education, at the University of Al-Fateh.

  2. 25 Administrators at the sportive clubs of Tripoli.

  3. 25 Supervisors of the sportive activity in the clubs of Tripoli.

  4. 25 Sportive coaches in the clubs of Tripoli.

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